alligators and crocodiles

Summary

Summary: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.

Top Publications

  1. Vergne A, Pritz M, Mathevon N. Acoustic communication in crocodilians: from behaviour to brain. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2009;84:391-411 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the functional anatomy of the telencephalic auditory areas is less well understood in crocodilians compared to birds...
  2. Kawagoshi T, Nishida C, Ota H, Kumazawa Y, Endo H, Matsuda Y. Molecular structures of centromeric heterochromatin and karyotypic evolution in the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) (Crocodylidae, Crocodylia). Chromosome Res. 2008;16:1119-32 pubmed publisher
  3. Wan Q, Pan S, Hu L, Zhu Y, Xu P, Xia J, et al. Genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered Chinese alligator. Cell Res. 2013;23:1091-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, population history analysis indicated population admixture 0.60-1.05 million years ago, when the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was uplifted. ..
  4. Chiari Y, Cahais V, Galtier N, Delsuc F. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria). BMC Biol. 2012;10:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes...
  5. Boggs A, Hamlin H, Lowers R, Guillette L. Seasonal variation in plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in coastal versus inland populations of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis): influence of plasma iodide concentrations. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;174:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in thyroid hormone concentrations between the populations could be due to differences in dietary iodide, which need to be further evaluated...
  6. Shen X, Liang D, Wen J, Zhang P. Multiple genome alignments facilitate development of NPCL markers: a case study of tetrapod phylogeny focusing on the position of turtles. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:3237-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the estimated ages among tetrapods are similar to the average estimates of the previous dating studies summarized by the book The Timetree of Life...
  7. Brochu C, Njau J, Blumenschine R, Densmore L. A new horned crocodile from the Plio-Pleistocene hominid sites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9333 pubmed publisher
  8. Owerkowicz T, Baudinette R. Exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;150:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that differences in cardiopulmonary structure and function in non-avian reptiles may be responsible for the absence (in squamates) or presence (in crocodilians) of a strong training effect on aerobic capacity...
  9. Gatesy J, Amato G. The rapid accumulation of consistent molecular support for intergeneric crocodylian relationships. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;48:1232-7 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Farmer C, Uriona T, Olsen D, Steenblik M, Sanders K. The right-to-left shunt of crocodilians serves digestion. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2008;81:125-37 pubmed publisher
  2. Willis R, McAliley L, Neeley E, Densmore L. Evidence for placing the false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) into the family Gavialidae: inferences from nuclear gene sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;43:787-94 pubmed
    ..Analysis of these molecular data sets, both as individual gene sequences and concatenated sequences, support the hypothesis that T. schlegelii should be placed within the family Gavialidae...
  3. Handschuh S, Schwaha T, Metscher B. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:41 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information...
  4. Porro L, Holliday C, Anapol F, Ontiveros L, Ontiveros L, Ross C. Free body analysis, beam mechanics, and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis. J Morphol. 2011;272:910-37 pubmed publisher
    ..J.Morphol. 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  5. Meredith R, Hekkala E, Amato G, Gatesy J. A phylogenetic hypothesis for Crocodylus (Crocodylia) based on mitochondrial DNA: evidence for a trans-Atlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;60:183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in combination with paleontological evidence, mt DNA trees imply a relatively recent migration of Crocodylus from Africa to the Americas, a voyage that would have covered hundreds of miles at sea...
  6. Vickaryous M, Hall B. Development of the dermal skeleton in Alligator mississippiensis (Archosauria, Crocodylia) with comments on the homology of osteoderms. J Morphol. 2008;269:398-422 pubmed
    ..Between taxa, not all osteoderms develop by homologous processes. However, it is concluded that all osteoderms may share a deep homology, connected by the structural and skeletogenic properties of the dermis...
  7. Bona P, Desojo J. Osteology and cranial musculature of Caiman latirostris (crocodylia: Alligatoridae). J Morphol. 2011;272:780-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, these characters should be analyzed within the phylogenetic context of the Caimaninae to evaluate its evolutionary implications for the history of the group...
  8. Fish F, Bostic S, Nicastro A, Beneski J. Death roll of the alligator: mechanics of twist feeding in water. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:2811-8 pubmed
    ..The death roll appears to help circumvent the feeding morphology of the alligator. Shear forces generated by the spinning maneuver are predicted to increase disproportionately with alligator size, allowing dismemberment of large prey...
  9. Campbell H, Watts M, Sullivan S, Read M, Choukroun S, Irwin S, et al. Estuarine crocodiles ride surface currents to facilitate long-distance travel. J Anim Ecol. 2010;79:955-64 pubmed publisher
    ..92, P < 0.0001). 5. The study demonstrates that C. porosus dramatically increase their travel potential by riding surface currents, providing an effective dispersal strategy for this species...
  10. Martin J, Rabi M, Csiki Z. Survival of Theriosuchus (Mesoeucrocodylia: Atoposauridae) in a Late Cretaceous archipelago: a new species from the Maastrichtian of Romania. Naturwissenschaften. 2010;97:845-54 pubmed publisher
  11. Moore B, Roark A, Kohno S, Hamlin H, Guillette L. Gene-environment interactions: the potential role of contaminants in somatic growth and the development of the reproductive system of the American alligator. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;354:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We posit that these differences predispose these animals to increased risks of disease and reproductive dysfunction at adulthood...
  12. Toljagic O, Butler R. Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction as trigger for the Mesozoic radiation of crocodylomorphs. Biol Lett. 2013;9:20130095 pubmed publisher
    ..This marks the onset of the spectacularly successful evolutionary history of crocodylomorphs in Jurassic and Cretaceous ecosystems...
  13. Pierce S, Angielczyk K, Rayfield E. Shape and mechanics in thalattosuchian (Crocodylomorpha) skulls: implications for feeding behaviour and niche partitioning. J Anat. 2009;215:555-76 pubmed publisher
  14. Piras P, Colangelo P, Adams D, Buscalioni A, Cubo J, Kotsakis T, et al. The Gavialis-Tomistoma debate: the contribution of skull ontogenetic allometry and growth trajectories to the study of crocodylian relationships. Evol Dev. 2010;12:568-79 pubmed publisher
  15. Claessens L, O Connor P, Unwin D. Respiratory evolution facilitated the origin of pterosaur flight and aerial gigantism. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4497 pubmed publisher
  16. Eaton M, Martin A, Thorbjarnarson J, Amato G. Species-level diversification of African dwarf crocodiles (Genus Osteolaemus): a geographic and phylogenetic perspective. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;50:496-506 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the importance of using widespread taxon sampling and a multiple evidence approach to diagnose species boundaries and reveal cryptic diversity...
  17. Eme J, Gwalthney J, Blank J, Owerkowicz T, Barron G, Hicks J. Surgical removal of right-to-left cardiac shunt in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) causes ventricular enlargement but does not alter apnoea or metabolism during diving. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears probable that the low metabolic rate of reptiles, rather than pulmonary circulatory bypass, allows for normal aerobic dives...
  18. Njau J, Blumenschine R. Crocodylian and mammalian carnivore feeding traces on hominid fossils from FLK 22 and FLK NN 3, Plio-Pleistocene, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J Hum Evol. 2012;63:408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is inconsistent with the interpretation of the sites as home bases or living floors...
  19. Zapata U, Metzger K, Wang Q, Elsey R, Ross C, Dechow P. Material properties of mandibular cortical bone in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Bone. 2010;46:860-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparability of these elastic moduli to those of other vertebrates suggest that the high bone strain magnitudes recorded from the alligator mandible in vivo are not attributable to a lower stiffness of alligator mandibular bone...
  20. Read M, Grigg G, Irwin S, Shanahan D, Franklin C. Satellite tracking reveals long distance coastal travel and homing by translocated estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e949 pubmed
    ..These long journeys included impressive daily movements of 10-30 km, often consecutively...
  21. Willis R. Transthyretin gene (TTR) intron 1 elucidates crocodylian phylogenetic relationships. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;53:1049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..When used in conjunction with other genetic and morphological data sets, intron 1 should be a valuable tool in the investigation of other closely related taxa...
  22. Kohno S, Katsu Y, Urushitani H, Ohta Y, Iguchi T, Guillette L. Potential contributions of heat shock proteins to temperature-dependent sex determination in the American alligator. Sex Dev. 2010;4:73-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights on TSD and suggest that further studies examining the role of HSPs during gonadal development are needed...
  23. Tsuihiji T. Homologies of the longissimus, iliocostalis, and hypaxial muscles in the anterior presacral region of extant diapsida. J Morphol. 2007;268:986-1020 pubmed
    ..cucullaris complex, and possibly m. iliocostalis as well. The present findings may serve as a basis for revising the currently used avian nomenclature so that it will reflect homologies of muscles with their non-avian counterparts...
  24. Roos J, Aggarwal R, Janke A. Extended mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses yield new insight into crocodylian evolution and their survival of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;45:663-73 pubmed
    ..However, for whatever reason, some crocodylian lineages survived into the Tertiary...
  25. Glanville E, Seebacher F. Compensation for environmental change by complementary shifts of thermal sensitivity and thermoregulatory behaviour in an ectotherm. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:4869-77 pubmed
    ..The extraordinary shift in behaviour and locomotory and metabolic performance shows that within individuals, behaviour and physiology covary to maximise performance in different environments...
  26. Rosenblatt A, Heithaus M. Does variation in movement tactics and trophic interactions among American alligators create habitat linkages?. J Anim Ecol. 2011;80:786-98 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the conditions under which this scenario occurs require further investigation...
  27. Farmer C, Sanders K. Unidirectional airflow in the lungs of alligators. Science. 2010;327:338-40 pubmed publisher
  28. Sadleir R, Makovicky P. Cranial shape and correlated characters in crocodilian evolution. J Evol Biol. 2008;21:1578-96 pubmed publisher
    ..As cranial ESCs affect character-state transitions, it is possible that nonphylogenetic variables could affect inferences of crocodilian phylogeny by affecting cranial morphology...
  29. Leelawongtawon R, Siruntawineti J, Chaeychomsri W, Sattaponpan C. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from Siamese crocodile blood. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93 Suppl 7:S58-64 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Siamese crocodile blood against bacteria and fungi...
  30. Young M, Bell M, Brusatte S. Craniofacial form and function in Metriorhynchidae (Crocodylomorpha: Thalattosuchia): modelling phenotypic evolution with maximum-likelihood methods. Biol Lett. 2011;7:913-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the two subclades were under different selection pressures, and that metriorhynchines with similar skull shape were driven to become functionally divergent...
  31. Pierce S, Angielczyk K, Rayfield E. Patterns of morphospace occupation and mechanical performance in extant crocodilian skulls: a combined geometric morphometric and finite element modeling approach. J Morphol. 2008;269:840-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ecological specializations related to feeding and foraging likely have the greatest influence on crocodilian skull shape...
  32. Isberg S, Johnston S, Chen Y, Moran C. First evidence of higher female recombination in a species with temperature-dependent sex determination: the saltwater crocodile. J Hered. 2006;97:599-602 pubmed
    ..63 cM and 14.1 cM, respectively). This is the first report of sex-specific recombination rates in a species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination...
  33. Johnston M, Porter D, Scott G, Rhodes W, Webster L. Isolation of faecal coliform bacteria from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J Appl Microbiol. 2010;108:965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are an unrecognized poikilothermic source of faecal coliform and/or potential pathogenic bacteria in South Carolina's coastal waters...
  34. Tsai H, Holliday C. Ontogeny of the alligator cartilago transiliens and its significance for sauropsid jaw muscle evolution. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24935 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, these findings indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw muscle homology and evolution in sauropsids in general...
  35. Holliday C, Witmer L. Archosaur adductor chamber evolution: integration of musculoskeletal and topological criteria in jaw muscle homology. J Morphol. 2007;268:457-84 pubmed
    ..These adductor chamber patterns indicate multiple topological criteria are necessary for interpretations of soft-tissue homology and warrant further investigation into character congruence and developmental connectivity...
  36. Erickson G, Gignac P, Steppan S, Lappin A, Vliet K, Brueggen J, et al. Insights into the ecology and evolutionary success of crocodilians revealed through bite-force and tooth-pressure experimentation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31781 pubmed publisher
    ..How these factors relate to biomechanical performance during feeding and their relevance to crocodilian evolutionary success are not known...
  37. Seebacher F. Behavioural postures and the rate of body temperature change in wild freshwater crocodiles, Crocodylus johnstoni. Physiol Biochem Zool. 1999;72:57-63 pubmed
    ..Exposing only a small part of their body when in water (20%) slowed heat loss considerably, allowing crocodiles to spend more time in the water while maintaining body temperature within their preferred body temperature range...
  38. Brochu C. Morphology, fossils, divergence timing, and the phylogenetic relationships of Gavialis. Syst Biol. 1997;46:479-522 pubmed
    ..Fossils strongly contradict a post-Oligocene divergence between Gavialis and any other living crocodylian, but the phylogenetic placement of Gavialis is best viewed as unresolved...
  39. Janke A, Erpenbeck D, Nilsson M, Arnason U. The mitochondrial genomes of the iguana (Iguana iguana) and the caiman (Caiman crocodylus): implications for amniote phylogeny. Proc Biol Sci. 2001;268:623-31 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian relationships using the additional outgroups corroborated the Marsupionta hypothesis, which joins the monotremes and the marsupials to the exclusion of the eutherians...
  40. Merchant M, Roche C, Thibodeaux D, Elsey R. Identification of alternative pathway serum complement activity in the blood of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;141:281-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the antibiotic properties of alligator serum are partially due to the presence of a complement-facilitated humoral immune response analogous to that described in mammalian systems...
  41. Janke A, Arnason U. The complete mitochondrial genome of Alligator mississippiensis and the separation between recent archosauria (birds and crocodiles). Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:1266-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Maximum-likelihood branch length data of amino acid sequences suggest that the divergence between the avian and crocodilian lineages took place at approximately equal to 254 MYA...
  42. Crossley D, Altimiras J. Cardiovascular development in embryos of the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis: effects of chronic and acute hypoxia. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:31-9 pubmed
  43. McHenry C, Clausen P, Daniel W, Meers M, Pendharkar A. Biomechanics of the rostrum in crocodilians: a comparative analysis using finite-element modeling. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:827-49 pubmed
    ..This observation has important implications for our understanding of biomechanics in crocodilians and other aquatic reptiles...
  44. McAliley L, Willis R, Ray D, White P, Brochu C, Densmore L. Are crocodiles really monophyletic?--Evidence for subdivisions from sequence and morphological data. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;39:16-32 pubmed
    ..cataphractus is not a member of Crocodylus or Osteolaemus. Examination of 165 morphological characters supports and strengthens our resurrection of an historic genus, Mecistops (Gray 1844) for cataphractus...
  45. Isberg S, Thomson P, Nicholas F, Webb G, Manolis S, Barker S, et al. Quantitative analysis of production traits in saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus): IV. number of scale rows. J Anim Breed Genet. 2006;123:48-55 pubmed
    ..There is ample genetic variation to incorporate this trait into a genetic improvement programme for farmed saltwater crocodiles...
  46. Merchant M, Leger N, Jerkins E, Mills K, Pallansch M, Paulman R, et al. Broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of leukocyte extracts from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;110:221-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that alligator leukocytes express cationic peptides that are responsible for their antimicrobial properties...
  47. Gasparini Z, Pol D, Spalletti L. An unusual marine crocodyliform from the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary of Patagonia. Science. 2006;311:70-3 pubmed
    ..andiniensis (and interpreted as indicating feeding on small fish or mollusks). Thus, the morphological diversity of pelagic marine crocodyliforms was wider than had been thought...
  48. Seebacher F, Guderley H, Elsey R, Trosclair P. Seasonal acclimatisation of muscle metabolic enzymes in a reptile (Alligator mississippiensis). J Exp Biol. 2003;206:1193-200 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that biochemical acclimatisation is important in thermoregulation of reptiles and that it is not sufficient to base conclusions about their thermoregulatory ability entirely on behavioural patterns...
  49. Steinman A, Banet Noach C, Tal S, Levi O, Simanov L, Perk S, et al. West Nile virus infection in crocodiles. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:887-9 pubmed
  50. Zippel K, Lillywhite H, Mladinich C. Anatomy of the crocodilian spinal vein. J Morphol. 2003;258:327-35 pubmed
    ..Preliminary studies of function suggest that this vessel could also play an adaptive role during basking and diving...
  51. Merchant M, Thibodeaux D, Loubser K, Elsey R. Amoebacidal effects of serum from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). J Parasitol. 2004;90:1480-3 pubmed
    ..These characteristics strongly suggest that the amoebacidal properties of alligator serum are because of complement activity...
  52. Metzger K, Daniel W, Ross C. Comparison of beam theory and finite-element analysis with in vivo bone strain data from the alligator cranium. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005;283:331-48 pubmed
  53. Zardoya R, Meyer A. The evolutionary position of turtles revised. Naturwissenschaften. 2001;88:193-200 pubmed
    ..Accepting these hypotheses implies that turtles cannot be viewed any longer as primitive reptiles, and that they might have lost the temporal holes in the skull secondarily rather than never having had them...