sloths

Summary

Summary: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.

Top Publications

  1. Anderson R, Handley C. Dwarfism in insular sloths: biogeography, selection, and evolutionary rate. Evolution. 2002;56:1045-58 pubmed
    ..Three-toed sloths (Bradypus) from five islands are smaller than their mainland counterparts, and the insular populations themselves ..
  2. Wujek D, Cocuzza J. Morphology of hair of two- and three- toed sloths (Edentata: Bradypodidae). Rev Biol Trop. 1986;34:243-6 pubmed
    ..These morphological differences support the placement of the two sloth genera into separate families. Hairs of four other xenarthran species are also illustrated...
  3. Hoss M, Dilling A, Currant A, Paabo S. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct ground sloth Mylodon darwinii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:181-5 pubmed
    DNA was extracted from the remains of 35 ground sloths from various parts of North and South America. Two specimens of Mylodon darwinii, a species that went extinct at the end of the last glaciation, yielded amplifiable DNA...
  4. Greenwood A, Castresana J, Feldmaier Fuchs G, Paabo S. A molecular phylogeny of two extinct sloths. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001;18:94-103 pubmed
    ..Edentata) is an extremely diverse mammalian order whose modern representatives are the armadillos, anteaters, and sloths. The phylogeny of these groups is poorly resolved...
  5. Buchholtz E, Stepien C. Anatomical transformation in mammals: developmental origin of aberrant cervical anatomy in tree sloths. Evol Dev. 2009;11:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..we evaluate competing hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of cervical variants in Bradypus and Choloepus, tree sloths that have broken the seven cervical vertebrae barrier independently and in opposite directions...
  6. Poinar H, Kuch M, McDonald G, Martin P, Paabo S. Nuclear gene sequences from a late pleistocene sloth coprolite. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1150-2 pubmed
    ..Recent attempts to resolve the phylogeny of two families of extinct sloths by using strictly mitochondrial DNA has been inconclusive...
  7. Lainson R, Braga R, de Souza A, Povoa M, Ishikawa E, Silveira F. Leishmania (Viannia) shawi sp. n., a parasite of monkeys, sloths and procyonids in Amazonian Brazil. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp. 1989;64:200-7 pubmed
    Leishmania (Viannia) shawi sp. n., is described from the monkeys Cebus apella and Chiropotes satanus, the sloths Choloepus didactylus and Bradypus tridactylus, the procyonid Nasua nasua, and the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia whitmani, ..
  8. Duarte D, Silva V, Jaguaribe A, Gilmore D, Da Costa C. Circadian rhythms in blood pressure in free-ranging three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus). Braz J Med Biol Res. 2003;36:273-8 pubmed
    Blood pressure (BP) profiles were monitored in nine free-ranging sloths (Bradypus variegatus) by coupling one common carotid artery to a BP telemetry transmitter...
  9. Delsuc F, Scally M, Madsen O, Stanhope M, de Jong W, Catzeflis F, et al. Molecular phylogeny of living xenarthrans and the impact of character and taxon sampling on the placental tree rooting. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:1656-71 pubmed
    Extant xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) are among the most derived placental mammals ever evolved. South America was the cradle of their evolutionary history...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Rattenborg N, Voirin B, Vyssotski A, Kays R, Spoelstra K, Kuemmeth F, et al. Sleeping outside the box: electroencephalographic measures of sleep in sloths inhabiting a rainforest. Biol Lett. 2008;4:402-5 pubmed publisher
    ..animals in the wild using a recently developed miniaturized EEG recorder, and found that brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) inhabiting the canopy of a tropical rainforest only sleep 9...
  2. Suutari M, Majaneva M, Fewer D, Voirin B, Aiello A, Friedl T, et al. Molecular evidence for a diverse green algal community growing in the hair of sloths and a specific association with Trichophilus welckeri (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae). BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:86 pubmed publisher
    b>Sloths are slow-moving arboreal mammals inhabiting tropical rainforests in Central and South America. The six living species of sloths are occasionally reported to display a greenish discoloration of their pelage...
  3. Möller Krull M, Delsuc F, Churakov G, Marker C, Superina M, BROSIUS J, et al. Retroposed elements and their flanking regions resolve the evolutionary history of xenarthran mammals (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths). Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2573-82 pubmed
    Armadillos, anteaters, and sloths (Order Xenarthra) comprise 1 of the 4 major clades of placental mammals...
  4. Gilmore D, Da Costa C, Duarte D. An update on the physiology of two- and three-toed sloths. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2000;33:129-46 pubmed
    Physiological and pharmacological research undertaken on sloths during the past 30 years is comprehensively reviewed...
  5. Hautier L, Weisbecker V, SAnchez Villagra M, Goswami A, Asher R. Skeletal development in sloths and the evolution of mammalian vertebral patterning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18903-8 pubmed publisher
    ..noncervical vertebrae in mammals. Except for sloths, all mammals show the late ossification of the caudal-most centra in the neck after other centra and neural arches...
  6. Delsuc F, Vizcaíno S, Douzery E. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans. BMC Evol Biol. 2004;4:11 pubmed
    ..Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification...
  7. Steadman D, Martin P, MacPhee R, Jull A, McDonald H, Woods C, et al. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11763-8 pubmed
    ..Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths)...
  8. Vogel I, Vie J, de Thoisy B, Moreau B. Hematological and serum chemistry profiles of free-ranging southern two-toed sloths in French Guiana. J Wildl Dis. 1999;35:531-5 pubmed
    Free-ranging southern two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus) were translocated during the flooding of a forest at a hydroelectric dam site in French Guiana...
  9. Patel B, Ruff C, Simons E, Organ J. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013;296:545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data...
  10. Gilmore D, Da Costa C, Duarte D. Sloth biology: an update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:9-25 pubmed
    This is a review of the research undertaken since 1971 on the behavior and physiological ecology of sloths. The animals exhibit numerous fascinating features...
  11. Troll S, Gottschalk J, Seeburger J, Ziemssen E, Hafner M, Thielebein J, et al. Characterization of the ovarian cycle in the two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus): an innovative, reliable, and noninvasive method using fecal hormone analyses. Theriogenology. 2013;80:275-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The course of progesterone concentrations resulted in a cycle length of 4-5 weeks length in the two-toed sloth. Thus, the reproductive activity of the two-toed sloth does not show any seasonality like the three-toed sloth...
  12. Hope K, Sanchez C, Murray S. Clinical challenge. An enlarged urinary bladder. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:550-2 pubmed
  13. Pauli J, Peery M. Unexpected strong polygyny in the brown-throated three-toed sloth. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51389 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, we found that three-toed sloths were strongly polygynous, with males excluding male competitors from their core ranges, and exhibiting strong ..
  14. Tury E, Costa Messias A, Belak K, Gimeno E. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a captive three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus). J Comp Pathol. 2001;125:228-31 pubmed
    ..In view of its specialized lifestyle and ecosystem and its low metabolic rate, B. tridactylus would seem to warrant further investigation in respect of its susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii...
  15. Duarte D, Huggins S, Da Costa C, Leal A. Responses of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus tridactylus, to some commonly used pharmacologic agents. I. Autonomic drugs. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1987;88:275-85 pubmed
    1. Sloths are very responsive to epinephrine and norepinephrine; i.v. injection of 1 microgram/kg elevates systolic pressure 80 and 90% respectively. 2. Doses as low as 0...
  16. Hagey L, Vidal N, Hofmann A, Krasowski M. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:133 pubmed publisher
    ..We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense)...
  17. Santana L, Barbosa L, Teixeira F, Costa A, Fernandes L, Lima R. Morphology of the dentin structure of sloths Bradypus tridactylus: a light and scanning electron microscopy investigation. Anat Histol Embryol. 2013;42:410-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to describe the dentine morphology of sloths (Bradypus tridactylus). The sloth teeth were removed and prepared for light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM)...
  18. Nyakatura J, Petrovitch A, Fischer M. Limb kinematics during locomotion in the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus, Xenarthra) and its implications for the evolution of the sloth locomotor apparatus. Zoology (Jena). 2010;113:221-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Spatio-temporal gait parameters, data on interlimb coordination, and limb kinematics are reported. Two-toed sloths displayed great variability in spatio-temporal gait parameters over the observed range of speeds...
  19. Kleinschmidt T, Marz J, Braunitzer G. The primary structure of pale-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus, Xenarthra) hemoglobin. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1989;370:303-8 pubmed
    ..In the beta-chains two heme- and four alpha 1/beta 1-contacts are substituted. The hemoglobin of the Sloth is compared to that of the Nine-Banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), another representative of the order Xenerthra...
  20. Yaksh T, Michener S, Bailey J, Harty G, Lucas D, Nelson D, et al. Survey of distribution of substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, Met-enkephalin, bombesin and PHI in the spinal cord of cat, dog, sloth and monkey. Peptides. 1988;9:357-72 pubmed
    ..Pooled samples of spinal ganglia and the trigeminal ganglia revealed that the relative levels of peptide immunoreactivity were: sP (25 ng/g); VIP (26 ng/g); PHI (28 ng/g); Met-Enk (6 ng/g); CCK (2 ng/g); NT (1 ng/g); and BOM (1 ng/g)...
  21. Kinney M, Cole G, Vaughan C, Sladky K. Physiologic and serum biochemistry values in free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed (Choloepus hoffmanni) and brown-throated three-toed (Bradypus variegatus) sloths immobilized using dexmedetomidine and ketamine. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013;44:570-80 pubmed
    ..was combined with ketamine and used to immobilize 14 free-ranging Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloths) and 11 Bradypus variegatus (brown-throated three-toed sloths) in Upala, Costa Rica...
  22. Hill R. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms. J Morphol. 2006;267:1441-60 pubmed
    ..which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated ..
  23. Benetti E, Pícoli L, Guimarães J, Motoyama A, Miglino M, Watanabe L. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study. Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:42-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III...
  24. Nyakatura J, Fischer M. Functional morphology of the muscular sling at the pectoral girdle in tree sloths: convergent morphological solutions to new functional demands?. J Anat. 2011;219:360-74 pubmed publisher
    Recent phylogenetic analyses imply a diphyly of tree sloths and a convergent evolution of their obligatory suspensory locomotion...
  25. Clack A, MacPhee R, Poinar H. Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;840:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA...
  26. Vogel I, de Thoisy B, Vie J. Comparison of injectable anesthetic combinations in free-ranging two-toed sloths in French guiana. J Wildl Dis. 1998;34:555-66 pubmed
    Immobilization was studied in 202 free-ranging two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus). All the sloths were in good condition with a body weight > 2 kg, and were anesthetized for a variety of minor clinical procedures...
  27. Dozo M. The endocranial cast of an early miocene edentate, Hapalops indifferens Ameghino (Mammalia, Edentata, Tardigrada, Megatheriidae). Comparative study with brains of recent sloths. J Hirnforsch. 1987;28:397-406 pubmed
    ..The relative brain size of H. indifferens is similar or higher than that of sloths of the genus Bradypus...
  28. Dedet J, Veilly M, Robin Y, Bonnevie O, Landau I. [Babesia choloepi n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Piroplasmida), a parasite of the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Xenarthra, Bradypodidae), in French Guiana]. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp. 1988;63:16-21 pubmed
    ..A two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) from French Guiana showed an erythrocytic parasite morphologically related to the Babesiidae family, and described as Babesia choloepi. It is the first Babesia species described in the Edentata order...
  29. Trejo Chávez A, Ramirez Romero R, Ancer Rodriguez J, Nevárez Garza A, Rodriguez Tovar L. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis in a Southern two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus). J Comp Pathol. 2011;144:231-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Transmission electron microscopical examination supported the diagnosis. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in a two-toed sloth...
  30. Clark F, Melfi V. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. Zoo Biol. 2012;31:397-413 pubmed publisher
    ..three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-..
  31. Billet G, Hautier L, Asher R, Schwarz C, Crumpton N, Martin T, et al. High morphological variation of vestibular system accompanies slow and infrequent locomotion in three-toed sloths. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:3932-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that extant three-toed sloths show a high level of morphological variation of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear...
  32. Raj Pant S, Goswami A, Finarelli J. Complex body size trends in the evolution of sloths (Xenarthra: Pilosa). BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:184 pubmed publisher
    Extant sloths present an evolutionary conundrum in that the two living genera are superficially similar (small-bodied, folivorous, arboreal) but diverged from one another approximately 30 million years ago and are phylogenetically ..
  33. Duarte D, Jaguaribe A, Pedrosa M, Clementino A, Barbosa A, Silva A, et al. Cardiovascular responses to locomotor activity and feeding in unrestrained three-toed sloths, Bradypus variegatus. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37:1557-61 pubmed
    ..SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MBP) blood pressure were recorded by biotelemetry in nine conscious unrestrained sloths for 1 min every 15 min over a 24-h period...
  34. Toyama Y, Calderón F, Quesada R. Ultrastructural study of crystalloids in Sertoli cells of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus). Cell Tissue Res. 1990;259:599-602 pubmed
    ..Scattered polyribosomes were found between and around the bundles...
  35. Duarte D, Huggins S, Da Costa C, Leal A. The effects of posture changes on blood pressure and heart rate of anesthetized and reserpinized sloths. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1989;94:159-65 pubmed
    1. Tilting sloths anesthetized with chloralose from erect to supine or supine to erect produced little or no effect on heart rate. 2...
  36. Silva E, Duarte D, Da Costa C. Electrocardiographic studies of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:1885-8 pubmed
    ..obtained with standard limb leads and augmented unipolar limb leads were recorded from 17 unanesthetized adult sloths. The animals were held in their habitual position in an experimental chair...
  37. Hofreiter M, Poinar H, Spaulding W, Bauer K, Martin P, Possnert G, et al. A molecular analysis of ground sloth diet through the last glaciation. Mol Ecol. 2000;9:1975-84 pubmed
    ..The plants in the boluses further indicate that the climate 11 000 years BP was dryer than 20 000 and 28 500 years BP. However, the sloths seem to have visited water sources more frequently at 11 000 BP than at earlier times.
  38. Patel B, Carlson K. Apparent density patterns in subchondral bone of the sloth and anteater forelimb. Biol Lett. 2008;4:486-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the distal radius of suspensory sloths that generally load their forelimbs (FLs) in tension and of quadrupedal anteaters that generally load their FLs in ..
  39. Pinnock Branford M, de la Cruz E, Solano K, Ramirez O. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica. J Environ Biol. 2014;35:29-34 pubmed
    ..A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center...
  40. Murata K, Masuda R. Gender determination of the Linne's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) using SRY amplified from hair. J Vet Med Sci. 1996;58:1157-9 pubmed
    ..The PCR method using hairs for sexing the sloth provides an advantageous tool for captive propagation plan in zoos. To the authors' knowledge, no report regarding SRY sequences in the order Xenarthra (Edentata) has been published...
  41. Gasse B, Silvent J, Sire J. Evolutionary analysis suggests that AMTN is enamel-specific and a candidate for AI. J Dent Res. 2012;91:1085-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the sequences of the 2 enamel-less species display mutations revealing that AMTN underwent pseudogenization, which suggests that AMTN is an enamel-specific protein...
  42. Ramirez O, Vaughan C, Herrera G, Guries R. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop. 2011;59:1743-55 pubmed
    The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce...
  43. Soares C, Carneiro R. Social behavior between mothers x young of sloths Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra: Bradypodidae). Braz J Biol. 2002;62:249-52 pubmed
    This study is a contribution to the ex situ and in situ conservation and preservation of Sloths. The behavioral records of the social interaction between mothers and offspring allow the detection of important learning interactions and ..
  44. Shanmugam A, Kumar J, Selvaraj I, Selvaraj V. Hematology of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) from two locations in India. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:509-18 pubmed
    ..This report will be useful to develop and evaluate health profiles of sloth bears under various ecological conditions...
  45. Hanley C, Siudak Campfield J, Paul Murphy J, Vaughan C, Ramirez O, Keuler N, et al. Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a comparison of physiologic parameters. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:938-45 pubmed
    Free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni; n=26) and brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus; n=15) were manually captured and immobilized with 2.5 mg/kg ketamine + 0...
  46. Pedrosa M, Lima A, Bezerra A, Duarte D, Da Costa C. The effect of feeding on the respiratory activity of the sloth. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002;35:851-4 pubmed
    ..rate and to observe possible alterations in blood gas and pH levels produced by feeding in unanesthetized sloths (Bradypus variegatus). Five adult male sloths (4.1 +/- 0...
  47. Banuls A, Jonquieres R, Guerrini F, Le Pont F, Barrera C, Espinel I, et al. Genetic analysis of leishmania parasites in Ecuador: are Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and Leishmania (V.) Guyanensis distinct taxa?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61:838-45 pubmed
    ..collection of Leishmania stocks was isolated: 28 from patients with clinical signs of leishmaniasis, 2 from sloths, 1 from a dog, and 4 from sand flies...
  48. Moraes N, Morgante J, Miyaki C. Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting. Braz J Biol. 2002;62:503-8 pubmed
    ..34 +/- 0.07 to 0.87 +/- 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations...
  49. Franco A, Grimaldi G. Characterization of Endotrypanum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a unique parasite infecting the neotropical tree sloths (Edentata). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1999;94:261-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, comparative studies (based on the molecular genetics of the organisms) have shown the phylogenetic relationships between some Endotrypanum and related kinetoplastid lineages...
  50. Grimaldi Júnior G, Kreutzer R, Hashiguchi Y, Gomez E, Mimory T, Tesh R. Description of Leishmania equatorensis sp. n (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a new parasite infecting arboreal mammals in Ecuador. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1992;87:221-8 pubmed
  51. da Mota D, George L, Pinheiro P, Pinheiro N. Some morphological and histochemical studies on the intestinal tract of the Brazilian sloth (Bradypus tridactylus). Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb. 1989;135:367-77 pubmed
    ..No Paneth cells were observed in the crypt lining. Argyrophil and argentaffin cells were found in the entire length of the intestine. The large intestine does not possess villi, but many goblet cells were observed in its mucosa...
  52. de Moraes Barros N, Silva J, Miyaki C, Morgante J. Comparative phylogeography of the Atlantic forest endemic sloth (Bradypus torquatus) and the widespread three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) (Bradypodidae, Xenarthra). Genetica. 2006;126:189-98 pubmed
    ..This phylogeographic pattern may be characteristic of sloth species. In addition, we infer that two main phylogeographic groups exist in the Atlantic forest representing a north and south distinct divergence...
  53. da Mota D, Yamada J, Gerge L, Pinheiro P. An immunohistochemical study on the pancreatic endocrine cells of the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Arch Histol Cytol. 1992;55:203-9 pubmed
    ..This appears to be an intriguing characteristic of the sloth pancreas in a possible relation to the animal's unique metabolic system and the phylogenetical position...