armadillos

Summary

Summary: Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.

Top Publications

  1. Bagagli E, Franco M, Bosco S, Hebeler Barbosa F, Trinca L, Montenegro M. High frequency of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus): an ecological study. Med Mycol. 2003;41:217-23 pubmed
    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has been isolated from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in different regions where paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM) is endemic...
  2. Loughry W, Truman R, McDonough C, Tilak M, Garnier S, Delsuc F. Is leprosy spreading among nine-banded armadillos in the southeastern United States?. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:144-52 pubmed
    ..This indicates leprosy may be spreading eastward and calls into question hypotheses proposing leprosy infection is confined because of ecologic constraints to areas west of the Mississippi River...
  3. Krotoski W, Mroczkowski T, Rea T, Almodovar P, Clements B, Neimes R, et al. Lepromin skin testing in the classification of Hansen's disease in the United States. Am J Med Sci. 1993;305:18-24 pubmed
    ..These results support the adjunctive value of lepromins for clinically classifying Hansen's disease in our "hypoendemic" population...
  4. Deps P, Alves B, Gripp C, Aragao R, Guedes B, Filho J, et al. Contact with armadillos increases the risk of leprosy in Brazil: a case control study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:338-42 pubmed
    Mycobacterium leprae infection has recently been detected in wild armadillos in Brazil...
  5. Rezende L, Barbeito C, Favaron P, Mess A, Miglino M. The fetomaternal interface in the placenta of three species of armadillos (Eutheria, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae). Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012;10:38 pubmed
    Placental characters vary among Xenarthra, one of four supraordinal clades of Eutheria. Armadillos are known for villous, haemochorial placentas similar to humans. Only the nine-banded armadillo has been well studied so far.
  6. Howell Stephens J, Brown J, Bernier D, Mulkerin D, Santymire R. Characterizing adrenocortical activity in zoo-housed southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;178:64-74 pubmed publisher
    ..events; and 2) characterize longitudinal adrenocortical activity in male and female southern three-banded armadillos. An ACTH injection was given intra-muscularly to one male (4IU/kg; 5.6IU total) and one female (5...
  7. Delsuc F, Stanhope M, Douzery E. Molecular systematics of armadillos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae): contribution of maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2003;28:261-75 pubmed
    The 30 living species of armadillos, anteaters, and sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra) represent one of the three major clades of placentals...
  8. Sciurano R, Rahn M, Rossi L, Luaces J, Merani M, Solari A. Synapsis, recombination, and chromatin remodeling in the XY body of armadillos. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:293-302 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that xenarthrans, as basal placental mammals, harbor the largest pseudoautosomal regions of presently analyzed mammals, and shows the typical features of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)...
  9. Paige C, Scholl D, Truman R. Prevalence and incidence density of Mycobacterium leprae and Trypanosoma cruzi infections within a population of wild nine-banded armadillos. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:528-32 pubmed
    A total of 415 wild 9-banded armadillos from the East Atchafalaya River Levee (Point Coupee, LA) were collected over 4 years to estimate the incidence and prevalence of Mycobacterium leprae and Trypanosoma cruzi and to discern any ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Pe a M, Adams J, Adams L, Gillis T, Williams D, Spencer J, et al. Expression and characterization of recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) from the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) and its effect on Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages. Cytokine. 2008;43:124-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) manifest the full histopathological spectrum of leprosy, and are hosts of choice for in vivo propagation of Mycobacterium leprae...
  2. Macoris S, Sugizaki M, Peracoli M, Bosco S, Hebeler Barbosa F, Simões L, et al. Virulence attenuation and phenotypic variation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos and patients. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:331-4 pubmed
    ..The recognition of all ranges of phenotypic and virulence variation of P. brasiliensis, as well as its physiological and genetic basis, will be important for a better comprehension of its pathogenic and epidemiological features...
  3. Adams J, Pe a M, Gillis T, Williams D, Adams L, Truman R. Expression of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) interleukin-2 in E. coli. Cytokine. 2005;32:219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..will help make possible the development of a wide array of new immunological reagents suitable for use with armadillos. Using the available sequence data, a region of high homology to interleukin-2 of other mammals was identified...
  4. Rosypal A, Hill R, Lewis S, Barr S, Valadas S, Gennari S, et al. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs experimentally infected with isolates obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana), armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and dogs (Canis. J Parasitol. 2011;97:140-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that the ICT could be a useful screening tool for serological surveillance of canine T. cruzi exposure in the United States...
  5. Delsuc F, Scally M, Madsen O, Stanhope M, de Jong W, Catzeflis F, et al. Molecular phylogeny of living xenarthrans and the impact of character and taxon sampling on the placental tree rooting. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:1656-71 pubmed
    Extant xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths) are among the most derived placental mammals ever evolved. South America was the cradle of their evolutionary history...
  6. Adamoli V, Cetica P, Merani M, Solari A. Comparative morphologic placental types in Dasypodidae (Chaetophractus villosus, Cabassous chacoensis, Tolypeutes matacus and Dasypus hybridus). Biocell. 2001;25:17-22 pubmed
    Information about the morphology of placentas in armadillos is scarce, except for D. novemcinctus...
  7. Silva Vergara M, Martinez R, Camargo Z, Malta M, Maffei C, Chadu J. Isolation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in an area where the fungus was recently isolated from soil. Med Mycol. 2000;38:193-9 pubmed
    Natural infection of armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Northern Brazil was reported in 1986, raising great interest in the understanding of the role of this mammal in the epidemiological cycle of the ..
  8. Duthie M, Truman R, Goto W, O Donnell J, Hay M, Spencer J, et al. Insight toward early diagnosis of leprosy through analysis of the developing antibody responses of Mycobacterium leprae-infected armadillos. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:254-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have examined the development of antigen-specific immunoglobulin responses within armadillos experimentally infected with M...
  9. Arteaga M, McCormack J, Eguiarte L, Medellin R. Genetic admixture in multidimensional environmental space: asymmetrical niche similarity promotes gene flow in armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus). Evolution. 2011;65:2470-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that niche similarity can facilitate gene flow among disjunct groups with moderate-to-good dispersal capabilities, contrasting with the prevailing view of niche conservatism as a diversifying force...
  10. Scollard D. The biology of nerve injury in leprosy. Lepr Rev. 2008;79:242-53 pubmed
    ..The results of all of these studies can be reasonably expected to identify new points for clinical intervention in--and possibly the prevention of--nerve injury in leprosy...
  11. Pena M, Geluk A, van der Ploeg van Schip J, Franken K, Sharma R, Truman R. Cytokine responses to Mycobacterium leprae unique proteins differentiate between Mycobacterium leprae infected and naive armadillos. Lepr Rev. 2011;82:422-31 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the response of M. leprae-infected armadillos to a variety of M...
  12. Yeo M, Acosta N, Llewellyn M, Sanchez H, Adamson S, Miles G, et al. Origins of Chagas disease: Didelphis species are natural hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi I and armadillos hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II, including hybrids. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:225-33 pubmed
    ..Here, we present compelling evidence of an association between TCI and opossums (Didelphis), and TCII and armadillos, on the basis of key new findings from the Paraguayan Chaco region, together with a comprehensive analysis of ..
  13. Deps P, Antunes J, Tomimori Yamashita J. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae infection in wild nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) using the rapid ML Flow test. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2007;40:86-7 pubmed
    Mycobaterium leprae infection was investigated in armadillos from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The ML Flow test was performed on 37 nine-banded armadillos and positive results were found in 11 (29.7%)...
  14. Truman R, Singh P, Sharma R, Busso P, Rougemont J, Paniz Mondolfi A, et al. Probable zoonotic leprosy in the southern United States. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the same region, as well as in Mexico, wild armadillos are infected with Mycobacterium leprae.
  15. Möller Krull M, Delsuc F, Churakov G, Marker C, Superina M, BROSIUS J, et al. Retroposed elements and their flanking regions resolve the evolutionary history of xenarthran mammals (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths). Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2573-82 pubmed
    b>Armadillos, anteaters, and sloths (Order Xenarthra) comprise 1 of the 4 major clades of placental mammals...
  16. Lima e Silva M, Szabo M, Bechara G. Microscopic features of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos: Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1026:235-41 pubmed
    ..the present work describes some aspects of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos captured at the Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil...
  17. Dhople A, Williams S. The activity of rifabutin against Mycobacterium leprae in armadillos. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1997;9:169-73 pubmed
    The activity of rifabutin (LM 427) against Mycobacterium leprae was evaluated in armadillos inoculated earlier with human-derived M. leprae. Rifabutin was administered daily at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight/day...
  18. Neeser J, von Bartheld C. Comparative anatomy of the paratympanic organ (vitali organ) in the middle ear of birds and non-avian vertebrates: focus on alligators, parakeets and armadillos. Brain Behav Evol. 2002;60:65-79 pubmed
  19. Truman R. Leprosy in wild armadillos. Lepr Rev. 2005;76:198-208 pubmed
    Wild nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the south central United States are highly endemic natural hosts of Mycobacterium leprae...
  20. Delsuc F, Superina M, Tilak M, Douzery E, Hassanin A. Molecular phylogenetics unveils the ancient evolutionary origins of the enigmatic fairy armadillos. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;62:673-80 pubmed publisher
    Fairy armadillos or pichiciegos (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) are among the most elusive mammals. Due to their subterranean and nocturnal lifestyle, their basic biology and evolutionary history remain virtually unknown...
  21. Hebeler Barbosa F, Montenegro M, Bagagli E. Virulence profiles of ten Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus). Med Mycol. 2003;41:89-96 pubmed
    ..In this study, virulence profiles of 10 P. brasiliensis isolates from different armadillos and of two clinical isolates were tested in an experimental hamster model...
  22. Nishikaku A, Peraçoli M, Bagagli E, Sugizaki M, Sartori A. Experimental infections with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis obtained from armadillos: comparison to clinical isolates. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008;12:57-62 pubmed
    ..b>Armadillos show a high incidence of PCM infection and could, therefore, be a natural reservoir for this fungus...
  23. Kelly D. Turtle and mammal penis designs are anatomically convergent. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271 Suppl 5:S293-5 pubmed
    ..This microanatomy is evolutionarily convergent with that of mammalian penises, and implies that there is a limited number of mechanical designs for an inflatable structure with high bending stiffness...
  24. García S. [Local species, the market, and transportation in embryological research: the study of polyembryony in armadillos in the early twentieth century]. Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos. 2008;15:697-717 pubmed
    ..factors played a relevant role in one specific case, that is, research on the embryology of certain species of armadillos in the early twentieth century...
  25. Deps P, Antunes J, Faria C, Bührer Sékula S, Camargo Z, Opromola D, et al. Research regarding anti-PGL-I antibodies by ELISA in wild armadillos from Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2008;41 Suppl 2:73-6 pubmed
    b>Armadillos have been involved in leprosy transmission and are considered a source of Mycobacterium leprae in numerous reports. Clinicians from certain areas of the USA consider contact with armadillos a risk factor for leprosy...
  26. Navone G, Ezquiaga M, Notarnicola J, Jiménez F. A new species of Cyclobulura (Nematoda: Subuluridae) from Zaedyus pichiy and Chaetophractus vellerosus (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) in Argentina. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..vellerosus is herein described as the second species in Cyclobulura Quentin, 1977, and the first subulurid in armadillos. The species is unique in the spur-like structures present at the tip of both spicules, yet they conform to the ..
  27. Hoppe E, Araújo de Lima R, Tebaldi J, Athayde A, Nascimento A. Helminthological records of six-banded armadillos Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Brazilian semi-arid region, Patos county, Paraíba state, including new morphological data on Trichohelix tuberculata (Parona and Stossich, 1901) Ortlepp. Braz J Biol. 2009;69:423-8 pubmed
    This work aimed to evaluate the gastrointestinal helminthfauna composition of six-banded armadillos from the Brazilian semi-arid region...
  28. Smith Patten B, Patten M. Diversity, seasonality, and context of mammalian roadkills in the southern Great Plains. Environ Manage. 2008;41:844-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservation and management efforts should focus on creating underpasses or using other means to reduce roadkill rates...
  29. Cheadle M, Lindsay D, Greiner E. Lack of Sarcocystis neurona antibody response in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) fed Sarcocystis neurona-infected muscle tissue. J Parasitol. 2006;92:652-4 pubmed
    ..neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis)...
  30. Koyabu D, Maier W, SAnchez Villagra M. Paleontological and developmental evidence resolve the homology and dual embryonic origin of a mammalian skull bone, the interparietal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the dual developmental origin of the mammalian interparietal can be explained as the evolutionary consequence of the fusion between the crest-derived "postparietals" and the mesoderm-derived "tabulars."..
  31. Ezquiaga M, Abba A, Navone G. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina. J Helminthol. 2016;90:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution...
  32. Job C, Harris E, Allen J, Hastings R. Thorns in armadillo ears and noses and their role in the transmission of leprosy. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1986;110:1025-8 pubmed
    Both ears from 494 wild nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and nose specimens from 224 animals were collected and histopathologically studied. Lepromatous granulomas were present in the ear specimens of ten of 494 animals...
  33. Superina M. Husbandry of a pink fairy armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus): case study of a cryptic and little known species in captivity. Zoo Biol. 2011;30:225-31 pubmed publisher
    Pink fairy armadillos, Chlamyphorus truncatus, are poorly known fossorial mammals that are endemic to central Argentina...
  34. de Assis C, Gandra R, Gambale W, Shimizu M, Paula C. Biosynthesis of chondroitinase and hyaluronidase by different strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:479-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that further investigations should be carried out in the clinical field in order to clarify the potential role of P. brasiliensis enzyme production in the pathogenesis of paracoccidioidomycosis...
  35. Scollard D. M. leprae infection of vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells of the epineurium and perineurium in experimental lepromatous neuritis. Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi. 1999;68:147-55 pubmed
    ..Experimentally infected armadillos have recently been recognized as a model of lepromatous neuritis; the major site of early accumulation of M...
  36. Aki T, Yanagisawa S. Application of rice nuclear proteome analysis to the identification of evolutionarily conserved and glucose-responsive nuclear proteins. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:3912-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus improve our knowledge of plant nuclear proteins and present a novel approach to the identification of factors with particular characteristics...
  37. Glenny R, Bernard S, Neradilek B, Polissar N. Quantifying the genetic influence on mammalian vascular tree structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6858-63 pubmed
    ..We studied the spatial distribution of organ blood flow in armadillos because they have genetically identical littermates, allowing us to quantify the genetic influence...
  38. Sousa P, Santos E, Bezerra J, Lima G, Castelo T, Fontenele Neto J, et al. Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of captive six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcinctus) sperm. Anim Reprod Sci. 2013;140:279-85 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed the sperm characteristics of captive six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus), by the assessment of sperm morphology, morphometry, and ultrastructure...
  39. Ferrari C, Aldana Marcos H, Carmanchahi P, Benitez I, Affanni J. The brain of the armadillo Dasypus hybridus. A general view of its most salient features. Biocell. 1998;22:123-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this armadillo is also useful for decortication studies. 4) Absence of a distinct pineal organ. 5) Conspicuous subfornical and subcommissural organs. 6) Absence of a distinct intermediate lobe in the hypophysis...
  40. Jarvis T, Lockhart J, Loughry W, Bielmyer G. Metal accumulation in wild nine-banded armadillos. Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:1053-62 pubmed publisher
    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are widespread and abundant New World mammals with a lifestyle that entails prolonged, intimate contact with soils...
  41. Morocoima A, Carrasco H, Boadas J, Chique J, Herrera L, Urdaneta Morales S. Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease. Exp Parasitol. 2012;132:341-7 pubmed publisher
    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), ..
  42. Cavagnari B, Córdoba O, Affanni J, Santome J. Purification and partial structural characterization of a fatty acid-binding protein from the liver of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;118:173-80 pubmed
  43. Cortés Duarte A, Trujillo F, Superina M. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia. Zoo Biol. 2016;35:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ ..
  44. Sritharan V, Wheeler P, Ratledge C. Aspartate metabolism in Mycobacterium avium grown in host tissue and axenically and in Mycobacterium leprae. J Gen Microbiol. 1990;136:203-9 pubmed
    ..avium grown in vivo was about half that in M. avium grown axenically...
  45. Marrow J, Viner T, Thompson R, Boedeker N. Uterine adenomyosis in southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013;44:1018-26 pubmed
    Uterine adenomyosis was diagnosed in five southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus) from four different zoological collections in North America between 1995 and 2012...
  46. Gasse B, Silvent J, Sire J. Evolutionary analysis suggests that AMTN is enamel-specific and a candidate for AI. J Dent Res. 2012;91:1085-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the sequences of the 2 enamel-less species display mutations revealing that AMTN underwent pseudogenization, which suggests that AMTN is an enamel-specific protein...
  47. Jiménez F, Gardner S, Navone G, Orti G. Four events of host switching in Aspidoderidae (Nematoda) involve convergent lineages of mammals. J Parasitol. 2012;98:1166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Bayesian inferences to optimize these traits into the phylogeny of Aspidoderidae, we reconstructed Dasypodidae (armadillos) as the synapomorphic host for the family. In addition, 4 events of host switching were detected...
  48. Ferrari C, Carmanchahi P, Aldana Marcos H, Affanni J. Ultrastructural characterisation of the olfactory mucosa of the armadillo Dasypus hybridus (Dasypodidae, Xenarthra). J Anat. 2000;196 ( Pt 2):269-78 pubmed
    ..These organelles suggest the presence of an endocytotic system. Duct cells of Bowman's glands exhibit secretory activities. Bowman's glands are compound-branched tubulo-acinar mixed glands with merocrine secretory mechanisms...
  49. Alvarado Esquivel C, Liesenfeld O, Burciaga López B, Ramos Nevárez A, Estrada Martínez S, Cerrillo Soto S, et al. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in elderly people in a northern Mexican city. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:568-74 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection. Our results will provide the basis for the design of optimal preventive measures against T. gondii infection...
  50. Tanaka R, Sano A, Franco M, Bagagli E, Montenegro M, Nishimura K, et al. Cerebriform colonies of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) at room temperature. Mycoses. 2001;44:9-12 pubmed
    ..abundant chlamydospores and yeast-like cells and are a subset of the 65 isolates obtained from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)...
  51. DeLucia P, Cheadle M, Greiner E. Prevalence of Sarcocystis sarcocysts in nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) from Florida. Vet Parasitol. 2002;103:203-5 pubmed
    The prevalence and identity of Sarcocystis spp. sarcocysts in the skeletal muscles of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected from Alachua County, FL, were determined...
  52. López Hurtado M, Arteaga Troncoso G, Escobedo Guerra M, Guerra Infante F. Evaluation of endocytic capacity and NADPH-oxidase activity from armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) eosinophils infected with microfilariae. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;127:181-5 pubmed publisher
    Endocytic activity of phagocytic cells from armadillos infected with viruses, parasites or bacteria is unknown...
  53. Bhamidi S, Scherman M, Jones V, Crick D, Belisle J, Brennan P, et al. Detailed structural and quantitative analysis reveals the spatial organization of the cell walls of in vivo grown Mycobacterium leprae and in vitro grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:23168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the differences between bacteria grown in animals and cultures, the cell walls of Mycobacterium leprae grown in armadillos was characterized and compared with that of M. tuberculosis grown in culture...