Summary: A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.

Top Publications

  1. Wan C, Loader J, Hanger J, Beagley K, Timms P, Polkinghorne A. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to correlate Chlamydia pecorum infectious load with ocular, urinary and reproductive tract disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Aust Vet J. 2011;89:409-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a complex disease pathogenesis and clinical course in C. pecorum-infected koalas...
  2. Griffith J, Higgins D, Li K, Krockenberger M, Govendir M. Absorption of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin after oral and subcutaneous administration in diseased koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2010;33:595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..5?±?5.3%. Elevations in creatinine kinase activity were associated with drug injections. Enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin administered at these dosage and routes are unlikely to inhibit the growth of chlamydial pathogens in vivo...
  3. Takahashi M, Tobey J, Pisacane C, Andrus C. Evaluating the utility of an accelerometer and urinary hormone analysis as indicators of estrus in a Zoo-housed koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Zoo Biol. 2009;28:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that increased female activity, bellowing, and weight loss all indicate a pro-estrus state that requires proper male stimulation in order to achieve a full estrus display...
  4. Mitchell C, Mathews S, Theodoropoulos C, Timms P. In vitro characterisation of koala Chlamydia pneumoniae: morphology, inclusion development and doubling time. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings have provided new insights and identified key differences in the in vitro doubling time, size and morphology of an animal C. pneumoniae isolate...
  5. Polkinghorne A, Hanger J, Timms P. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas. Vet Microbiol. 2013;165:214-23 pubmed publisher
  6. Marsh K, Wallis I, Foley W. Behavioural contributions to the regulated intake of plant secondary metabolites in koalas. Oecologia. 2007;154:283-90 pubmed
  7. Tarlinton R, Meers J, Hanger J, Young P. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the endogenous koala retrovirus reveals an association between plasma viral load and neoplastic disease in koalas. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:783-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data indicate that KoRV is an active endogenous retrovirus and suggests that it may be causally linked to neoplastic disease in koalas...
  8. Charlton B, Ellis W, Larkin R, Fitch W. Perception of size-related formant information in male koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Anim Cogn. 2012;15:999-1006 pubmed publisher
  9. Kollipara A, George C, Hanger J, Loader J, Polkinghorne A, Beagley K, et al. Vaccination of healthy and diseased koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a Chlamydia pecorum multi-subunit vaccine: evaluation of immunity and pathology. Vaccine. 2012;30:1875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this work illustrates the feasibility of developing a safe and effective Chlamydia vaccine as a tool for management of disease in wild koalas...

More Information


  1. Charlton B, Ellis W, McKinnon A, Cowin G, Brumm J, Nilsson K, et al. Cues to body size in the formant spacing of male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) bellows: honesty in an exaggerated trait. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:3414-22 pubmed publisher
  2. Miyazawa T, Shojima T, Yoshikawa R, Ohata T. Isolation of koala retroviruses from koalas in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:65-70 pubmed
    ..By electron microscopy, we observed C-type retroviral particles in HEK 293T cells chronically infected with KoRV strain OJ-4. This is the first report on the isolation of KoRV from koalas in a Japanese zoo...
  3. Lau Q, Jobbins S, Belov K, Higgins D. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Immunogenetics. 2013;65:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected greater variation in the ?1 than in the ?1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas...
  4. Myers G, Mathews S, Eppinger M, Mitchell C, O Brien K, White O, et al. Evidence that human Chlamydia pneumoniae was zoonotically acquired. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:7225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae which adapted to humans primarily through the processes of gene decay and plasmid loss, to the point where the animal reservoir is no longer required for transmission...
  5. Pye G. Shoulder dysplasia in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) at San Diego Zoo. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:453-7 pubmed
    ..Where shoulder and hip radiographs were both available (n = 60), 92% of individuals had correlation between the degree of shoulder and hip dysplasia...
  6. Kollipara A, Wan C, Rawlinson G, Brumm J, Nilsson K, Polkinghorne A, et al. Antigenic specificity of a monovalent versus polyvalent MOMP based Chlamydia pecorum vaccine in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Vaccine. 2013;31:1217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..pecorum vaccine that could protect against a range of strains...
  7. Tarlinton R, Meers J, Young P. Biology and evolution of the endogenous koala retrovirus. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:3413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Part of a multi-author review)...
  8. Oliveira N, Farrell K, Eiden M. In vitro characterization of a koala retrovirus. J Virol. 2006;80:3104-7 pubmed
    ..KoRV represents a unique example of a gammaretrovirus whose envelope has evolved to allow for its expanded host range and zoonotic potential...
  9. Moore B, Foley W, Wallis I, Cowling A, Handasyde K. Eucalyptus foliar chemistry explains selective feeding by koalas. Biol Lett. 2005;1:64-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that plant defences probably play an important role in determining the distribution and abundance of koalas...
  10. Fiebig U, Hartmann M, Bannert N, Kurth R, Denner J. Transspecies transmission of the endogenous koala retrovirus. J Virol. 2006;80:5651-4 pubmed
    ..Finally, evidence for immunosuppressive properties of the KoRV was obtained...
  11. Kusuda S, Hashikawa H, Takeda M, Takeda K, Ito H, Ogata Kobayashi Y, et al. Noninvasive monitoring of reproductive activity based on fecal progestagen profiles and sexual behavior in Koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:1033-40 pubmed publisher
  12. Rhodes J, Wiegand T, McAlpine C, Callaghan J, Lunney D, Bowen M, et al. Modeling species' distributions to improve conservation in semiurban landscapes: koala case study. Conserv Biol. 2006;20:449-59 pubmed
    ..This method is particularly useful for areas where wildlife and human populations exist in close proximity...
  13. Shojima T, Hoshino S, Abe M, Yasuda J, Shogen H, Kobayashi T, et al. Construction and characterization of an infectious molecular clone of Koala retrovirus. J Virol. 2013;87:5081-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The infectious clone reported here will be useful for elucidating the mechanism of endogenization of the virus in koalas and screening for antiretroviral drugs for KoRV-infected koalas...
  14. Tarlinton R, Meers J, Young P. Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature. 2006;442:79-81 pubmed
  15. Ávila Arcos M, Ho S, Ishida Y, Nikolaidis N, Tsangaras K, Hönig K, et al. One hundred twenty years of koala retrovirus evolution determined from museum skins. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that museum and modern koalas share nearly identical KoRV sequences, it is likely that koala populations, for more than a century, have experienced increased susceptibility to diseases caused by viral pathogenesis...
  16. Charlton B, Ellis W, McKinnon A, Brumm J, Nilsson K, Fitch W. Perception of male caller identity in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): acoustic analysis and playback experiments. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20329 pubmed publisher
    ..We go on to discuss the biological relevance of signalling identity in this species' sexual communication and the potential practical implications of our findings for acoustic monitoring of male population levels...
  17. Simmons G, Young P, Hanger J, Jones K, Clarke D, McKee J, et al. Prevalence of koala retrovirus in geographically diverse populations in Australia. Aust Vet J. 2012;90:404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of koala retrovirus (KoRV) in selected koala populations and to estimate proviral copy number in a subset of koalas...
  18. Carey A, Timms P, Rawlinson G, Brumm J, Nilsson K, Harris J, et al. A multi-subunit chlamydial vaccine induces antibody and cell-mediated immunity in immunized koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): comparison of three different adjuvants. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2010;63:161-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about the immune response in koalas, or the safety of commonly used adjuvants for induction of protective systemic and mucosal immunity...
  19. Kasajima N, Ito H, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Kaneda M. Cypellogins A, B and C, acylated flavonol glycosides from Eucalyptus cypellocarpa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005;53:1345-7 pubmed
  20. Griffith J, Dhand N, Krockenberger M, Higgins D. A retrospective study of admission trends of koalas to a rehabilitation facility over 30 years. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:18-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Continual community engagement by koala researchers is important to ensure that maximum benefit is obtained from activities of special interest groups. ..
  21. Pettett L, McKinnon A, Wilson G, Carrick F, Sly L, Bird P. The development of an oral health charting system for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). J Vet Dent. 2012;29:232-41 pubmed
    ..This unique form of oral health monitoring would be adaptable to other mammals. ..
  22. Gifford R. Evolution at the host-retrovirus interface. Bioessays. 2006;28:1153-6 pubmed
  23. Dudaniec R, Rhodes J, Worthington Wilmer J, Lyons M, Lee K, McAlpine C, et al. Using multilevel models to identify drivers of landscape-genetic structure among management areas. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:3752-65 pubmed publisher
    ..e. among individuals) from effects occurring at coarser resolutions (i.e. among LGAs). This has important implications for our ability to identify appropriate scale-dependent management actions. ..
  24. Moore B, Lawler I, Wallis I, Beale C, Foley W. Palatability mapping: a koala's eye view of spatial variation in habitat quality. Ecology. 2010;91:3165-76 pubmed
  25. Coldham T, Rose K, O Rourke J, Neilan B, Dalton H, Lee A, et al. Detection of Helicobacter species in the gastrointestinal tract of ringtail possum and koala: possible influence of diet, on the gut microbiota. Vet Microbiol. 2013;166:429-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our results, it is possible that diet may influence the detection of Helicobacter species; however this required further investigation. ..
  26. Peterson R, Grinyer J, Nevalainen H. Secretome of the Coprophilous Fungus Doratomyces stemonitis C8, Isolated from Koala Feces. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3793-801 pubmed publisher
  27. Fiebig U, Keller M, Denner J. Detection of koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B) in animals housed at European zoos. Arch Virol. 2016;161:3549-3553 pubmed
    ..We describe here a KoRV-B found in koalas at zoos in Germany and Belgium that differs slightly from that found in the Los Angeles zoo. ..
  28. Vaz P, Whiteley P, Wilks C, Browning G, Gilkerson J, Ficorilli N, et al. Detection of a second novel gammaherpesvirus in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:226-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the DNA polymerase gene showed that the virus was genetically distinct from all known gammaherpesviruses. This is the first reported dual gammaherpesvirus infection in an Australian marsupial. ..
  29. Alshahni M, Makimura K, Satoh K, Nishiyama Y, Kido N, Sawada T. Cryptococcus yokohamensis sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from trees and a Queensland koala kept in a Japanese zoological park. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011;61:3068-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The name Cryptococcus yokohamensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these isolates with strain JCM 16989(T) (=TIMM 10001(T)=CBS 11776(T)=DSM 23671(T)) as the type strain. ..
  30. Charlton B, Frey R, McKinnon A, Fritsch G, Fitch W, Reby D. Koalas use a novel vocal organ to produce unusually low-pitched mating calls. Curr Biol. 2013;23:R1035-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that koalas use a novel vocal organ to produce their unusually low-pitched mating calls. ..
  31. Jelocnik M, Frentiu F, Timms P, Polkinghorne A. Multilocus sequence analysis provides insights into molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum infections in Australian sheep, cattle, and koalas. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. ..
  32. Mangar C, Armitage C, Timms P, Corcoran L, Beagley K. Characterisation of CD4 T cells in healthy and diseased koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) using cell-type-specific monoclonal antibodies. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;60:80-90 pubmed publisher
  33. Zee Y, Holt W, Nicolson V, Pyne M, Johnston S. Individual variability in post-thaw sperm survival in a captive koala population. Cryobiology. 2009;59:69-74 pubmed publisher
  34. Allen C, Burridge M, Chafer M, Nicolson V, Jago S, Booth R, et al. Control of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) anterior pituitary-gonadal axis with analogues of GnRH. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2008;20:598-605 pubmed
  35. Kuwamura M, Murai F, Nishioka S, Aoki M, Ohashi F, Yamate J, et al. Late onset cerebellar cortical degeneration in a koala. Aust Vet J. 2009;87:342-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The very late onset and slow progression of the cerebellar cortical degeneration in this case is particularly interesting and appears to be the first report in the koala. ..
  36. Enciso M, Johnston S, Gosalvez J. Differential resistance of mammalian sperm chromatin to oxidative stress as assessed by a two-tailed comet assay. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2011;23:633-7 pubmed publisher
  37. Ryan M, Whisson D, Holland G, Arnould J. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) revealed by accelerometry. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80366 pubmed publisher
    ..Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species. ..
  38. Hemsley S, Palmer H, Canfield R, Stewart M, Krockenberger M, Malik R. Computed tomographic anatomy of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and tympanic cavity of the koala. Aust Vet J. 2013;91:353-65 pubmed publisher
  39. Satoh K, Maeda M, Umeda Y, Miyajima Y, Makimura K. Detection and identification of probable endemic fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus gattii, and worldwide pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, by real-time PCR. Microbiol Immunol. 2011;55:454-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve smear samples from healthy koalas were analyzed by direct real-time PCR. This method successfully detected C. gattii and C. neoformans in one and three koalas, respectively. ..
  40. Antonsson A, McMillan N. Papillomavirus in healthy skin of Australian animals. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3195-200 pubmed
    ..The data extend the range of species infected by papillomaviruses to the most primitive mammals: the monotremes and the marsupials. ..
  41. Salomon Y, McCarthy M, Taylor P, Wintle B. Incorporating uncertainty of management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population models. Conserv Biol. 2013;27:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach provides a tool to improve decision making. ..
  42. McInnes L, Gillett A, Ryan U, Austen J, Campbell R, Hanger J, et al. Trypanosoma irwini n. sp (Sarcomastigophora: Trypanosomatidae) from the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Parasitology. 2009;136:875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on biological and genetic characterization data, this trypanosome species infecting koalas is proposed to be a new species Trypanosome irwini n. sp. ..
  43. Waugh C, Austin R, Polkinghorne A, Timms P. Treatment of Chlamydia-associated ocular disease via a recombinant protein based vaccine in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Biologicals. 2016;44:588-590 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that the use of a vaccine can have a positive effect in koalas already with clinical signs of ocular disease, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect and an alternative to antibiotic therapy. ..
  44. Wedrowicz F, Karsa M, Mosse J, Hogan F. Reliable genotyping of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) using DNA isolated from a single faecal pellet. Mol Ecol Resour. 2013;13:634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This method could readily be adapted for genetic studies of mammals other than koalas, particularly those whose diet contains high proportions of volatile materials that are likely to induce DNA damage...
  45. Desclozeaux M, Robbins A, Jelocnik M, Khan S, Hanger J, Gerdts V, et al. Immunization of a wild koala population with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) or Polymorphic Membrane Protein (PMP) based vaccine: New insights into immune response, protection and clearance. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178786 pubmed publisher
  46. Lang C, Postle A, Orgeig S, Possmayer F, Bernhard W, Panda A, et al. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is not the major surfactant phospholipid species in all mammals. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R1426-39 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there is no single PL molsp composition that functions optimally in all mammals; rather, surfactant from each animal is unique and tailored to the biology of that animal...
  47. Kido N, Edamura K, Inoue N, Shibuya H, Sato T, Kondo M, et al. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:1029-32 pubmed
    ..Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs...
  48. Kong S, Ngo S, McKinnon R, Stupans I. Cloning and expression of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) liver cytochrome P450 reductase. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;150:1-9 pubmed
    ..6 kb. Southern analysis suggested a single PCR gene across species. The present study provides primary molecular data regarding koala CPR1 and CPR2 genes in this unique marsupial species. ..
  49. Zee Y, Holt W, Allen C, Nicolson V, Burridge M, Lisle A, et al. Effects of cryopreservation on mitochondrial function and heterogeneity, lipid raft stability and phosphatidylserine translocation in koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) spermatozoa. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2007;19:850-60 pubmed
    ..Few fresh spermatozoa exhibited phosphatidylserine translocation (approximately 1%); this was not increased by chilling or cryopreservation, thus implying that cryotreatment had little effect on plasma membrane lipid asymmetry...
  50. Zee Y, López Fernández C, Arroyo F, Johnston S, Holt W, Gosalvez J. Evidence that single-stranded DNA breaks are a normal feature of koala sperm chromatin, while double-stranded DNA breaks are indicative of DNA damage. Reproduction. 2009;138:267-78 pubmed publisher
  51. Nakajima K, Townsend G. Lamination of the masticatory muscles in the Phascolarctos cinereus (Koala) according to their innervations. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2009;86:7-16 pubmed
    ..The medial pterygoid muscle divided into rostro-internal, medial and caudo-lateral nerve layers...
  52. Davies N, Gillett A, McAlpine C, Seabrook L, Baxter G, Lunney D, et al. The effect of ACTH upon faecal glucocorticoid excretion in the koala. J Endocrinol. 2013;219:1-12 pubmed publisher
  53. Narayan E, Webster K, Nicolson V, Mucci A, Hero J. Non-invasive evaluation of physiological stress in an iconic Australian marsupial: the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;187:39-47 pubmed publisher
    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are the only extant representatives of Australia's unique marsupial family Phascolarctidae and were listed as nationally Vulnerable in 2012...
  54. Satoh K, Maeda M, Umeda Y, Sugamata M, Makimura K. Cryptococcus lacticolor sp. nov. and Rhodotorula oligophaga sp. nov., novel yeasts isolated from the nasal smear microbiota of Queensland koalas kept in Japanese zoological parks. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2013;104:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..AB702967 (ITS) and AB702967 (26S rDNA D1/D2 region), MycoBank ID; MB 802689, Fungal Barcoding Database ID; 3175) are proposed for these new species...
  55. Phillips M, Pratt R. Family-level relationships among the Australasian marsupial "herbivores" (Diprotodontia: Koala, wombats, kangaroos and possums). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;46:594-605 pubmed
    ..The topology resolved reveals ecological niche structuring among diprotodontians that has likely been maintained for more than 40 million years...
  56. Nimmo J, Snowden K, O Donoghue P. Fatal encephalitozoonosis in two koalas. Aust Vet J. 2007;85:428-32 pubmed
    ..This is believed to be the first report of this organism in a marsupial...
  57. Vilcins I, Old J, Deane E. Detection of a spotted fever group Rickettsia in the tick Ixodes tasmani collected from koalas in Port Macquarie, Australia. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:745-50 pubmed
  58. Dunbar A. A volunteer bushfire workforce: lessons in community mobilisation. Aust J Rural Health. 2007;15:220 pubmed
  59. Allen C, McKinnon A, Lisle A, D Occhio M, Johnston S. Use of a GnRH agonist and hCG to obtain an index of testosterone secretory capacity in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). J Androl. 2006;27:720-4 pubmed
  60. Black L, Higgins D, Govendir M. In vitro activity of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and enrofloxacin against Chlamydia pecorum isolated from koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Aust Vet J. 2015;93:420-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The susceptibility results also indicate florfenicol may be an appropriate treatment option for koalas with chlamydiosis, warranting further investigation. ..
  61. Ngo S, McKinnon R, Stupans I. Cloning and expression of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) liver cytochrome P450 CYP4A15. Gene. 2006;376:123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala CYP4A15 gene. The possibility that there may be higher CYP4A15 expression in the koala liver could not be excluded...
  62. Higgins D, Hemsley S, Canfield P. Immuno-histochemical demonstration of the role of chlamydiaceae in renal, uterine and Salpingeal disease of the koala, and demonstration of chlamydiaceae in novel sites. J Comp Pathol. 2005;133:164-74 pubmed
    ..In addition, macrophages appeared to be a potential site of latent persistence from which systemic spread of infection might occur...
  63. Higgins D, Hemsley S, Canfield P. Association of uterine and salpingeal fibrosis with chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigen-specific antibodies in Chlamydia-infected koalas. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:632-9 pubmed
  64. Jones B, El Merhibi A, Ngo S, Stupans I, McKinnon R. Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP2C subfamily from an Australian marsupial, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;148:230-7 pubmed publisher
  65. Vilcins I, Kosoy M, Old J, Deane E. Bartonella-like DNA detected in Ixodes tasmani ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Victoria, Australia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:499-503 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of Bartonella-like organisms in a native Australian marsupial...
  66. Kimble B, Black L, Li K, Valtchev P, Gilchrist S, Gillett A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) after intravenous, subcutaneous and oral administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2013;36:486-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that koalas exhibited rapid CL and extremely poor oral bioavailability compared with other eutherian species. Accordingly, the currently recommended dose regimen of meloxicam for this species appears inadequate...
  67. Kimble B, Li K, Govendir M. Quantitation of meloxicam in the plasma of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) by improved high performance liquid chromatography. J Vet Sci. 2013;14:7-14 pubmed
    ..Our technique clearly resolved the MEL peak from the complex koala plasma matrix and accurately measured MEL concentrations in small plasma volumes...
  68. Oishi M, Takahashi M, Amasaki H, Janssen T, Johnston S. The seminiferous epithelial cycle and microanatomy of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) and southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) testis. J Anat. 2013;222:380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative spermatogenic data of closely related species can also potentially reflect evolutionary divergence and differences in reproductive strategies...
  69. Griffith J, Higgins D. Diagnosis, treatment and outcomes for koala chlamydiosis at a rehabilitation facility (1995-2005). Aust Vet J. 2012;90:457-63 pubmed publisher
  70. Baskurt O, Marshall Gradisnik S, Pyne M, Simmonds M, Brenu E, Christy R, et al. Assessment of the hemorheological profile of koala and echidna. Zoology (Jena). 2010;113:110-7 pubmed publisher
  71. Simmonds M, Meiselman H, Marshall Gradisnik S, Pyne M, Kakanis M, Keane J, et al. Assessment of oxidant susceptibility of red blood cells in various species based on cell deformability. Biorheology. 2011;48:293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences in susceptibility are consistent with species-specific discrepancies between observed and allometrically-predicted life spans and are compatible with the oxidant theory of aging...
  72. Mizuno T, McKinnon A, Ichihara N, Amasaki T, Asari M, Nishita T, et al. Histological structure and distribution of carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I, II, III and VI) in major salivary glands in koalas. Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..With the exception of the histological structure of the mandibular glands, histological features and the distributional profile of CA isozymes of the salivary glands in koalas are relatively close to results obtained from horses...
  73. Kollipara A, Polkinghorne A, Beagley K, Timms P. Vaccination of koalas with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum major outer membrane protein induces antibodies of different specificity compared to those following a natural live infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74808 pubmed publisher
    ..This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations. ..
  74. Baxter P, McCarthy M, Possingham H, Menkhorst P, McLean N. Accounting for management costs in sensitivity analyses of matrix population models. Conserv Biol. 2006;20:893-905 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that decisions that ignore economic factors will reduce management efficiency...
  75. Allen C, de Villiers D, Manning B, Dique D, Burridge M, Chafer M, et al. Seasonal reproduction in wild and captive male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in south-east Queensland. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2010;22:695-709 pubmed publisher
  76. Crompton A, Owerkowicz T, Skinner J. Masticatory motor pattern in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a comparison of jaw movements in marsupial and placental herbivores. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2010;313:564-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We support the view that many different motor programs evolved for the control of transverse jaw movements, but identical motor programs for the control of transverse jaw movements can evolve independently in distantly related taxa...
  77. Johnston S, Satake N, Zee Y, Lopez Fernandez C, Holt W, Gosalvez J. Osmotic stress and cryoinjury of koala sperm: an integrative study of the plasma membrane, chromatin stability and mitochondrial function. Reproduction. 2012;143:787-97 pubmed publisher
  78. Burgdorf Moisuk A, Stalis I, Pye G. Disseminated coccidoidomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:197-9 pubmed
    ..Although disseminated infection was present, the koala was IgM and IgG seronegative for Coccidioides spp. 1 mo prior to euthanasia...