nude rats

Summary

Summary: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.

Top Publications

  1. Proschek D, Mack M, Kurth A, Proschek P, Martin B, Hansmann M, et al. Radiofrequency ablation of experimental bone metastases in nude rats. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:879-85 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to generate osteolytic lesions and to enable a technique to achieve access to the bone to successfully carry out radiofrequency ablation...
  2. Goplen D, Wang J, Enger P, Tysnes B, Terzis A, Laerum O, et al. Protein disulfide isomerase expression is related to the invasive properties of malignant glioma. Cancer Res. 2006;66:9895-902 pubmed
    By serial transplantation of human glioblastoma biopsies into the brain of immunodeficient nude rats, two different tumor phenotypes were obtained...
  3. Zavaleta C, Phillips W, Bradley Y, McManus L, Jerabek P, Goins B. Characterization of an intraperitoneal ovarian cancer xenograft model in nude rats using noninvasive microPET imaging. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:407-17 pubmed
    MicroPET is a noninvasive imaging modality that can potentially track tumor development in nude rats using the radiotracer fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)...
  4. Bagi C, Hanson N, Andresen C, Pero R, Lariviere R, Turner C, et al. The use of micro-CT to evaluate cortical bone geometry and strength in nude rats: correlation with mechanical testing, pQCT and DXA. Bone. 2006;38:136-44 pubmed
    ..regarding effect of castration and treatment with PTH and alendronate on cortical bone parameters in nude rats is in general agreement with previously published data obtained in immunocompetent male rats under similar ..
  5. Mimura T, Amano S, Usui T, Araie M, Ono K, Akihiro H, et al. Transplantation of corneas reconstructed with cultured adult human corneal endothelial cells in nude rats. Exp Eye Res. 2004;79:231-7 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of corneal reconstruction with cultured adult human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) was examined in a nude rat model...
  6. Hanada M, Baba A, Tsutsumishita Y, Noguchi T, Yamaoka T. Intra-hepatic arterial administration with miriplatin suspended in an oily lymphographic agent inhibits the growth of human hepatoma cells orthotopically implanted in nude rats. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..of HCC in which the human hepatoma cell line Li-7 was successively implanted and maintained in the liver of nude rats. Li-7 tumors established in nude rat livers displayed a trabecular structure similar to their original ..
  7. Ozawa T, Gryaznov S, Hu L, Pongracz K, Santos R, Bollen A, et al. Antitumor effects of specific telomerase inhibitor GRN163 in human glioblastoma xenografts. Neuro Oncol. 2004;6:218-26 pubmed
    ..These findings support further development of this compound as a potential anticancer agent...
  8. Wang J, Sakariassen P, Tsinkalovsky O, Immervoll H, Bøe S, Svendsen A, et al. CD133 negative glioma cells form tumors in nude rats and give rise to CD133 positive cells. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:761-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, human glioblastoma multiforme biopsies were engrafted intracerebrally into nude rats. The resulting tumors were serially passaged in vivo, and monitored by magnetic resonance imaging...
  9. Bao A, Phillips W, Goins B, McGuff H, Zheng X, Woolley F, et al. Setup and characterization of a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenograft model in nude rats. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:853-7 pubmed
    ..To develop and characterize a new head and neck cancer animal model...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Giraud S, Bessette B, Boda C, Lalloue F, Petit D, Mathonnet M, et al. In vitro apoptotic induction of human glioblastoma cells by Fas ligand plus etoposide and in vivo antitumour activity of combined drugs in xenografted nude rats. Int J Oncol. 2007;30:273-81 pubmed
    ..These data show that the combination of FasL and etoposide could reduce significantly the tumour size and that the addition of dexamethasone enhanced the inhibiting effect of FasL and etoposide on tumour growth in vivo...
  2. Brekke C, Lundervold A, Enger P, Brekken C, Stålsett E, Pedersen T, et al. NG2 expression regulates vascular morphology and function in human brain tumours. Neuroimage. 2006;29:965-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, tumour cells can regulate both the function and structure of the host-derived tumour vasculature through NG2 expression, suggesting a role for NG2 in the cross-talk between tumour-host compartments...
  3. Leor J, Guetta E, Feinberg M, Galski H, Bar I, Holbova R, et al. Human umbilical cord blood-derived CD133+ cells enhance function and repair of the infarcted myocardium. Stem Cells. 2006;24:772-80 pubmed
    ..10(6)) or saline (control) was infused intravenously 7 days after permanent coronary artery ligation in athymic nude rats. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed before and 1 month after infusion by echocardiography...
  4. Brouwers A, Verel I, van Eerd J, Visser G, Steffens M, Oosterwijk E, et al. PET radioimmunoscintigraphy of renal cell cancer using 89Zr-labeled cG250 monoclonal antibody in nude rats. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2004;19:155-63 pubmed
    ..In the present study, scintigraphic tumor imaging using chimeric moAb G250 labeled with 89Zr (immuno-PET) or 111In (RIS), and [18F]FDG-(PET) was explored in rats with s.c. renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumors...
  5. Sakariassen P, Prestegarden L, Wang J, Skaftnesmo K, Mahesparan R, Molthoff C, et al. Angiogenesis-independent tumor growth mediated by stem-like cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16466-71 pubmed
    ..with a stem-like phenotype were established by xenotransplantation of human brain tumors in immunodeficient nude rats. These tumors coopted the host vasculature and presented as an aggressive disease without signs of angiogenesis...
  6. Sheth R, Manzano G, Li X, Levi A. Transplantation of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells into the contused spinal cord of nude rats. J Neurosurg Spine. 2008;8:153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, hMSCs were transplanted into an area of spinal cord contusion in nude rats to determine their survival, differentiation, potential for neuroprotection, and influence on axonal growth and ..
  7. Miura F, Alves M, Rocha M, Silva R, Oba Shinjo S, Uno M, et al. Experimental nodel of C6 brain tumors in athymic rats. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66:238-41 pubmed
    ..This degree of infiltration is superior to that usually observed in other C6 models...
  8. Rentsch C, Rentsch B, Breier A, Hofmann A, Manthey S, Scharnweber D, et al. Evaluation of the osteogenic potential and vascularization of 3D poly(3)hydroxybutyrate scaffolds subcutaneously implanted in nude rats. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;92:185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..vascularization of embroidered, tissue engineered, and cell-seeded 3D poly(3)hydroxybutyrate (PHB) scaffolds in nude rats. Collagen I (coll I)- and collagen I/chondroitin sulfate (coll I/CS)-coated PHB scaffolds were seeded with human ..
  9. Peterschmitt J, Bauerle T, Berger M. Effect of zoledronic acid and an antibody against bone sialoprotein II on MDA-MB-231(GFP) breast cancer cells in vitro and on osteolytic lesions induced in vivo by this cell line in nude rats. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2007;24:449-59 pubmed
    ..Following inoculation of 1 x 10(5) MDA-MB-231 (GFP) breast cancer cells into a branch of the femoral artery of nude rats, lytic lesions developed in the tibia, femur or fibula of the injected hind leg after approximately 30 days...
  10. Thorsen F, Jirak D, Wang J, Sykova E, Bjerkvig R, Enger P, et al. Two distinct tumor phenotypes isolated from glioblastomas show different MRS characteristics. NMR Biomed. 2008;21:830-8 pubmed publisher
    ..More pronounced anaerobic metabolism was present in the LG stem-cell-like tumors, suggesting a more malignant phenotype...
  11. Ozawa T, Faddegon B, Hu L, Bollen A, Lamborn K, Deen D. Response of intracerebral human glioblastoma xenografts to multifraction radiation exposures. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66:263-70 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors...
  12. Blask D, Brainard G, Dauchy R, Hanifin J, Davidson L, Krause J, et al. Melatonin-depleted blood from premenopausal women exposed to light at night stimulates growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude rats. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11174-84 pubmed
    ..These mechanistic studies are the first to provide a rational biological explanation for the increased breast cancer risk in female night shift workers...
  13. Kisanga E, Moi L, Gjerde J, Mellgren G, Lien E. Induction of hepatic drug-metabolising enzymes and tamoxifen metabolite profile in relation to administration route during low-dose treatment in nude rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;94:489-98 pubmed
    ..In this study, nude rats received 5 mg/kg/day of tamoxifen orally or a 50 mg continuous-release pellet subcutaneously...
  14. Ozawa T, Santos R, Lamborn K, Bauer W, Koo M, Kahl S, et al. In vivo evaluation of the boronated porphyrin TABP-1 in U-87 MG intracerebral human glioblastoma xenografts. Mol Pharm. 2004;1:368-74 pubmed
    ..5 mg dose. Thus, we may be able to achieve therapeutic BNCT efficacy with minimal systemic toxicity or radiation-induced damage to normal tissue by administering TABP-1 using CED...
  15. Matveyenko A, Georgia S, Bhushan A, Butler P. Inconsistent formation and nonfunction of insulin-positive cells from pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells in athymic nude rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E713-20 pubmed publisher
    ..objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue...
  16. Till H, Bergmann F, Metzger R, Haeberle B, Schaeffer K, von Schweinitz D, et al. Videoscopic fluorescence diagnosis of peritoneal and thoracic metastases from human hepatoblastoma in nude rats. Surg Endosc. 2005;19:1483-6 pubmed
    ..Various medical disciplines are employing photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) when searching for malignancies. It is still unknown whether pediatric solid tumors such as hepatoblastoma are susceptible to this technique as well...
  17. Stuhr L, Raa A, Oyan A, Kalland K, Sakariassen P, Petersen K, et al. Hyperoxia retards growth and induces apoptosis, changes in vascular density and gene expression in transplanted gliomas in nude rats. J Neurooncol. 2007;85:191-202 pubmed
    ..This process is characterized by enhanced cell death, reduced vascular density and changes in gene expression corresponding to these effects...
  18. Till H, Metzger R, Bergmann F, Haeberle B, Schaeffer K, von Schweinitz D, et al. Tumor model for laparoscopy in pediatric oncology: subperitoneal inoculation of human hepatoblastoma cells in nude rats. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2006;16:231-4 pubmed
    ..A special tumor model could facilitate a variety of investigations. The present study introduces a laparoscopic technique to create subperitoneal metastases of human HB...
  19. Oh S, Ohlfest J, Todhunter D, Vallera V, Hall W, Chen H, et al. Intracranial elimination of human glioblastoma brain tumors in nude rats using the bispecific ligand-directed toxin, DTEGF13 and convection enhanced delivery. J Neurooncol. 2009;95:331-342 pubmed publisher
    ..Aggressive brain tumors established intracranially (IC) in nude rats with U87 glioma genetically marked with a firefly luciferase reporter gene were treated with two injections of ..
  20. Braun R, Abbas A. Orthotopic human choroidal melanoma xenografts in nude rats with aggressive and nonaggressive PAS staining patterns. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:7-16 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to develop new xenograft models of human choroidal melanoma that predictably demonstrate the PAS staining patterns associated with nonaggressive and aggressive tumors in humans...
  21. Wu Q, Tyler B, Sukay L, Rhines L, DiMeco F, Clatterbuck R, et al. Experimental rodent models of brainstem tumors. Vet Pathol. 2002;39:293-9 pubmed
    ..Median survival for rats challenged with 10(4) 9L and F98 cells was 14 and 13 days, respectively. The present study demonstrates a feasible approach to preparing models of brainstem tumors. Limitations of these models are discussed...
  22. Neudert M, Fischer C, Krempien B, Bauss F, Seibel M. Site-specific human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) metastases in nude rats: model characterisation and in vivo effects of ibandronate on tumour growth. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:468-77 pubmed
    ..While serial bone marker assessments did not prove useful to monitor osteolytic growth, our studies provide in vivo evidence that ibandronate treatment induces tumour remission by reversal of tumour growth...
  23. Mahesparan R, Read T, Lund Johansen M, Skaftnesmo K, Bjerkvig R, Engebraaten O. Expression of extracellular matrix components in a highly infiltrative in vivo glioma model. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;105:49-57 pubmed
  24. Engebraaten O, Fodstad O. Site-specific experimental metastasis patterns of two human breast cancer cell lines in nude rats. Int J Cancer. 1999;82:219-25 pubmed
    ..two oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative human breast cancer cell lines, we developed new models in nude rats with patterns of experimental metastasis resembling those frequently observed in humans...
  25. March T, Marron Terada P, Belinsky S. Refinement of an orthotopic lung cancer model in the nude rat. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:483-90 pubmed
    ..The refinements made through our studies have led to the development of an orthotopic lung cancer model that should facilitate the evaluation of novel therapies designed to treat or impede lung cancer development...
  26. Maron D, Tada H, Moscioni A, Tazelaar J, Fraker D, Wilson J, et al. Intra-arterial delivery of a recombinant adenovirus does not increase gene transfer to tumor cells in a rat model of metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Mol Ther. 2001;4:29-35 pubmed
    ..These preclinical studies fail to support a strategy of infusion through the hepatic artery of recombinant adenovirus targeting tumor cells in the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases...
  27. Aramant R, Seiler M. Transplanted sheets of human retina and retinal pigment epithelium develop normally in nude rats. Exp Eye Res. 2002;75:115-25 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, sheets of human fetal retina transplanted together with its RPE to the subretinal space of nude rats can develop and maintain perfectly laminated transplants after long survival times, indicating the potential of ..
  28. Kawamoto A, Gwon H, Iwaguro H, Yamaguchi J, Uchida S, Masuda H, et al. Therapeutic potential of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for myocardial ischemia. Circulation. 2001;103:634-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated the therapeutic potential of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for myocardial neovascularization...
  29. Tei K, Kawakami Kimura N, Taguchi O, Kumamoto K, Higashiyama S, Taniguchi N, et al. Roles of cell adhesion molecules in tumor angiogenesis induced by cotransplantation of cancer and endothelial cells to nude rats. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6289-96 pubmed
    ..c. into the back of nude rats. The tumors of A431 supplemented with F-2 cells were profoundly vascularized throughout by the tubular ..
  30. Kisanga E, Gjerde J, Schjøtt J, Mellgren G, Lien E. Tamoxifen administration and metabolism in nude mice and nude rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;84:361-7 pubmed
    ..c. pellet implants...
  31. Miyata M, Sakuma F, Ito M, Ohira H, Sato Y, Kasukawa R. Athymic nude rats develop severe pulmonary hypertension following monocrotaline administration. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2000;121:246-52 pubmed
  32. Saini M, Bellinzona M, Meyer F, Cali G, Samii M. Morphometrical characterization of two glioma models in the brain of immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats. J Neurooncol. 1999;42:59-67 pubmed
    ..Margins at the tumor-brain interface were macroscopically demarcated in the immunocompetent rats. In the nude rats, 9L tumors appeared microscopically more infiltrative, although regularly shaped, with a closer morphological ..
  33. Petratos P, Chen J, Soslow R, Bleustein C, Felsen D, Poppas D. Full-thickness human foreskin transplantation onto nude rats as an in vivo model of acute human wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:1988-97 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of grafting human full-thickness foreskin onto nude rats, as a model of acute wound healing, was evaluated...
  34. Hori T, Yamashita Y, Ohira M, Matsumura Y, Muguruma K, Hirakawa K. A novel orthotopic implantation model of human esophageal carcinoma in nude rats: CD44H mediates cancer cell invasion in vitro and in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2001;92:489-96 pubmed
    ..Moreover, using cells derived from this model, we were able to demonstrate that CD44H is involved in esophageal cancer cell invasion...
  35. Engebraaten O, Hjortland G, Hirschberg H, Fodstad O. Growth of precultured human glioma specimens in nude rat brain. J Neurosurg. 1999;90:125-32 pubmed
    ..Glioma tissue can be cultured directly from the biopsy specimen as tumor spheroids. Using such precultured tissue, a new in vivo model for studying human gliomas was established...
  36. Ponthan F, Borgstrom P, Hassan M, Wassberg E, Redfern C, Kogner P. The vitamin A analogues: 13-cis retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and Ro 13-6307 inhibit neuroblastoma tumour growth in vivo. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001;36:127-31 pubmed
    ..RA regulates neuroblastoma growth and differentiation in vitro, and has shown activity against human neuroblastoma in vivo...
  37. Ozawa T, Wang J, Hu L, Bollen A, Lamborn K, Deen D. Growth of human glioblastomas as xenografts in the brains of athymic rats. In Vivo. 2002;16:55-60 pubmed
    ..We have developed xenografts of human glioblastoma (GBM) and established the baseline growth parameters and histopathological features of these tumors...
  38. Chan D, Earle K, Zhao T, Helfrich B, Zeng C, Baron A, et al. Exisulind in combination with docetaxel inhibits growth and metastasis of human lung cancer and prolongs survival in athymic nude rats with orthotopic lung tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:904-12 pubmed
    ..In athymic nude rats with A549 orthotopic lung cancers, both exisulind and docetaxel alone moderately prolonged survival, inhibited ..
  39. Santra M, Zheng X, Roberts C, Santra S, Lu M, Panda S, et al. Single doublecortin gene therapy significantly reduces glioma tumor volume. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:304-14 pubmed publisher
    ..doublecortin (DCX), as a glioma suppressor gene therapy in an intracranial glioma tumor xenograft model in nude rats. Single DCX-expressing lentivirus was directly administered into the tumor on day 8 after U87 tumor cell ..
  40. Rupp A, Schmahl W, Lederer W, Matiasek K. Strain differences in the branching of the sciatic nerve in rats. Anat Histol Embryol. 2007;36:202-8 pubmed
    ..This makes it highly advisable not to use male adult Fischer rats in peripheral nerve regeneration studies with the sciatic nerve as the point of focus...
  41. Iwasaki H, Fukushima K, Kawamoto A, Umetani K, Oyamada A, Hayashi S, et al. Synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography for morphometric and physiological evaluation of myocardial neovascularization induced by endothelial progenitor cell transplantation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1326-33 pubmed
    ..However, it has been technically difficult to obtain imaging evidence of collateral formation by conventional angiography...
  42. Lambert J, Kelly J, Shim M, Huffer W, Nordeen S, Baek S, et al. Prostate derived factor in human prostate cancer cells: gene induction by vitamin D via a p53-dependent mechanism and inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth. J Cell Physiol. 2006;208:566-74 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that PDF exerts antitumorigenic properties on PCa cells and its regulation by 1,25D may provide insights into the action of 1,25D in PCa...
  43. Vemulapalli V, Yang Y, Friden P, Banga A. Synergistic effect of iontophoresis and soluble microneedles for transdermal delivery of methotrexate. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008;60:27-33 pubmed
    ..A synergistic 25-fold enhancement of delivery was observed in-vivo when a combination of microneedles and ionto- phoresis was used compared with either modality alone...
  44. Kawai Y, Yamauchi J, Soga K, Yamada M, Uchikawa R, Tegoshi T, et al. T cell-dependent and -independent expression of intestinal epithelial cell-related molecules in rats infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. APMIS. 2007;115:210-7 pubmed
  45. Hashimoto H, Azuma Y, Kawasaki M, Fujihara H, Onuma E, Yamada Okabe H, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein induces cachectic syndromes without directly modulating the expression of hypothalamic feeding-regulating peptides. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:292-8 pubmed
  46. Walton R, Beahm E, Wu L. De novo adipose formation in a vascularized engineered construct. Microsurgery. 2004;24:378-84 pubmed
  47. Bae H, Zhao L, Zhu D, Kanim L, Wang J, Delamarter R. Variability across ten production lots of a single demineralized bone matrix product. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal was also to determine whether the in vitro measures could sufficiently and accurately predict the in vivo fusion performance of different demineralized bone matrix-based product lots...
  48. Lindskog M, Spenger C, Jarvet J, Gräslund A, Kogner P. Predicting resistance or response to chemotherapy by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in neuroblastoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:1457-66 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) enables estimation of neuroblastoma tumor viability. Here we investigated if 1H-MRS can predict response or resistance to chemotherapy in neuroblastoma...
  49. Kofidis T, de Bruin J, Hoyt G, Ho Y, Tanaka M, Yamane T, et al. Myocardial restoration with embryonic stem cell bioartificial tissue transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24:737-44 pubmed
    ..The present study utilizes embryonic stem cells as the substrate of bioartificial myocardial tissue and evaluates engraftment in, and functional recovery of, the recipient heart...
  50. Enomoto T, Oda T, Aoyagi Y, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Satake M, et al. Consistent liver metastases in a rat model by portal injection of microencapsulated cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11131-9 pubmed
    ..growth phase of three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (SUIT-2, AsPC-1, and BxPC-3), were transplanted in nude rats by portal injection...
  51. Luther N, Cheung N, Dunkel I, Fraser J, Edgar M, Gutin P, et al. Intraparenchymal and intratumoral interstitial infusion of anti-glioma monoclonal antibody 8H9. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:1166-74; discussion 1174 pubmed publisher
    ..Interstitial delivery of murine immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 8H9 was investigated in a rodent model for the potential treatment of infiltrative gliomas...
  52. Feng X, Akiyoshi D, Sheoran A, Singh I, Hanawalt J, Zhang Q, et al. Serial propagation of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi of human origin in immunocompromised rodents. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4424-9 pubmed
    ..rodent models and have demonstrated persistent infections lasting at least 18 weeks in SCID mice and in nude rats. To enhance the intensity and duration of infection in these two models, animals were given anti-gamma ..
  53. Higuchi T, Anton M, Saraste A, Dumler K, Pelisek J, Nekolla S, et al. Reporter gene PET for monitoring survival of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells in the rat heart after pretreatment with VEGF and atorvastatin. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:1881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether reporter gene PET can be used to detect the effects of atorvastatin and VEGF on survival of EPCs after transplantation in the rat heart...