hylobates

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).

Top Publications

  1. Girirajan S, Chen L, Graves T, Marques Bonet T, Ventura M, Fronick C, et al. Sequencing human-gibbon breakpoints of synteny reveals mosaic new insertions at rearrangement sites. Genome Res. 2009;19:178-90 pubmed publisher
  2. Landolfi J, Wellehan J, Johnson A, Kinsel M. Fatal human herpesvirus type 1 infection in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2005;17:369-71 pubmed
    ..fatal, and likely recrudescent human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1) infection in a captive white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  3. Hirai H, Wijayanto H, Tanaka H, Mootnick A, Hayano A, Perwitasari Farajallah D, et al. A whole-arm translocation (WAT8/9) separating Sumatran and Bornean agile gibbons, and its evolutionary features. Chromosome Res. 2005;13:123-33 pubmed
  4. Hirai H, Mootnick A, Takenaka O, Suryobroto B, Mouri T, Kamanaka Y, et al. Genetic mechanism and property of a whole-arm translocation (WAT) between chromosomes 8 and 9 of agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis). Chromosome Res. 2003;11:37-50 pubmed
    C-banding analysis with 47 gibbons of the subgenus Hylobates (Hylobates) (44-chromosome gibbons) uncovered that the gibbons had a characteristic complicated C-banding pattern...
  5. Chan Y, Roos C, Inoue Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C, Pei K, et al. Mitochondrial genome sequences effectively reveal the phylogeny of Hylobates gibbons. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14419 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the various gibbons, especially among Hylobates species, is still limited because previous studies used limited taxon sampling or short mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)..
  6. Vogel E, Haag L, Mitra Setia T, van Schaik C, Dominy N. Foraging and ranging behavior during a fallback episode: Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii compared. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;140:716-26 pubmed publisher
    ..and locomotor morphologies of gibbons and orangutans, we examined the foraging and ranging behavior of sympatric Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii during an episode of low fruit availability at Tuanan, Kalimantan Tengah, ..
  7. Chan Y, Roos C, Inoue Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C, Pei K, et al. Inferring the evolutionary histories of divergences in Hylobates and Nomascus gibbons through multilocus sequence data. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:82 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the four extant gibbon genera, the evolutionary histories of two polyspecific genera, Hylobates and Nomascus, have been the particular focus of research but the DNA sequence data used was largely derived from ..
  8. Capozzi O, Carbone L, Stanyon R, Marra A, Yang F, Whelan C, et al. A comprehensive molecular cytogenetic analysis of chromosome rearrangements in gibbons. Genome Res. 2012;22:2520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The precise definition of synteny block boundaries and orientation, chromosomal fusions, and centromere repositioning events presented here will facilitate genome sequence assembly for these close relatives of humans...
  9. Wijayanto H, Hirai Y, Kamanaka Y, Katho A, Sajuthi D, Hirai H. Patterns of C-heterochromatin and telomeric DNA in two representative groups of small apes, the genera Hylobates and Symphalangus. Chromosome Res. 2005;13:717-24 pubmed
    ..Even the C-banding pattern of the lar-group of gibbons (the genus Hylobates) is not clarified yet, although our previous studies suggested that lar-group gibbons have a unique C-banding ..

More Information

Publications70

  1. Arnold N, Stanyon R, Jauch A, O BRIEN P, Wienberg J. Identification of complex chromosome rearrangements in the gibbon by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of a human chromosome 2q specific microlibrary, yeast artificial chromosomes, and reciprocal chromosome painting. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1996;74:80-5 pubmed
  2. Barelli C, Heistermann M, Boesch C, Reichard U. Sexual swellings in wild white-handed gibbon females (Hylobates lar) indicate the probability of ovulation. Horm Behav. 2007;51:221-30 pubmed
    ..patterns of sexual swellings, timing of ovulation and female reproductive status in wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, where this species has a variable social organization...
  3. Koda H, Nishimura T, Tokuda I, Oyakawa C, Nihonmatsu T, Masataka N. Soprano singing in gibbons. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;149:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In a white-handed gibbon, Hylobates lar, the fundamental frequency (f(0) ) of song sounds is amplified distinctively from the higher harmonics in ..
  4. Oyakawa C, Koda H, Sugiura H. Acoustic features contributing to the individuality of wild agile gibbon (Hylobates agilis agilis) songs. Am J Primatol. 2007;69:777-90 pubmed
    We examined acoustic individuality in wild agile gibbon Hylobates agilis agilis and determined the acoustic variables that contribute to individual discrimination using multivariate analyses...
  5. Sall A, Starkman S, Reynes J, Lay S, Nhim T, Hunt M, et al. Frequent infection of Hylobates pileatus (pileated gibbon) with species-associated variants of hepatitis B virus in Cambodia. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:333-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the frequency and genetic relationships of HBV infecting gibbons in Cambodia, pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus) that were originally wild-caught were screened for surface antigen...
  6. Thinh V, Rawson B, Hallam C, Kenyon M, Nadler T, Walter L, et al. Phylogeny and distribution of crested gibbons (genus Nomascus) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence data. Am J Primatol. 2010;72:1047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that molecular methods are a useful tool to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among crested gibbons and to determine species boundaries...
  7. Misceo D, Capozzi O, Roberto R, Dell oglio M, Rocchi M, Stanyon R, et al. Tracking the complex flow of chromosome rearrangements from the Hominoidea Ancestor to extant Hylobates and Nomascus Gibbons by high-resolution synteny mapping. Genome Res. 2008;18:1530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the extension, reciprocal arrangement, and orientation of syntenic chromosomal segments in the lar gibbon (Hylobates lar, HLA) by hybridization of a panel of approximately 1000 human BAC clones...
  8. Roberto R, Capozzi O, Wilson R, Mardis E, Lomiento M, Tuzun E, et al. Molecular refinement of gibbon genome rearrangements. Genome Res. 2007;17:249-57 pubmed
    ..Our data emphasize the synergistic effect of combining computational genomics and cytogenetics and provide a framework for ultimate sequence and assembly of the gibbon genome...
  9. Roos C, Geissmann T. Molecular phylogeny of the major hylobatid divisions. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001;19:486-94 pubmed
    ..gibbons (Nomascus) as the most basal group of the Hylobatidae, followed by Symphalangus, with Bunopithecus and Hylobates as the last to diverge...
  10. Cheyne S. Effects of meteorology, astronomical variables, location and human disturbance on the singing apes: Hylobates albibarbis. Am J Primatol. 2008;70:386-92 pubmed
    ..The need to carry out more research on the long-term effects of the smoke haze on wildlife behavior and possible solutions to the problem are discussed...
  11. Cellamare A, Catacchio C, Alkan C, Giannuzzi G, Antonacci F, Cardone M, et al. New insights into centromere organization and evolution from the white-cheeked gibbon and marmoset. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:1889-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our data indicate that complex higher-order repeat structures are a peculiarity of the hominid lineage, showing the more complex organization in humans...
  12. Matsudaira K, Ishida T. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of the whole mitochondrial genome sequences among three gibbon genera. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;55:454-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To solve the problems, we newly sequenced the whole mitochondrial genome of Hylobates agilis, Hylobates pileatus, Nomascus sp. and Symphalangus syndactylus...
  13. Lappan S. Patterns of dispersal in Sumatran siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus): preliminary mtDNA evidence suggests more frequent male than female dispersal to adjacent groups. Am J Primatol. 2007;69:692-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of some clustering of male haplotypes suggests that shorter dispersal distances may be more common in males...
  14. Rens W, Yang F, O Brien P, Solanky N, Ferguson Smith M. A classification efficiency test of spectral karyotyping and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization: identification of chromosome homologies between Homo sapiens and Hylobates leucogenys. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001;31:65-74 pubmed
    ..ability to identify karyotype rearrangements, which have occurred during the divergence of Homo sapiens and Hylobates leucogenys in evolution. A 24-color human paint kit distinguishes 74 conserved autosomal segments in H...
  15. Meyer T, McLain A, Oldenburg J, Faulk C, Bourgeois M, Conlin E, et al. An Alu-based phylogeny of gibbons (hylobatidae). Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:3441-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Extant lineages radiated rapidly 6-10 Ma and are organized into four genera (Hylobates, Hoolock, Symphalangus, and Nomascus) consisting of 12-19 species...
  16. Dirks W. Histological reconstruction of dental development and age at death in a juvenile gibbon (Hylobates lar). J Hum Evol. 1998;35:411-25 pubmed
    ..root extension rates, daily rates of enamel and dentine formation, and age at death in a single specimen of Hylobates lar. Thin sections were prepared of permanent mandibular teeth and analyzed by polarized light microscopy...
  17. Kim S, Lappan S, Choe J. Diet and ranging behavior of the endangered Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) in a submontane tropical rainforest. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:270-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Javan gibbons (Hylobates moloch) are endemic to forests spanning a broad range of altitudes on Java, Indonesia...
  18. Geissmann T, Nijman V. Calling in wild silvery gibbons (Hylobates moloch) in Java (Indonesia): behavior, phylogeny, and conservation. Am J Primatol. 2006;68:1-19 pubmed
    Hardly any behavioral data are available for the silvery gibbon (Hylobates moloch), an endangered primate that is endemic to the island of Java, Indonesia...
  19. Buckley C, Nekaris K, Husson S. Survey of Hylobates agilis albibarbis in a logged peat-swamp forest: Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan. Primates. 2006;47:327-35 pubmed
    ..In order to assess the importance of this habitat for gibbon conservation, a population of Hylobates agilis albibarbis was surveyed in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia...
  20. Thinh V, Mootnick A, Geissmann T, Li M, Ziegler T, Agil M, et al. Mitochondrial evidence for multiple radiations in the evolutionary history of small apes. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:74 pubmed publisher
    ..To further the discussion of these issues we analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 85 individuals representing all gibbon species, including most subspecies...
  21. Todd N, Merker B. Siamang gibbons exceed the saccular threshold: intensity of the song of Hylobates syndactylus. J Acoust Soc Am. 2004;115:3077-80 pubmed
    ..Thus reproductive vocal behavior of primates may be influenced by a primitive acoustical reward pathway inherited from a common ancestor with anamniotes. In humans such a pathway could explain the compulsion for exposure to loud music...
  22. Muller S, Hollatz M, Wienberg J. Chromosomal phylogeny and evolution of gibbons (Hylobatidae). Hum Genet. 2003;113:493-501 pubmed
    ..Both approaches place the subgenus Bunopithecus as the most basal group of the Hylobatidae, followed by Hylobates, with Symphalangus and Nomascus as the last to diverge...
  23. Mrasek K, Heller A, Rubtsov N, Trifonov V, Starke H, Claussen U, et al. Detailed Hylobates lar karyotype defined by 25-color FISH and multicolor banding. Int J Mol Med. 2003;12:139-46 pubmed
    A comprehensive and detailed comparative chromosome map of the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar = HLA) has been established by hybridizing the recently developed complete human multicolor banding (MCB) probe set on metaphase ..
  24. Israfil H, Zehr S, Mootnick A, Ruvolo M, Steiper M. Unresolved molecular phylogenies of gibbons and siamangs (Family: Hylobatidae) based on mitochondrial, Y-linked, and X-linked loci indicate a rapid Miocene radiation or sudden vicariance event. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;58:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..reclassification, the primate family Hylobatidae contains four genera (Hoolock, Nomascus, Symphalangus, and Hylobates) and between 14 and 18 species, making it by far the most species-rich group of extant hominoids...
  25. Garza J, Woodruff D. A phylogenetic study of the gibbons (Hylobates) using DNA obtained noninvasively from hair. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1992;1:202-10 pubmed
    ..of the concolor gibbons), (2) suggest previously unrecognized affinities between the lar species group and Hylobates klossi and between H. lar and H...
  26. Boffelli D, McAuliffe J, Ovcharenko D, Lewis K, Ovcharenko I, Pachter L, et al. Phylogenetic shadowing of primate sequences to find functional regions of the human genome. Science. 2003;299:1391-4 pubmed publisher
  27. Kehrer Sawatzki H, Schreiner B, Tänzer S, Platzer M, Muller S, Hameister H. Molecular characterization of the pericentric inversion that causes differences between chimpanzee chromosome 19 and human chromosome 17. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71:375-88 pubmed
    ..3) and GUC2D and ALOX15B (on human chromosome 17p13). The inversion affects neither the genomic structure nor the gene-activity state with regard to replication timing of these genes...
  28. Ye C, Li Y, Shi P, Zhang Y. Molecular evolution of growth hormone gene family in old world monkeys and hominoids. Gene. 2005;350:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results disclosed the complex history of the primate growth hormone gene family and raised intriguing questions on the consequences of these evolutionary events...
  29. Hirai H, Hirai Y, Domae H, Kirihara Y. A most distant intergeneric hybrid offspring (Larcon) of lesser apes, Nomascus leucogenys and Hylobates lar. Hum Genet. 2007;122:477-83 pubmed
    ..verify the hybrid ancestry of an individual (Larcon) produced by two of the most distant genera of lesser apes, Hylobates (lar-group gibbons) and Nomascus (concolor-group gibbons)...
  30. Chang Y, Bertram J, Lee D. External forces and torques generated by the brachiating white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000;113:201-16 pubmed
    ..the forces in three axes and torque about the vertical axis generated by a brachiating White-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) and compared them with bipedal locomotion...
  31. Carbone L, Harris R, Vessere G, Mootnick A, Humphray S, Rogers J, et al. Evolutionary breakpoints in the gibbon suggest association between cytosine methylation and karyotype evolution. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000538 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between undermethylation and chromosomal rearrangement in gibbons suggests a correlation between epigenetic state and structural genome variation in evolution...
  32. Ujhelyi M, Merker B, Buk P, Geissmann T. Observations on the behavior of gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys, H. gabriellae, and H. lar) in the presence of mirrors. J Comp Psychol. 2000;114:253-62 pubmed
    Three captive gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys, H. gabriellae, and H. lar) were videotaped in the course of longitudinal exposure to mirrors introduced into their familiar cage or island housing situation...
  33. Chan Y, Roos C, Inoue Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C, Vigilant L. A comparative analysis of Y chromosome and mtDNA phylogenies of the Hylobates gibbons. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:150 pubmed publisher
    ..Gibbons, especially the genus Hylobates, are particularly intriguing as they consist of multiple closely related species which emerged rapidly and live ..
  34. Kim S, Carbone L, Becquet C, Mootnick A, Li D, de Jong P, et al. Patterns of genetic variation within and between Gibbon species. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:2211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..gabriellae of roughly one migrant every two generations. Together, our findings suggest that gibbons have had a complex demographic history involving hybridization or mixing between diverged populations...
  35. Carbone L, Mootnick A, Nadler T, Moisson P, Ryder O, Roos C, et al. A chromosomal inversion unique to the northern white-cheeked gibbon. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4999 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the important role of genomics in providing tools for conservation efforts...
  36. Zhang J, Jiang Y, Cao Y, Liu J, Zheng D, Chen X, et al. Violapyrones A-G, ?-pyrone derivatives from Streptomyces violascens isolated from Hylobates hoolock feces. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:2126-30 pubmed publisher
    ..pyrone derivatives, violapyrones A-G (1-7), were isolated from Streptomyces violascens obtained from Hylobates hoolock feces. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis...
  37. Carbone L, Vessere G, ten Hallers B, Zhu B, Osoegawa K, Mootnick A, et al. A high-resolution map of synteny disruptions in gibbon and human genomes. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e223 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the extraordinarily high level of rearrangements seen in gibbons may be due to factors that increase the incidence of chromosome breakage or fixation of the derivative chromosomes in a homozygous state...
  38. Van Tuinen P, Mootnick A, Kingswood S, Hale D, Kumamoto A. Complex, compound inversion/translocation polymorphism in an ape: presumptive intermediate stage in the karyotypic evolution of the agile gibbon Hylobates agilis. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999;110:129-42 pubmed
    Karyotypic variation in five gibbon species of the subgenus Hylobates (2n = 44) was assessed in 63 animals, 23 of them wild born...
  39. Savini T, Boesch C, Reichard U. Home-range characteristics and the influence of seasonality on female reproduction in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;135:1-12 pubmed
    ..2001-2003) study was carried out on the home range characteristics of seven wild white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) groups focusing on the spatio-temporal distribution of food resources at Khao Yai National Park in ..
  40. Nie W, Rens W, Wang J, Yang F. Conserved chromosome segments in Hylobates hoolock revealed by human and H. leucogenys paint probes. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;92:248-53 pubmed
    A complete comparative chromosome map of the white-browed gibbon (Hylobates hoolock, 2n = 38), white-cheeked gibbon (Hylobates leucogenys, 2n = 52), and human has been established by hybridising H...
  41. Whittaker D, Morales J, Melnick D. Resolution of the Hylobates phylogeny: congruence of mitochondrial D-loop sequences with molecular, behavioral, and morphological data sets. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;45:620-8 pubmed
    Gibbons of the genus Hylobates likely speciated very rapidly following isolation by rising sea levels during the Pleistocene...
  42. Geissmann T. Duet-splitting and the evolution of gibbon songs. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2002;77:57-76 pubmed
    ..This appears to be the first time that a non-duetting animal can be shown to be derived from a duetting form. (4) The return to exclusive solo singing may be related to the isolated island distribution of the non-duetting species...
  43. Monda K, Simmons R, Kressirer P, Su B, Woodruff D. Mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region-1 sequence variation and phylogeny of the concolor gibbons, Nomascus. Am J Primatol. 2007;69:1285-306 pubmed
    ..leucogenys (17 haplotypes) is comparable with that reported earlier in Hylobates lar and less than half the known interspecific pairwise distances in gibbons...
  44. MacLeod C, Zilles K, Schleicher A, Rilling J, Gibson K. Expansion of the neocerebellum in Hominoidea. J Hum Evol. 2003;44:401-29 pubmed
  45. Rae T. Miocene hominoid craniofacial morphology and the emergence of great apes. Ann Anat. 2004;186:417-21 pubmed
    ..Recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that gibbons (Hylobates) have reversed derived craniofacial characters autapomorphically, contradicting the interpretation that the ..
  46. Saitou N, Kitano T. The PNarec method for detection of ancient recombinations through phylogenetic network analysis. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..2009. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 51, 465-471]. We present applications of this method, now named as "PNarec", to various virus sequences as well as HLA genes. ..
  47. Johann S, Gibbons J, O HARA B. GLVR1, a receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus, is homologous to a phosphate permease of Neurospora crassa and is expressed at high levels in the brain and thymus. J Virol. 1992;66:1635-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, high-level expression of Glvr-1 appears to be restricted to specific tissues and may have developmental consequences. ..
  48. Islam M, Choudhury P, Bhattacharjee P. Survey and census of hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in the Inner-Line Reserve Forest and the adjoining areas of Cachar district, Assam, India. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2013;84:170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and 6.1%, respectively. Each family group's home range was 0.31-0.51 km2. Of the 7 localities, only 1 had more than 1 family group. Habitat destruction and diverse threats to the hoolock gibbon in this area are examined in this paper. ..
  49. Williams N. New alarm bells. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R987-8 pubmed
  50. Tsunoda A, Yamada M, Komatsuzaki A. Influence of phylogeny on jugular fossa shape and otological disorders. J Laryngol Otol. 1997;111:1027-33 pubmed
    ..The shape of the jugular fossa and its positional relationship to the tympanic cavity were considered from the viewpoint of the influence of phylogeny and the possible relationship to various otological problems...
  51. Takeuchi Y, Vile R, Simpson G, O HARA B, Collins M, Weiss R. Feline leukemia virus subgroup B uses the same cell surface receptor as gibbon ape leukemia virus. J Virol. 1992;66:1219-22 pubmed
    ..Although murine cells are resistant to FeLV-B infection, murine cells expressing the human gene for the GALV/SSAV receptor became susceptible to FeLV-B infection. Therefore GALV/SSAV and FeLV-B utilize the same cell surface receptor...
  52. Fan P, Jiang X. Altitudinal ranging of black-crested gibbons at Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan: effects of food distribution, temperature and human disturbance. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2010;81:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Human activities directly influenced gibbon behaviour, might cause forest degradation and create dispersal barriers between populations. ..
  53. McNulty K. A geometric morphometric assessment of hominoid crania: conservative African apes and their liberal implications. Ann Anat. 2004;186:429-33 pubmed
    ..Results of this study indicate a strong affinity between Hylobates and Gorilla; Pan is also similar to these genera, while Pongo and Homo are each very different...
  54. Schneiderman R, Farrell K, Wilson C, Eiden M. The Japanese feral mouse Pit1 and Pit2 homologs lack an acidic residue at position 550 but still function as gibbon ape leukemia virus receptors: implications for virus binding motif. J Virol. 1996;70:6982-6 pubmed
    ..Further, the MolPit1 chimera was identical to Pit1 in efficiency, but the MolPit2 chimera proved substantially less efficient...
  55. Rosso L, Marques A, Reichert A, Kaessmann H. Mitochondrial targeting adaptation of the hominoid-specific glutamate dehydrogenase driven by positive Darwinian selection. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000150 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that rapid, selectively driven subcellular adaptation, as exemplified by GLUD2, represents a common route underlying the emergence of new gene functions...
  56. Spicer A, Duhig T, Chilton B, Gendler S. Analysis of mammalian MUC1 genes reveals potential functionally important domains. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:885-8 pubmed
  57. Bartlett T, Light L, Brockelman W. Long-term home range use in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Am J Primatol. 2016;78:192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we examined changes in range-use characteristics in one well-habituated group of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) during three study periods over a 10-year span...
  58. Lanford R, Chavez D, Rico Hesse R, Mootnick A. Hepadnavirus infection in captive gibbons. J Virol. 2000;74:2955-9 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gibbon isolates lie within the human HBV family, indicating that these HBV isolates most likely stem from infection of gibbons from a human source...
  59. Jayaswal V, Jermiin L, Poladian L, Robinson J. Two stationary nonhomogeneous Markov models of nucleotide sequence evolution. Syst Biol. 2011;60:74-86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the methods for reducing model complexity from an extremely large set of nonstationary models are yet to be developed...
  60. Oka K, Hirasaki E, Hirokawa Y, Nakano Y, Kumakura H. Brief communication: Three-dimensional motion analysis of hindlimb during brachiation in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;142:650-4 pubmed publisher
    ..movements of the lower trunk and distal thigh during continuous-contact brachiation in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) to evaluate the roles of the trunk and hindlimb...
  61. Hodgkiss S, Thetford E, Waitt C, Nijman V. Female reproductive parameters in the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch). Zoo Biol. 2010;29:449-56 pubmed publisher
    Javan gibbons (Hylobates moloch) are one of the most endangered gibbon species in the world...