pongo pygmaeus

Summary

Summary: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.

Top Publications

  1. Mulcahy N, Call J. How great apes perform on a modified trap-tube task. Anim Cogn. 2006;9:193-9 pubmed
    ..We presented five orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), two bonobos (Pan paniscus), and one gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) with a ..
  2. Frazer K, Chen X, Hinds D, Pant P, Patil N, Cox D. Genomic DNA insertions and deletions occur frequently between humans and nonhuman primates. Genome Res. 2003;13:341-6 pubmed
    ..These DNA rearrangements are commonly found in genic intervals, and thus provide natural starting points for focused investigations of qualitative and quantitative gene expression differences between humans and other primates. ..
  3. Herrmann E, Wobber V, Call J. Great apes' (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experience. J Comp Psychol. 2008;122:220-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated this question by presenting 171 apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) with several tool-use problems without giving them initial training or familiarizing them with the test ..
  4. Martin Ordas G, Call J, Colmenares F. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks. Anim Cogn. 2008;11:423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus). The results showed that apes performed better in the trap-platform task than in the trap-tube task...
  5. Amici F, Aureli F, Call J. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirmed that enhanced inhibitory skills are positively associated with FF dynamics, more than to phylogenetic relations or feeding ecology...
  6. Enard W, Khaitovich P, Klose J, Zollner S, Heissig F, Giavalisco P, et al. Intra- and interspecific variation in primate gene expression patterns. Science. 2002;296:340-3 pubmed
    ..We identified species-specific gene expression patterns indicating that changes in protein and gene expression have been particularly pronounced in the human brain...
  7. van Schaik C, Wich S, Utami S, Odom K. A simple alternative to line transects of nests for estimating orangutan densities. Primates. 2005;46:249-54 pubmed
    We conducted a validation of the line transect technique to estimate densities of orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) nests in a Bornean swamp forest, and compared these results with density estimates based on nest counts in plots and on female ..
  8. Hanus D, Mendes N, Tennie C, Call J. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19555 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution...
  9. Pelé M, Dufour V, Thierry B, Call J. Token transfers among great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Pan troglodytes): species differences, gestural requests, and reciprocal exchange. J Comp Psychol. 2009;123:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token-exchange task involving two ..

More Information

Publications80

  1. Singleton I, van Schaik C. The social organisation of a population of Sumatran orang-utans. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2002;73:1-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the orang-utan social organisation is best described as a loose community, showing neither spatial nor social exclusivity, consisting of one or more female clusters and the adult male they all prefer as mate. ..
  2. Lee J, Cordaux R, Han K, Wang J, Hedges D, Liang P, et al. Different evolutionary fates of recently integrated human and chimpanzee LINE-1 retrotransposons. Gene. 2007;390:18-27 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the chimpanzee genome constitutes an excellent model in which to analyze the evolutionary dynamics of L1 retrotransposons. ..
  3. Meijaard E, Wich S, Ancrenaz M, Marshall A. Not by science alone: why orangutan conservationists must think outside the box. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1249:29-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our review discusses what has and has not worked in conservation to guide future conservation efforts. ..
  4. Wolfe N, Karesh W, Kilbourn A, Cox Singh J, Bosi E, Rahman H, et al. The impact of ecological conditions on the prevalence of malaria among orangutans. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2002;2:97-103 pubmed
    ..The results provide an example of how an ecological change can influence pathogen prevalence. ..
  5. Brosnan S, Flemming T, Talbot C, Mayo L, Stoinski T. Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) do not form expectations based on their partner's outcomes. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2011;82:56-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results in such closely related species highlight the need for additional comparative studies to understand better the function and evolution of social behaviors. ..
  6. Uher J, Call J. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed reward contingency task II: transfer to new quantities, long-term retention, and the impact of quantity ratios. J Comp Psychol. 2008;122:204-12 pubmed publisher
    We tested 6 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 3 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 2 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the reversed reward contingency task...
  7. Meijaard E, Wich S. Putting orang-utan population trends into perspective. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R540 pubmed
  8. Schmidt D, Ellersieck M, Cranfield M, Karesh W. Cholesterol values in free-ranging gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) and Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006;37:292-300 pubmed
    ..gorillas (Gorilla beringei), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were analyzed for total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density ..
  9. van Schaik C, Ancrenaz M, Borgen G, Galdikas B, Knott C, Singleton I, et al. Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science. 2003;299:102-5 pubmed
    ..Hence, great-ape cultures exist, and may have done so for at least 14 million years. ..
  10. Zeininger A, Richmond B, Hartman G. Metacarpal head biomechanics: a comparative backscattered electron image analysis of trabecular bone mineral density in Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens. J Hum Evol. 2011;60:703-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The third metacarpal heads of Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, and Homo sapiens were sectioned in a sagittal plane and imaged using backscattered electron microscopy (BSE-..
  11. Hanus D, Call J. Discrete quantity judgments in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus): the effect of presenting whole sets versus item-by-item. J Comp Psychol. 2007;121:241-9 pubmed
    ..items in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)...
  12. Zimonjic D, Kelley M, Rubin J, Aaronson S, Popescu N. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of keratinocyte growth factor gene amplification and dispersion in evolution of great apes and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11461-5 pubmed
    ..These findings support the concept of a closer evolutionary relationship of human and chimpanzee and a possible selective pressure for such dispersion during the evolution of higher primates...
  13. Muehlenbein M, Ancrenaz M, Sakong R, Ambu L, Prall S, Fuller G, et al. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33357 pubmed publisher
    ..Utilizing fecal samples (N = 53) from 2 wild habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) (in addition to 26 fecal samples from 4 wild unhabituated orangutans) in the Lower Kinabatangan ..
  14. Byrnit J. Nonenculturated orangutans' (Pongo pygmaeus) use of experimenter-given manual and facial cues in an object-choice task. J Comp Psychol. 2004;118:309-15 pubmed
    ..In the present study, 3 nonenculturated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) were tested for their ability to use experimenter-given pointing, gazing, and glancing cues in an object-..
  15. Locke D, Hillier L, Warren W, Worley K, Nazareth L, Muzny D, et al. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes. Nature. 2011;469:529-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative ..
  16. Anderson H, Emery Thompson M, Knott C, Perkins L. Fertility and mortality patterns of captive Bornean and Sumatran orangutans: is there a species difference in life history?. J Hum Evol. 2008;54:34-42 pubmed
    ..from these models as applied to variability in reproductive rates between the two species of orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean) and Pongo abelii (Sumatran)...
  17. de Blois S, Novak M, Bond M. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). J Comp Psychol. 1998;112:137-52 pubmed
    The authors tested orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) on object permanence tasks...
  18. Locke D, Segraves R, Carbone L, Archidiacono N, Albertson D, Pinkel D, et al. Large-scale variation among human and great ape genomes determined by array comparative genomic hybridization. Genome Res. 2003;13:347-57 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous cytogenetic and comparative mapping studies, these results indicate extensive local repatterning of hominoid chromosomes in euchromatic regions through a duplication-driven mechanism of genome evolution...
  19. Kilbourn A, Karesh W, Wolfe N, Bosi E, Cook R, Andau M. Health evaluation of free-ranging and semi-captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:73-83 pubmed
    ..Because survival of the orangutan is linked to animal and ecosystem health, results of this study will assist wildlife conservation programs by providing baseline health information...
  20. Arora N, Nater A, van Schaik C, Willems E, van Noordwijk M, Goossens B, et al. Effects of Pleistocene glaciations and rivers on the population structure of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21376-81 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the population structure and underlying mechanisms of an insular endemic, the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)...
  21. Goossens B, Chikhi L, Jalil M, Ancrenaz M, Lackman Ancrenaz I, Mohamed M, et al. Patterns of genetic diversity and migration in increasingly fragmented and declining orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) populations from Sabah, Malaysia. Mol Ecol. 2005;14:441-56 pubmed
    We investigated the genetic structure within and among Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) in forest fragments of the Lower Kinabatangan flood plain in Sabah, Malaysia...
  22. Fox E, Bin Muhammad I. New tool use by wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002;119:186-8 pubmed
    ..A summary of the distribution of tool use types in wild orangutans is presented...
  23. Liu G, Zhao S, Bailey J, Sahinalp S, Alkan C, Tuzun E, et al. Analysis of primate genomic variation reveals a repeat-driven expansion of the human genome. Genome Res. 2003;13:358-68 pubmed
    ..Assuming that the primate genome sequence we have sampled is representative, we estimate that human euchromatin has expanded 30 Mb and 550 Mb compared to the primate genomes of chimpanzee and lemur, respectively...
  24. Wu X, Di Rienzo A, Ober C. A population genetics study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the interleukin 4 receptor alpha (IL4RA) gene. Genes Immun. 2001;2:128-34 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which past selection by pathogens contributed to the increasing prevalence of atopic disorders in Western societies...
  25. Itakura S, Tanaka M. Use of experimenter-given cues during object-choice tasks by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and human infants (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol. 1998;112:119-26 pubmed
    In a series of experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and human infants (Homo sapiens) were investigated as to whether they used experimenter-given cues when responding to object-choice tasks...
  26. Bräuer J, Call J, Tomasello M. All great ape species follow gaze to distant locations and around barriers. J Comp Psychol. 2005;119:145-54 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that great apes do not just orient to a target that another is oriented to, but they actually attempt to take the visual perspective of the other...
  27. Loken B, Spehar S, Rayadin Y. Terrestriality in the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus morio) and implications for their ecology and conservation. Am J Primatol. 2013;75:1129-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report on a camera trapping study of terrestrial behavior in the northeastern Bornean orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus morio, in Wehea Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia...
  28. Call J. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and children (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol. 2001;115:159-71 pubmed
    Juvenile and adult orangutans (n = 5; Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (n = 7; Pan troglodytes), and 19- and 26-month-old children (n = 24; Homo sapiens) received visible and invisible displacements...
  29. Kunimatsu Y, Ratanasthien B, Nakaya H, Saegusa H, Nagaoka S. Earliest Miocene hominoid from Southeast Asia. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004;124:99-108 pubmed
    ..specimen (CMu6-1'00) is an isolated upper molar (right M1 or M2), similar in size to modern orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)...
  30. Beran M. Maintenance of self-imposed delay of gratification by four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). J Gen Psychol. 2002;129:49-66 pubmed
    ..reward for a future, more preferred reward, was examined in 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 1 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)...
  31. Ancrenaz M, Dabek L, O Neil S. The costs of exclusion: recognizing a role for local communities in biodiversity conservation. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e289 pubmed
  32. Vogel E, Haag L, Mitra Setia T, van Schaik C, Dominy N. Foraging and ranging behavior during a fallback episode: Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii compared. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;140:716-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of gibbons and orangutans, we examined the foraging and ranging behavior of sympatric Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii during an episode of low fruit availability at Tuanan, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia...
  33. Meijaard E, Welsh A, Ancrenaz M, Wich S, Nijman V, Marshall A. Declining orangutan encounter rates from Wallace to the present suggest the species was once more abundant. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12042 pubmed publisher
    Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) currently occur at low densities and seeing a wild one is a rare event...
  34. Dindo M, Stoinski T, Whiten A. Observational learning in orangutan cultural transmission chains. Biol Lett. 2011;7:181-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with claims for social transmission of foraging methods in wild orangutans...
  35. Chaimanee Y, Jolly D, Benammi M, Tafforeau P, Duzer D, Moussa I, et al. A Middle Miocene hominoid from Thailand and orangutan origins. Nature. 2003;422:61-5 pubmed
  36. Wich S, Buij R, van Schaik C. Determinants of orangutan density in the dryland forests of the Leuser Ecosystem. Primates. 2004;45:177-82 pubmed
    ..In addition, large fig density depends on topsoil pH. Provided that orangutans are present and no hunting or logging occur, topsoil pH seems a promising method for rapid assessment of potential orangutan density over large areas...
  37. Ancrenaz M, Gimenez O, Ambu L, Ancrenaz K, Andau P, Goossens B, et al. Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e3 pubmed
    ..The role of exploited forests clearly merits further investigation for orangutan conservation in Sabah...
  38. Herrmann E, Call J, Hernàndez Lloreda M, Hare B, Tomasello M. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science. 2007;317:1360-6 pubmed
  39. Watkins P, Moser A, Toomer C, Steinberg S, Moser H, Karaman M, et al. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions. BMC Physiol. 2010;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism...
  40. Kik M, Bos J, Groen J, Dorrestein G. Herpes simplex infection in a juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:131-4 pubmed
    A juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) died after 8 days of diarrhea and vomiting. Necropsy showed petechial hemorrhages in the skin, the myocardium, and the peritoneal membranes...
  41. Osvath M, Osvath H. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use. Anim Cogn. 2008;11:661-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the advanced mental capacities utilized in human future planning are shared by phylogenetically more ancient species than previously believed...
  42. Zimmermann F, Zemke F, Call J, Gomez J. Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) point to inform a human about the location of a tool. Anim Cogn. 2009;12:347-58 pubmed publisher
  43. Lawson B, Garriga R, Galdikas B. Airsacculitis in fourteen juvenile southern Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). J Med Primatol. 2006;35:149-54 pubmed
    ..Airsacculitis is a clinical condition which has been reported in a range of primates species, including orangutans...
  44. Fan Y, Linardopoulou E, Friedman C, Williams E, Trask B. Genomic structure and evolution of the ancestral chromosome fusion site in 2q13-2q14.1 and paralogous regions on other human chromosomes. Genome Res. 2002;12:1651-62 pubmed
    ..Several of these duplicated blocks may be associated with breakpoints of inversions that occurred during primate evolution and of recurrent chromosome rearrangements in humans...
  45. Nater A, Nietlisbach P, Arora N, van Schaik C, van Noordwijk M, Willems E, et al. Sex-biased dispersal and volcanic activities shaped phylogeographic patterns of extant Orangutans (genus: Pongo). Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:2275-88 pubmed publisher
  46. Skinner M, Hopwood D. Hypothesis for the causes and periodicity of repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia in large, wild African (Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla) and Asian (Pongo pygmaeus) apes. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004;123:216-35 pubmed
    ..African Pan troglodytes (12 male, 32 female), Gorilla gorilla (10 male, 10 female), and Bornean and Sumatran Pongo pygmaeus (11 male, 9 female, 9 unknown) from collections in Europe. Two methods were employed...
  47. Tecwyn E, Thorpe S, Chappell J. What cognitive strategies do orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) use to solve a trial-unique puzzle-tube task incorporating multiple obstacles?. Anim Cogn. 2012;15:121-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Successful subjects may have been using a heuristic rule combination based on what they deemed to be the most relevant cue (the configuration of the puzzle-tube ends), which may be a cognitively economical strategy...
  48. Tajima T, Kurotori H. Nonaggressive interventions by third parties in conflicts among captive Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Primates. 2010;51:179-82 pubmed publisher
    ..of interventions by third parties in aggressive interactions within a captive group of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Tama Zoological Park, Japan...
  49. Arora N, Van Noordwijk M, Ackermann C, Willems E, Nater A, Greminger M, et al. Parentage-based pedigree reconstruction reveals female matrilineal clusters and male-biased dispersal in nongregarious Asian great apes, the Bornean orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus). Mol Ecol. 2012;21:3352-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in nongregarious species, correct inferences of dispersal can only be achieved by combining several genetic approaches with detailed spatial information...
  50. Anderson U, Stoinski T, Bloomsmith M, Maple T. Relative numerousness judgment and summation in young, middle-aged, and older adult orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii and Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). J Comp Psychol. 2007;121:1-11 pubmed
    ..each pair ranging from 1 to 8 (summation) were evaluated in young, middle-aged, and older adult orangutans (7 Pongo pygmaeus abelii and 2 Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus)...
  51. Meijaard E, Sheil D. Cuddly animals don't persuade poor people to back conservation. Nature. 2008;454:159 pubmed publisher
  52. Mathewson P, Spehar S, Meijaard E, Nardiyono -, Purnomo -, Sasmirul A, et al. Evaluating orangutan census techniques using nest decay rates: implications for population estimates. Ecol Appl. 2008;18:208-21 pubmed
  53. Vogel E, van Woerden J, Lucas P, Utami Atmoko S, van Schaik C, Dominy N. Functional ecology and evolution of hominoid molar enamel thickness: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii. J Hum Evol. 2008;55:60-74 pubmed publisher
    The divergent molar characteristics of Pan troglodytes and Pongo pygmaeus provide an instructive paradigm for examining the adaptive form-function relationship between molar enamel thickness and food hardness...
  54. Becquet C, Przeworski M. A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apes. Genome Res. 2007;17:1505-19 pubmed
    ..Similarly, Eastern and Western gorillas and Sumatran and Bornean orangutans appear to have experienced gene flow since their splits approximately 90 and over 250 Kya, respectively...
  55. Guethlein L, Flodin L, Adams E, Parham P. NK cell receptors of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): a pivotal species for tracking the coevolution of killer cell Ig-like receptors with MHC-C. J Immunol. 2002;169:220-9 pubmed
    ..The Popy-KIR2D include ones predicted to be specific for the C1 epitope of MHC-C, but none specific for C2. This correlates with the observation that all orangutan MHC-C allotypes examined have the C1 motif...
  56. Jalil M, Cable J, Sinyor J, Lackman Ancrenaz I, Ancrenaz M, Bruford M, et al. Riverine effects on mitochondrial structure of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) at two spatial scales. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:2898-909 pubmed publisher
    ..The Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary contains one of the most northern populations of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) on Borneo and is bisected by the Kinabatangan River, the longest river in Sabah...
  57. Call J. Inferences about the location of food in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus). J Comp Psychol. 2004;118:232-41 pubmed
    ..paniscus; n = 4), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 12), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla; n = 8), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; n = 6) were presented with 2 cups (1 baited) and given visual or auditory information about their contents...
  58. Poss S, Kuhar C, Stoinski T, Hopkins W. Differential use of attentional and visual communicative signaling by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in response to the attentional status of a human. Am J Primatol. 2006;68:978-92 pubmed
    In this study we investigated the communicative abilities of 10 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and seven western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and particularly focused on their sensitivity to the attentional state of a human ..
  59. Fox E, van Schaik C, Sitompul A, Wright D. Intra-and interpopulational differences in orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) activity and diet: implications for the invention of tool use. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004;125:162-74 pubmed
    Tool manufacture and use have been described for wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), with appreciable interpopulational differences in tool complexes. The ecological factors that contribute to these differences require investigation...
  60. Meijaard E, Mengersen K, Buchori D, Nurcahyo A, Ancrenaz M, Wich S, et al. Why don't we ask? A complementary method for assessing the status of great apes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18008 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend more extensive use of carefully designed and implemented interview surveys, in conjunction with more traditional field methods...
  61. Suda C, Call J. Piagetian conservation of discrete quantities in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Anim Cogn. 2005;8:220-35 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that at least bonobos could benefit from the discreteness of stimuli in their acquisition of conservation skills...
  62. Mulcahy N, Call J. The performance of bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in two versions of an object-choice task. J Comp Psychol. 2009;123:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors suggest several possibilities to account for this difference and discuss our findings in relation to previous and future object-choice research...
  63. Herrmann E, Keupp S, Hare B, Vaish A, Tomasello M. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol. 2013;127:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes...
  64. van Noordwijk M, van Schaik C. Development of ecological competence in Sumatran orangutans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005;127:79-94 pubmed
    Data on orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) living in a Sumatran swamp forest yield an estimated median interbirth interval of at least 8 years, concurring with findings from other sites...
  65. Vlamings P, Uher J, Call J. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed contingency task: the effects of food quantity and food visibility. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2006;32:60-70 pubmed
    ..The authors compared the performance of 4 great ape species (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) on the reversed contingency task while manipulating food quantity (0-4 or ..
  66. Barth J, Call J. Tracking the displacement of objects: a series of tasks with great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) and young children (Homo sapiens). J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2006;32:239-52 pubmed
    ..The number of elements that changed locations, the type of displacement, and having to inhibit predominant reaching responses were factors that negatively affected the subjects' performance...
  67. Marshall A, Salas L, Stephens S, Engström L, Meijaard E, Stanley S. Use of limestone karst forests by Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the Sangkulirang peninsula, east Kalimantan, Indonesia. Am J Primatol. 2007;69:212-9 pubmed
    ..conducted in these forests indicated the presence of a substantial population of Eastern Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the Berau and East Kutai regencies in the northern half of the province...
  68. Ancrenaz M, Ambu L, Sunjoto I, Ahmad E, Manokaran K, Meijaard E, et al. Recent surveys in the forests of Ulu Segama Malua, Sabah, Malaysia, show that orang-utans (P. p. morio) can be maintained in slightly logged forests. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11510 pubmed publisher
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    ..individuals, 61 samples from wild individuals and 38 samples from captive groups of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia, were collected during one rainy season (November 2005-May 2006) and screened for ..
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    ..These results raise the possibilities that other primate species have a C locus and that the regulation of natural killer cells by C allotypes evolved earlier in primate evolution than has been thought...
  71. Lameira A, Hardus M, Nouwen K, Topelberg E, Delgado R, Spruijt B, et al. Population-specific use of the same tool-assisted alarm call between two wild orangutan populations (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) indicates functional arbitrariness [corrected]. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69749 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are consistent with previous studies arguing that these orangutan call variants are socially learned and reconcile the role of gestures and calls within evolutionary theories based on common ancestry for speech and music. ..