pan paniscus

Summary

Summary: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.

Top Publications

  1. Palagi E, Cordoni G. The right time to happen: play developmental divergence in the two Pan species. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52767 pubmed publisher
    ..The high play motivation showed by adult bonobos compared to chimpanzees is probably the result of a long developmental process, rooted in the delicate transitional phase, which leads subjects from infancy to juvenility. ..
  2. van Brussel M, Salemi M, Liu H, Gabri ls J, Goubau P, Desmyter J, et al. The simian T-lymphotropic virus STLV-PP1664 from Pan paniscus is distinctly related to HTLV-2 but differs in genomic organization. Virology. 1998;243:366-79 pubmed publisher
    We have isolated a highly divergent simian T-lymphotropic virus, STLV-PP1664, from a wild-caught bonobo (Pan paniscus)...
  3. Bolter D, Zihlman A. Brief communication: dental development timing in captive Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011;145:647-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a restricted wild range in central Africa...
  4. Deschner T, Fuller B, Oelze V, Boesch C, Hublin J, Mundry R, et al. Identification of energy consumption and nutritional stress by isotopic and elemental analysis of urine in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2012;26:69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In a feeding experiment conducted on captive bonobos (Pan paniscus), we monitored urinary ?(13)C, ?(15)N, total C (carbon), total N (nitrogen), and C/N ratios and compared these ..
  5. Tempelmann S, Kaminski J, Liebal K. Focus on the essential: all great apes know when others are being attentive. Anim Cogn. 2011;14:433-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we present the first evidence that all great ape species are able to assess the attentional state of a recipient based on the orientation of the face...
  6. Kaessmann H, Wiebe V, Paabo S. Extensive nuclear DNA sequence diversity among chimpanzees. Science. 1999;286:1159-62 pubmed
    ..have begun to accumulate, little is known about genomic diversity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus)...
  7. Prüfer K, Munch K, Hellmann I, Akagi K, Miller J, Walenz B, et al. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes. Nature. 2012;486:527-31 pubmed publisher
    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus)...
  8. Fischer A, Prüfer K, Good J, Halbwax M, Wiebe V, André C, et al. Bonobos fall within the genomic variation of chimpanzees. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21605 pubmed publisher
  9. Stone A, Griffiths R, Zegura S, Hammer M. High levels of Y-chromosome nucleotide diversity in the genus Pan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:43-8 pubmed
    ..chromosome, and autosomal sequence diversity data are available for our closest relatives, Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus, data from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) are more limited...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Bräuer J, Kaminski J, Riedel J, Call J, Tomasello M. Making inferences about the location of hidden food: social dog, causal ape. J Comp Psychol. 2006;120:38-47 pubmed
    ..This result is discussed in terms of apes' adaptations for complex, extractive foraging and dogs' adaptations, during the domestication process, for cooperative communication with humans. ..
  2. Hohmann G, Fruth B. New records on prey capture and meat eating by bonobos at Lui Kotale, Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2008;79:103-10 pubmed
    Compared to data from chimpanzees, observations on prey capture and meat eating by bonobos (Pan paniscus) are still rare, fragmentary and anecdotal...
  3. Palagi E. Social play in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implications for natural social systems and interindividual relationships. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006;129:418-26 pubmed
  4. Zimmermann F, Zemke F, Call J, Gomez J. Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) point to inform a human about the location of a tool. Anim Cogn. 2009;12:347-58 pubmed publisher
  5. Rosati A, Hare B. Chimpanzees and bonobos distinguish between risk and ambiguity. Biol Lett. 2011;7:15-8 pubmed publisher
    ..behaviour, we examined whether our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), share this bias against ambiguity...
  6. Reinartz G, Karron J, Phillips R, Weber J. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes). Mol Ecol. 2000;9:315-28 pubmed
    The endangered great ape, Pan paniscus (bonobo) has the smallest range of the African apes...
  7. Becquet C, Patterson N, Stone A, Przeworski M, Reich D. Genetic structure of chimpanzee populations. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e66 pubmed
    ..The data also provide historical insights, demonstrating that the western chimpanzee population diverged first, and that the eastern and central populations are more closely related in time. ..
  8. Mendes N, Rakoczy H, Call J. Ape metaphysics: object individuation without language. Cognition. 2008;106:730-49 pubmed
    ..It remains to be seen, however, whether this kind of object individuation requires sortal concepts as human linguistic thinkers use them, or whether some simpler form of tracking properties is sufficient...
  9. Paoli T, Palagi E, Tacconi G, Tarli S. Perineal swelling, intermenstrual cycle, and female sexual behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am J Primatol. 2006;68:333-47 pubmed
    Many reports have claimed that the duration of the swelling cycle in female bonobos (Pan paniscus) is longer than that of chimpanzees, and that the bonobo maximum swelling phase is markedly prolonged...
  10. Behringer V, Hohmann G, Stevens J, Weltring A, Deschner T. Adrenarche in bonobos (Pan paniscus): evidence from ontogenetic changes in urinary dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..If applicable to other species, the technique would facilitate more research on the evolutionary origin of adrenarche and other developmental processes. ..
  11. Herrmann E, Keupp S, Hare B, Vaish A, Tomasello M. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol. 2013;127:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes...
  12. Vlamings P, Uher J, Call J. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed contingency task: the effects of food quantity and food visibility. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2006;32:60-70 pubmed
    ..The authors compared the performance of 4 great ape species (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) on the reversed contingency task while manipulating food quantity (0-4 or 1-4) and food ..
  13. Watkins P, Moser A, Toomer C, Steinberg S, Moser H, Karaman M, et al. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions. BMC Physiol. 2010;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism...
  14. Tan J, Hare B. Bonobos share with strangers. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e51922 pubmed publisher
    ..Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts...
  15. Mulcahy N, Call J. The performance of bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in two versions of an object-choice task. J Comp Psychol. 2009;123:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors suggest several possibilities to account for this difference and discuss our findings in relation to previous and future object-choice research...
  16. Hopkins W, Lyn H, Cantalupo C. Volumetric and lateralized differences in selected brain regions of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am J Primatol. 2009;71:988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the two species of Pan are quite similar neurologically, though some volumetric and lateralized differences may reflect inherent differences in social organization, cognition and motor skills...
  17. Demuru E, Palagi E. In bonobos yawn contagion is higher among kin and friends. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49613 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, for the first time, we show the capacity of bonobos (Pan paniscus) to respond to yawns of conspecifics...
  18. Wobber V, Hare B, Maboto J, Lipson S, Wrangham R, Ellison P. Differential changes in steroid hormones before competition in bonobos and chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..this hypothesis by presenting humans' closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), with a dyadic food competition and measuring their salivary testosterone and cortisol levels...
  19. Eriksson J, Hohmann G, Boesch C, Vigilant L. Rivers influence the population genetic structure of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Mol Ecol. 2004;13:3425-35 pubmed
  20. Pika S, Liebal K, Tomasello M. Gestural communication in subadult bonobos (Pan paniscus): repertoire and use. Am J Primatol. 2005;65:39-61 pubmed
    This article aims to provide an inventory of the communicative gestures used by bonobos (Pan paniscus), based on observations of subadult bonobos and descriptions of gestural signals and similar behaviors in wild and captive bonobo groups...
  21. Suda C, Call J. Piagetian conservation of discrete quantities in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Anim Cogn. 2005;8:220-35 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that at least bonobos could benefit from the discreteness of stimuli in their acquisition of conservation skills...
  22. Call J. Inferences about the location of food in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus). J Comp Psychol. 2004;118:232-41 pubmed
    Bonobos (Pan paniscus; n = 4), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 12), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla; n = 8), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; n = 6) were presented with 2 cups (1 baited) and given visual or auditory information about their ..
  23. Hey J. The divergence of chimpanzee species and subspecies as revealed in multipopulation isolation-with-migration analyses. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:921-33 pubmed publisher
  24. Anderson M, Chapman S, Videan E, Evans E, Fritz J, Stoinski T, et al. Functional evidence for differences in sperm competition in humans and chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;134:274-80 pubmed
  25. Mulcahy N, Call J. Apes save tools for future use. Science. 2006;312:1038-40 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the precursor skills for planning for the future evolved in great apes before 14 million years ago, when all extant great ape species shared a common ancestor...
  26. Stevens J, Vervaecke H, de Vries H, Van Elsacker L. Social structures in Pan paniscus: testing the female bonding hypothesis. Primates. 2006;47:210-7 pubmed
    Based on previous research in captivity, bonobos, Pan paniscus, have been called a female-bonded species. However, genetic and behavioural data indicate that wild females migrate...
  27. Albiach Serrano A, Bugnyar T, Call J. Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pongo abelii) versus corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) in a support task: the effect of pattern and functionality. J Comp Psychol. 2012;126:355-67 pubmed publisher
    Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pong abelii) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) are among the most proficient and flexible tool users in the animal kingdom...
  28. Vitelli A, QUIRION M, Lo C, Misplon J, Grabowska A, Pierantoni A, et al. Vaccination to conserved influenza antigens in mice using a novel Simian adenovirus vector, PanAd3, derived from the bonobo Pan paniscus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55435 pubmed publisher
    ..from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus) has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-..
  29. Palagi E, Paoli T, Tarli S. Reconciliation and consolation in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am J Primatol. 2004;62:15-30 pubmed
    Although reconciliation in bonobos (Pan paniscus) has previously been described, it has not been analyzed heretofore by the postconflict (PC) match-control (MC) method...
  30. Johnson Pynn J, Fragaszy D, Hirsh E, Brakke K, Greenfield P. Strategies used to combine seriated cups by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and capuchins (Cebus apella). J Comp Psychol. 1999;113:137-48 pubmed
    ..Success in this task suggests that sensorimotor versions of hierarchically organized combinatorial activity are well within apes' and monkeys' abilities...
  31. Martin Ordas G, Haun D, Colmenares F, Call J. Keeping track of time: evidence for episodic-like memory in great apes. Anim Cogn. 2010;13:331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Chimpanzees' and bonobos' performance in the temporal encoding task was age-dependent, following an inverted U-shaped distribution. The age had no effect on the performance of the subjects in the task that required no temporal encoding...
  32. Prado Martinez J, Sudmant P, Kidd J, Li H, Kelley J, Lorente Galdos B, et al. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature. 2013;499:471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive catalogue of great ape genome diversity provides a framework for understanding evolution and a resource for more effective management of wild and captive great ape populations. ..
  33. McIntyre M, Herrmann E, Wobber V, Halbwax M, Mohamba C, de Sousa N, et al. Bonobos have a more human-like second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D) than chimpanzees: a hypothesized indication of lower prenatal androgens. J Hum Evol. 2009;56:361-5 pubmed publisher
    ..2D:4D has not been studied in the closest living human relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus)...
  34. Furuichi T. Female contributions to the peaceful nature of bonobo society. Evol Anthropol. 2011;20:131-42 pubmed publisher
    Although chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are closely related, females of the two species show surprisingly large differences in many behavioral aspects...
  35. Lear T, Houck M, Zhang Y, Debnar L, Sutherland Smith M, Young L, et al. Trisomy 17 in a bonobo (Pan paniscus) and deletion of 3q in a lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): comparison with human trisomy 18 and human deletion 4q syndrome. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;95:228-33 pubmed
    A female bonobo (Pan paniscus) born at the San Diego Zoo exhibited inability to nurse and progressive weakness plus multiple congenital abnormalities including aural canal atresia and stenosis, malformed auricles, clenched hands, lordosis,..
  36. Mitteroecker P, Gunz P, Bookstein F. Heterochrony and geometric morphometrics: a comparison of cranial growth in Pan paniscus versus Pan troglodytes. Evol Dev. 2005;7:244-58 pubmed
    ..We exemplify a geometric morphometric approach to these issues using adult and subadult crania of 48 Pan paniscus and 47 Pan troglodytes specimens...
  37. Eriksson J, Siedel H, Lukas D, Kayser M, Erler A, Hashimoto C, et al. Y-chromosome analysis confirms highly sex-biased dispersal and suggests a low male effective population size in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Mol Ecol. 2006;15:939-49 pubmed
    ..40,000-45,000). For humans the difference is merely a factor of two, suggesting a more stable demographic history in bonobos in comparison to humans...
  38. Suda C, Call J. Piagetian liquid conservation in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, and Pongo pygmaeus). J Comp Psychol. 2004;118:265-79 pubmed
    An understanding of Piagetian liquid conservation was investigated in 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), 5 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and 5 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)...
  39. Palagi E, Paoli T. Play in adult bonobos (Pan paniscus): modality and potential meaning. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;134:219-25 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that bonobos with their egalitarian society, peculiar social structure, and playful tendency represent an attractive testing subject to examine empirically many emerging hypotheses on adult play behavior...
  40. Pika S, Zuberbuhler K. Social games between bonobos and humans: evidence for shared intentionality?. Am J Primatol. 2008;70:207-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we report observations of bonobos (Pan paniscus) engaging in social games with a human playmate...
  41. Karaman M, Houck M, Chemnick L, Nagpal S, Chawannakul D, Sudano D, et al. Comparative analysis of gene-expression patterns in human and African great ape cultured fibroblasts. Genome Res. 2003;13:1619-30 pubmed
    ..These gene-expression patterns could represent molecular adaptations that influenced the development of species-specific traits in humans and the African great apes...
  42. Heilbronner S, Rosati A, Stevens J, Hare B, Hauser M. A fruit in the hand or two in the bush? Divergent risk preferences in chimpanzees and bonobos. Biol Lett. 2008;4:246-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we experimentally examined risk-sensitive behaviour in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), closely related species whose distinct ecologies are thought to be the major selective force shaping their ..
  43. Völter C, Call J. Problem solving in great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo abelii): the effect of visual feedback. Anim Cogn. 2012;15:923-36 pubmed publisher
    ..As the crank task matches the basic requirements of vertical string pulling in birds, the present results are discussed in light of recent findings with corvids...
  44. Amici F, Aureli F, Call J. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings confirmed that enhanced inhibitory skills are positively associated with FF dynamics, more than to phylogenetic relations or feeding ecology...
  45. Marvan R, Stevens J, Roeder A, Mazura I, Bruford M, de Ruiter J. Male dominance rank, mating and reproductive success in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatol (Basel). 2006;77:364-76 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that either sperm competition operates and/or ovulation is decoupled from the phase of maximal anogenital swelling which could allow greater female choice...
  46. Clay Z, Pika S, Gruber T, Zuberbuhler K. Female bonobos use copulation calls as social signals. Biol Lett. 2011;7:513-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated copulation calling in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a species in which females produce these vocalizations during sexual interactions with partners of both sexes...
  47. Herrmann E, Wobber V, Call J. Great apes' (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experience. J Comp Psychol. 2008;122:220-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated this question by presenting 171 apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) with several tool-use problems without giving them initial training or ..
  48. Griffin N, D Août K, Richmond B, Gordon A, Aerts P. Comparative in vivo forefoot kinematics of Homo sapiens and Pan paniscus. J Hum Evol. 2010;59:608-19 pubmed publisher
    ..excursions of the medial metatarsophalangeal joints in habitually shod/unshod adult humans and adult bonobos (Pan paniscus)...
  49. Jaeggi A, Stevens J, van Schaik C. Tolerant food sharing and reciprocity is precluded by despotism among bonobos but not chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;143:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a shallow dominance hierarchy was a necessary precondition for the evolution of human-like reciprocal food sharing...
  50. Wegmann D, Excoffier L. Bayesian inference of the demographic history of chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1425-35 pubmed publisher
  51. Herrmann E, Hare B, Call J, Tomasello M. Differences in the cognitive skills of bonobos and chimpanzees. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12438 pubmed publisher
    ..These species differences support the role of ecological and socio-ecological pressures in shaping cognitive skills over relatively short periods of evolutionary time...
  52. Surbeck M, Deschner T, Weltring A, Hohmann G. Social correlates of variation in urinary cortisol in wild male bonobos (Pan paniscus). Horm Behav. 2012;62:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are interesting because males form a linear dominance hierarchy but are not dominant over females and ..
  53. Krief S, Escalante A, Pacheco M, Mugisha L, André C, Halbwax M, et al. On the diversity of malaria parasites in African apes and the origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000765 pubmed publisher
    ..schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus). We obtained sequences of the parasites' mitochondrial genomes and/or from two nuclear genes from 14 samples...
  54. Lieberman D, Carlo J, Ponce De Leon M, Zollikofer C. A geometric morphometric analysis of heterochrony in the cranium of chimpanzees and bonobos. J Hum Evol. 2007;52:647-62 pubmed
    ..study reexamines the issue by comparing the ontogeny of cranial shape in cross-sectional samples of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using both internal and external 3D landmarks digitized from CT scans...
  55. Pelé M, Dufour V, Thierry B, Call J. Token transfers among great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Pan troglodytes): species differences, gestural requests, and reciprocal exchange. J Comp Psychol. 2009;123:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token-exchange task involving two conspecifics and a human ..
  56. Boughner J, Dean M. Does space in the jaw influence the timing of molar crown initiation? A model using baboons (Papio anubis) and great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus). J Hum Evol. 2004;46:255-77 pubmed
    ..and three-dimensional (3D) coordinate landmark data taken from baboon (Papio anubis n=51) and great ape (Pan paniscus n=43, P. troglodytes n=60) mandibles and permanent molars across a broad developmental range for each taxon...
  57. Fischer A, Pollack J, Thalmann O, Nickel B, Paabo S. Demographic history and genetic differentiation in apes. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1133-8 pubmed
  58. Balzeau A, Gilissen E. Endocranial shape asymmetries in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla assessed via skull based landmark analysis. J Hum Evol. 2010;59:54-69 pubmed publisher
    ..for the first time in three dimensions the positions of frontal and occipital protrusions in large samples of Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla...
  59. Furuichi T. Factors underlying party size differences between chimpanzees and bonobos: a review and hypotheses for future study. Primates. 2009;50:197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..females have been primary topics in socio-ecological comparisons of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus)...
  60. Rosati A, Stevens J, Hare B, Hauser M. The evolutionary origins of human patience: temporal preferences in chimpanzees, bonobos, and human adults. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1663-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of a series of experimental results, we reject this conclusion. First, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) exhibit a degree of patience not seen in other animals tested thus far...
  61. Mulcahy N, Call J. How great apes perform on a modified trap-tube task. Anim Cogn. 2006;9:193-9 pubmed
    ..We presented five orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), two bonobos (Pan paniscus), and one gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) with a modified trap tube that allowed subjects to push or rake the reward ..
  62. Uher J, Call J. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed reward contingency task II: transfer to new quantities, long-term retention, and the impact of quantity ratios. J Comp Psychol. 2008;122:204-12 pubmed publisher
    We tested 6 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 3 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 2 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the reversed reward contingency task...
  63. Suddendorf T. Behavior. Foresight and evolution of the human mind. Science. 2006;312:1006-7 pubmed
  64. Call J. Inferences by exclusion in the great apes: the effect of age and species. Anim Cogn. 2006;9:393-403 pubmed
    ..Results suggested a positive relationship between age and inferential ability independent of memory ability but no species differences...
  65. Yu N, Jensen Seaman M, Chemnick L, Kidd J, Deinard A, Ryder O, et al. Low nucleotide diversity in chimpanzees and bonobos. Genetics. 2003;164:1511-8 pubmed
    ..Sequence data from this article have been deposited with the GenBank Data libraries under accession nos. AY 275957-AY 277244...
  66. Mailund T, Halager A, Westergaard M, Dutheil J, Munch K, Andersen L, et al. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003125 pubmed publisher
    ..We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation. ..
  67. Vereecke E, D Août K, De Clercq D, Van Elsacker L, Aerts P. Dynamic plantar pressure distribution during terrestrial locomotion of bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2003;120:373-83 pubmed
    ..We observed a varus position of the foot with an abducted hallux, which likely possesses an important sustaining and stabilizing function during terrestrial locomotion...
  68. Anderson J. Animal behavior: tolerant primates cooperate best. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R242-4 pubmed
    ..Chimpanzees and bonobos show different cooperative tendencies when the prize is easily monopolizable food: bonobos cooperate more than their less socially tolerant relatives...
  69. Bolter D, Zihlman A. Skeletal development in Pan paniscus with comparisons to Pan troglodytes. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;147:629-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Much less is known about the sister species, Pan paniscus, with few in captivity and a wild range restricted to central Africa...
  70. Helme A, Call J, Clayton N, Emery N. What do bonobos (Pan paniscus) understand about physical contact?. J Comp Psychol. 2006;120:294-302 pubmed
    The present study aimed to test what bonobos (Pan paniscus) understand about contact. The task consisted of a clear horizontal tube containing a piece of food and a stick with a disk attached...
  71. Surbeck M, Mundry R, Hohmann G. Mothers matter! Maternal support, dominance status and mating success in male bonobos (Pan paniscus). Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:590-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of female support to unrelated males suggests that mothers gain indirect fitness benefits by supporting their sons...
  72. Caswell J, Mallick S, Richter D, Neubauer J, Schirmer C, Gnerre S, et al. Analysis of chimpanzee history based on genome sequence alignments. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000057 pubmed publisher
    ..Study of such loci should provide information about the period of time 5-7 million years ago when the ancestors of humans separated from those of the chimpanzees...
  73. Surbeck M, Fowler A, Deimel C, Hohmann G. Evidence for the consumption of arboreal, diurnal primates by bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am J Primatol. 2009;71:171-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The digit of an immature black mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) was found in the fresh feces of a bonobo (Pan paniscus) at the Lui Kotale study site, Democratic Republic of Congo...
  74. Hanus D, Call J. Discrete quantity judgments in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus): the effect of presenting whole sets versus item-by-item. J Comp Psychol. 2007;121:241-9 pubmed
    ..well as for sequentially dropped items in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)...
  75. Deschner T, Kratzsch J, Hohmann G. Urinary C-peptide as a method for monitoring body mass changes in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Horm Behav. 2008;54:620-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the results of a food restriction experiment carried out in a group of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus)...