gorilla gorilla

Summary

Summary: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.

Top Publications

  1. Uher J, Call J. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed reward contingency task II: transfer to new quantities, long-term retention, and the impact of quantity ratios. J Comp Psychol. 2008;122:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..6 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 3 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 2 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the reversed reward contingency task...
  2. Takehisa J, Kraus M, Ayouba A, Bailes E, Van Heuverswyn F, Decker J, et al. Origin and biology of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild-living western gorillas. J Virol. 2009;83:1635-48 pubmed publisher
    Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are infected with a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVgor) that is closely related to chimpanzee and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpz and HIV-1, respectively) in west central ..
  3. Rothman J, Dierenfeld E, Hintz H, Pell A. Nutritional quality of gorilla diets: consequences of age, sex, and season. Oecologia. 2008;155:111-22 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of the relative importance of food quantity and quality for different age-sex classes provides insights into the ways in which gorillas may be limited by food resources when faced with environmental heterogeneity. ..
  4. Yang Z. A likelihood ratio test of speciation with gene flow using genomic sequence data. Genome Biol Evol. 2010;2:200-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The test is applied to genomic data from the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla. ..
  5. Vogel G. Conservation. Scientists say Ebola has pushed western gorillas to the brink. Science. 2007;317:1484 pubmed
  6. Liu W, Li Y, Learn G, Rudicell R, Robertson J, Keele B, et al. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas. Nature. 2010;467:420-5 pubmed publisher
    ..central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus)...
  7. Bermejo M, Rodríguez Teijeiro J, Illera G, Barroso A, Vila C, Walsh P. Ebola outbreak killed 5000 gorillas. Science. 2006;314:1564 pubmed
    ..The lag between neighboring gorilla groups in mortality onset was close to the ZEBOV disease cycle length, evidence that group-to-group transmission has amplified gorilla die-offs...
  8. Dutheil J, Ganapathy G, Hobolth A, Mailund T, Uyenoyama M, Schierup M. Ancestral population genomics: the coalescent hidden Markov model approach. Genetics. 2009;183:259-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that this framework will prove useful for population genomics and provide exciting insights into genome evolution. ..
  9. Herrmann E, Keupp S, Hare B, Vaish A, Tomasello M. Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol. 2013;127:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Leroy E, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, Rouquet P, Hassanin A, Yaba P, et al. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature. 2005;438:575-6 pubmed
    ..We find evidence of asymptomatic infection by Ebola virus in three species of fruit bat, indicating that these animals may be acting as a reservoir for this deadly virus...
  2. Harvala H, Sharp C, Ngole E, Delaporte E, Peeters M, Simmonds P. Detection and genetic characterization of enteroviruses circulating among wild populations of chimpanzees in Cameroon: relationship with human and simian enteroviruses. J Virol. 2011;85:4480-6 pubmed publisher
  3. Balzeau A, Gilissen E. Endocranial shape asymmetries in Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla assessed via skull based landmark analysis. J Hum Evol. 2010;59:54-69 pubmed publisher
    ..the positions of frontal and occipital protrusions in large samples of Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla. This study confirms the existence of frontal and occipital petalias in African apes...
  4. Ryan S, Walsh P. Consequences of non-intervention for infectious disease in African great apes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29030 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss and evaluate non-interventionist responses such as limiting tourist access to apes, community health programs, and safety, logistic, and cost issues that constrain the potential of vaccination. ..
  5. Mulcahy N, Call J. How great apes perform on a modified trap-tube task. Anim Cogn. 2006;9:193-9 pubmed
    ..orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), two bonobos (Pan paniscus), and one gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) with a modified trap tube that allowed subjects to push or rake the reward with the tool...
  6. Lankester F, Mätz Rensing K, Kiyang J, Jensen S, Weiss S, Leendertz F. Fatal ulcerative colitis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Med Primatol. 2008;37:297-302 pubmed publisher
    A captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) presented with watery diarrhoea that progressed to become profuse and haemorrhagic. Faecal analyses revealed Balantidium (B.) coli trophozoites and salmonella-like bacteria...
  7. Walsh P, Breuer T, Sanz C, Morgan D, Doran Sheehy D. Potential for Ebola transmission between gorilla and chimpanzee social groups. Am Nat. 2007;169:684-9 pubmed
    ..These observations support a reassessment of ape-to-ape transmission as an amplifier of Ebola outbreaks...
  8. Palagi E, Antonacci D, Cordoni G. Fine-tuning of social play in juvenile lowland gorillas (gorilla gorilla gorilla). Dev Psychobiol. 2007;49:433-45 pubmed
    ..The ability to interpret such ambiguous features of social signaling could represent a central issue in the evolution of behavioral flexibility and intelligence in primates...
  9. Poss S, Kuhar C, Stoinski T, Hopkins W. Differential use of attentional and visual communicative signaling by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in response to the attentional status of a human. Am J Primatol. 2006;68:978-92 pubmed
    ..the communicative abilities of 10 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and seven western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and particularly focused on their sensitivity to the attentional state of a human experimenter when ..
  10. Barth J, Call J. Tracking the displacement of objects: a series of tasks with great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) and young children (Homo sapiens). J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2006;32:239-52 pubmed
    ..in which chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) performed better than gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (Pongo pygmeaus). All species found nonadjacent trials and rotations especially difficult...
  11. Breuer T, Robbins M, Boesch C. Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;134:369-82 pubmed
    ..Further studies should examine if these sexually dimorphic traits are honest signals of competitive ability and confer an advantage in reproductive success...
  12. Masi S, Cipolletta C, Robbins M. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory. Am J Primatol. 2009;71:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G...
  13. Plantier J, Leoz M, Dickerson J, de Oliveira F, Cordonnier F, Lemée V, et al. A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas. Nat Med. 2009;15:871-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This new virus seems to be the prototype of a new HIV-1 lineage that is distinct from HIV-1 groups M, N and O. We propose to designate it HIV-1 group P...
  14. Bergl R, Vigilant L. Genetic analysis reveals population structure and recent migration within the highly fragmented range of the Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli). Mol Ecol. 2007;16:501-16 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate population structure in the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) by applying a suite of individual-based analyses to data obtained from between one-quarter and one-..
  15. Hobolth A, Christensen O, Mailund T, Schierup M. Genomic relationships and speciation times of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla inferred from a coalescent hidden Markov model. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e7 pubmed
  16. Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Neel C, Bailes E, Keele B, Liu W, et al. Human immunodeficiency viruses: SIV infection in wild gorillas. Nature. 2006;444:164 pubmed
    ..Here we report the discovery of HIV-1 group O-like viruses in wild gorillas...
  17. Thalmann O, Fischer A, Lankester F, Paabo S, Vigilant L. The complex evolutionary history of gorillas: insights from genomic data. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:146-58 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used samples from both western (Gorilla gorilla) and eastern (Gorilla beringei) gorillas to infer the timing of the split between these geographically ..
  18. Ventura M, Catacchio C, Alkan C, Marques Bonet T, Sajjadian S, Graves T, et al. Gorilla genome structural variation reveals evolutionary parallelisms with chimpanzee. Genome Res. 2011;21:1640-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis suggests that the chimpanzee and gorilla genomes are structurally more derived than either orangutan or human genomes...
  19. Palacios G, Lowenstine L, Cranfield M, Gilardi K, Spelman L, Lukasik Braum M, et al. Human metapneumovirus infection in wild mountain gorillas, Rwanda. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:711-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance is needed to ensure survival of these critically endangered animals. ..
  20. Mallavarapu S, Stoinski T, Bloomsmith M, Maple T. Postconflict behavior in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Am J Primatol. 2006;68:789-801 pubmed
    ..PC behavior was not uniform throughout the groups, but rather varied according to dyad type...
  21. Ventura M, Catacchio C, Sajjadian S, Vives L, Sudmant P, Marques Bonet T, et al. The evolution of African great ape subtelomeric heterochromatin and the fusion of human chromosome 2. Genome Res. 2012;22:1036-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the complex interplay between duplicated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements that rapidly alter the cytogenetic landscape in a short period of evolutionary time...
  22. Herrmann E, Wobber V, Call J. Great apes' (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experience. J Comp Psychol. 2008;122:220-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated this question by presenting 171 apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) with several tool-use problems without giving them initial training or familiarizing ..
  23. Mulcahy N, Call J, Dunbar R. Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) encode relevant problem features in a tool-using task. J Comp Psychol. 2005;119:23-32 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated these 2 elements in a task in which gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) had to use a tool to retrieve an out-of-reach reward...
  24. Rouquet P, Froment J, Bermejo M, Kilbourn A, Karesh W, Reed P, et al. Wild animal mortality monitoring and human Ebola outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:283-90 pubmed
    ..Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred...
  25. Lankester F, Kiyang J, Bailey W, Unwin S. Dientamoeba fragilis: initial evidence of pathogenicity in the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:350-2 pubmed
    A 7-yr-old female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) shared an enclosure with 10 other gorillas at the Limbe Wildlife Centre (LWC), a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Cameroon...
  26. Mailund T, Halager A, Westergaard M, Dutheil J, Munch K, Andersen L, et al. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003125 pubmed publisher
    ..We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation. ..
  27. Duval L, Fourment M, Nerrienet E, Rousset D, Sadeuh S, Goodman S, et al. African apes as reservoirs of Plasmodium falciparum and the origin and diversification of the Laverania subgenus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..If malignant malaria were eradicated from human populations, chimpanzees, in addition to gorillas, might serve as a reservoir for P. falciparum...
  28. Walsh P, Biek R, Real L. Wave-like spread of Ebola Zaire. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e371 pubmed
    ..Controlling the impact of Ebola on wild apes and human populations may be more feasible than previously recognized...
  29. Mitteroecker P, Bookstein F. The evolutionary role of modularity and integration in the hominoid cranium. Evolution. 2008;62:943-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In a sample comprising 157 crania of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla, we statistically estimated common and local factors of shape variation from Procrustes coordinates of 347 ..
  30. Martin Ordas G, Call J, Colmenares F. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks. Anim Cogn. 2008;11:423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a larger sample of subjects than in previous studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus)...
  31. Hopkin M. Gorillas on the list. Nature. 2007;449:127 pubmed
  32. Cray J, Meindl R, Sherwood C, Lovejoy C. Ectocranial suture closure in Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla: pattern and phylogeny. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;136:394-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine if the modal progression of suture closure differs among Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla. Because DNA sequence homologies strongly suggest that P...
  33. Hanus D, Call J. Discrete quantity judgments in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus): the effect of presenting whole sets versus item-by-item. J Comp Psychol. 2007;121:241-9 pubmed
    ..sequential whole sets as well as for sequentially dropped items in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)...
  34. Pelé M, Dufour V, Thierry B, Call J. Token transfers among great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Pan troglodytes): species differences, gestural requests, and reciprocal exchange. J Comp Psychol. 2009;123:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Spontaneous exchange of goods between them has not yet been reported. We tested gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a token-exchange ..
  35. Wevers D, Leendertz F, Scuda N, Boesch C, Robbins M, Head J, et al. A novel adenovirus of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Virol J. 2010;7:303 pubmed publisher
    ..The mixed phylogenetic clusters of gorilla, chimpanzee, bonobo and human AdVs within the HAdV-B species indicate that host switches may have been a component of the evolution of human and non-human primate HAdV-B viruses...
  36. Breuer T, Hockemba M, Olejniczak C, Parnell R, Stokes E. Physical maturation, life-history classes and age estimates of free-ranging western gorillas--insights from Mbeli Bai, Republic of Congo. Am J Primatol. 2009;71:106-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We emphasize that long-term studies can provide crucial demographic and life-history data that improve our understanding of life-history evolution and adaptation and help to refine conservation strategies...
  37. Hanus D, Mendes N, Tennie C, Call J. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the floating peanut task. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19555 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the oldest group (8 years), 58 percent of the children solved the problem, whereas in the youngest group (4 years), only 8 percent were able to find the solution...
  38. Caillaud D, Levrero F, Cristescu R, Gatti S, Dewas M, Douadi M, et al. Gorilla susceptibility to Ebola virus: the cost of sociality. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R489-91 pubmed
  39. Klee S, Ozel M, Appel B, Boesch C, Ellerbrok H, Jacob D, et al. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Cote d'Ivoire and Cameroon. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:5333-44 pubmed
    ..We propose that the newly discovered atypical B. anthracis strains share a common ancestor with classic B. anthracis or that they emerged recently by transfer of the B. anthracis plasmids to a strain of the B. cereus group...
  40. Levrero F, Gatti S, Menard N, Petit E, Caillaud D, Gautier Hion A. Living in nonbreeding groups: an alternative strategy for maturing gorillas. Am J Primatol. 2006;68:275-91 pubmed
    ..The dynamics of NBGs are not well known. In this study, which was conducted on a gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) of 377 individuals that visited the Lokoué clearing in the Republic of Congo, we detail how the ..
  41. Bronikowski A, Altmann J, Brockman D, Cords M, Fedigan L, Pusey A, et al. Aging in the natural world: comparative data reveal similar mortality patterns across primates. Science. 2011;331:1325-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that mortality patterns in primates are shaped by local selective forces rather than phylogenetic history...
  42. Baitchman E, Calle P, Clippinger T, Deem S, James S, Raphael B, et al. Preliminary evaluation of blood lipid profiles in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006;37:126-9 pubmed
    Published serum cholesterol values in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are much higher than human ranges, with a national mean of 7.36 mmol/L (284 mg/dl, n = 863)...
  43. Hepper P, Wells D. Olfactory discrimination in the western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla. Primates. 2012;53:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No dishabituation was noted when using water as the stimulus across all trials or when used as the novel odour. Overall, results show that gorillas are able to discriminate between odours...
  44. Scally A, Dutheil J, Hillier L, Jordan G, Goodhead I, Herrero J, et al. Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence. Nature. 2012;483:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution. ..
  45. Vlamings P, Uher J, Call J. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed contingency task: the effects of food quantity and food visibility. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2006;32:60-70 pubmed
    ..authors compared the performance of 4 great ape species (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, and Gorilla gorilla) on the reversed contingency task while manipulating food quantity (0-4 or 1-4) and food visibility (visible ..
  46. Bräuer J, Call J, Tomasello M. All great ape species follow gaze to distant locations and around barriers. J Comp Psychol. 2005;119:145-54 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that great apes do not just orient to a target that another is oriented to, but they actually attempt to take the visual perspective of the other...
  47. Kuehl H, Todd A, Boesch C, Walsh P. Manipulating decay time for efficient large-mammal density estimation: gorillas and dung height. Ecol Appl. 2007;17:2403-14 pubmed
    ..Further research is necessary to evaluate whether the temporal bias inherent in such an approach is small enough to ignore, given the 10-20-fold increases in precision promised by a PDR approach...
  48. Bergl R, Bradley B, Nsubuga A, Vigilant L. Effects of habitat fragmentation, population size and demographic history on genetic diversity: the Cross River gorilla in a comparative context. Am J Primatol. 2008;70:848-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed genetic variability in the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli), a small and fragmented population, using 11 autosomal microsatellite loci...
  49. Ackermann R, Bishop J. Morphological and molecular evidence reveals recent hybridization between gorilla taxa. Evolution. 2010;64:271-90 pubmed publisher
  50. Palagi E, Chiarugi E, Cordoni G. Peaceful post-conflict interactions between aggressors and bystanders in captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Am J Primatol. 2008;70:949-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest that bystanders decide when a peaceful contact may be too risky; in fact, neither PPIAB nor PPIVB occurred after high-intensity aggressions...
  51. Genty E, Breuer T, Hobaiter C, Byrne R. Gestural communication of the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla): repertoire, intentionality and possible origins. Anim Cogn. 2009;12:527-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Gorilla gestures are not, however, inflexible signals but are employed for intentional communication to specific individuals...
  52. Vlčková K, Mrazek J, Kopecny J, Petrzelkova K. Evaluation of different storage methods to characterize the fecal bacterial communities of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Microbiol Methods. 2012;91:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal samples from 11 captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from three Czech Zoos were stored using freezing, RNA Stabilization Reagent (RNAlater), and 96% ..
  53. Genton C, Cristescu R, Gatti S, Levrero F, Bigot E, Caillaud D, et al. Recovery potential of a western lowland gorilla population following a major Ebola outbreak: results from a ten year study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37106 pubmed publisher
    ..outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations...
  54. Albiach Serrano A, Bugnyar T, Call J. Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pongo abelii) versus corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) in a support task: the effect of pattern and functionality. J Comp Psychol. 2012;126:355-67 pubmed publisher
    Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pong abelii) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) are among the most proficient and flexible tool users in the animal kingdom...
  55. Marquez M, Serafin A, Fernández Bellon H, Serrat S, Ferrer Admetlla A, Bertranpetit J, et al. Neuropathologic findings in an aged albino gorilla. Vet Pathol. 2008;45:531-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing of the gorilla PANK2 gene failed to detect any mutation. The clinical, neuropathologic, and genetic findings in this gorilla point to an age-related pallido-nigral degeneration that presented PKAN-like neurologic deficits...
  56. Rwego I, Isabirye Basuta G, Gillespie T, Goldberg T. Gastrointestinal bacterial transmission among humans, mountain gorillas, and livestock in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conserv Biol. 2008;22:1600-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We collected Escherichia coli bacteria from humans, livestock, and mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, from May to August 2005 to examine whether habitat ..
  57. Yamagiwa J, Kahekwa J, Basabose A. Infanticide and social flexibility in the genus Gorilla. Primates. 2009;50:293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid changes in density of gorilla social units and their relations following drastic environmental changes caused by recent human disturbances may also increase the probability of infanticide...
  58. Leendertz F, Lankester F, Guislain P, Neel C, Drori O, Dupain J, et al. Anthrax in Western and Central African great apes. Am J Primatol. 2006;68:928-33 pubmed
    ..January 2005, Bacillus anthracis killed three wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and one gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in a tropical forest in Cameroon...
  59. Posada S, Colell M. Another gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) recognizes himself in a mirror. Am J Primatol. 2007;69:576-83 pubmed
    Various attempts have been made to explain why gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) find it difficult to recognize their mirror image...
  60. Sharp C, LeBreton M, Kantola K, Nana A, Diffo J, Djoko C, et al. Widespread infection with homologues of human parvoviruses B19, PARV4, and human bocavirus of chimpanzees and gorillas in the wild. J Virol. 2010;84:10289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first evidence for widespread circulation of parvoviruses in primates and enables future investigations of their epidemiology, host specificity, and (co)evolutionary histories...
  61. Douadi M, Gatti S, Levrero F, Duhamel G, Bermejo M, Vallet D, et al. Sex-biased dispersal in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Mol Ecol. 2007;16:2247-59 pubmed
    ..hypotheses related to potential differences between sexes in dispersal behaviour in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)...
  62. Becquet C, Przeworski M. A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apes. Genome Res. 2007;17:1505-19 pubmed
    ..Similarly, Eastern and Western gorillas and Sumatran and Bornean orangutans appear to have experienced gene flow since their splits approximately 90 and over 250 Kya, respectively...
  63. Mendes N, Rakoczy H, Call J. Ape metaphysics: object individuation without language. Cognition. 2008;106:730-49 pubmed
    ..It remains to be seen, however, whether this kind of object individuation requires sortal concepts as human linguistic thinkers use them, or whether some simpler form of tracking properties is sufficient...
  64. Vlamings P, Hare B, Call J. Reaching around barriers: the performance of the great apes and 3-5-year-old children. Anim Cogn. 2010;13:273-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the performance of the older children was far from perfect and comparable to some of the nonhuman apes tested...
  65. Doran Sheehy D, Mongo P, Lodwick J, Conklin Brittain N. Male and female western gorilla diet: preferred foods, use of fallback resources, and implications for ape versus old world monkey foraging strategies. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;140:727-38 pubmed publisher
    Most of what is currently known about western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) diet is based on indirect studies using fecal samples and trail signs rather than measures based on direct observations...
  66. Watkins P, Moser A, Toomer C, Steinberg S, Moser H, Karaman M, et al. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions. BMC Physiol. 2010;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism...
  67. Langergraber K, Prüfer K, Rowney C, Boesch C, Crockford C, Fawcett K, et al. Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15716-21 pubmed
    ..This suggests that molecular divergence dates may not be in conflict with the attribution of 6- to 7-million-y-old fossils to the human lineage and 400,000-y-old fossils to the Neanderthal lineage...
  68. Shutt K, Setchell J, Heistermann M. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress in the Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): validation of a fecal glucocorticoid assay and methods for practical application in the field. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;179:167-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In preparation for a field study of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Central African Republic we used samples from captive gorillas collected around opportunistic ..