Summary: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the forests of Africa and Asia. The genera COLOBUS (Procolobus; colobus), Nasalis (proboscis monkey), Presbytis (Semnopithecus; leaf monkey), Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus; snub-nosed monkey), and Simias (pig-tailed langur) all belong to this subfamily.

Top Publications

  1. Karanth K. Primate numts and reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys (Primates: Colobinae). J Biosci. 2008;33:761-70 pubmed
    ..Additionally, northeast India appears to be a 'hot spot' for lineages that might have evolved through reticulate evolution...
  2. Liu Z, Ren B, Wu R, Zhao L, Hao Y, Wang B, et al. The effect of landscape features on population genetic structure in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) implies an anthropogenic genetic discontinuity. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:3831-46 pubmed publisher
    ..bieti. Increasing human activity on the Plateau, especially that resulting in habitat fragmentation, is becoming an important factor in shaping the genetic structure and evolutionary potential of species inhabiting this key ecosystem...
  3. Guo S, Li B, Watanabe K. Diet and activity budget of Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, China. Primates. 2007;48:268-76 pubmed
    ..R. roxellana spent more time moving in autumn, when the quality of the food might be highest, and least time moving in winter when the food quality might be lowest. Thus, this type of monkey has a passive foraging strategy...
  4. Bigoni F, Stanyon R, Wimmer R, Schempp W. Chromosome painting shows that the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) has a derived karyotype and is phylogenetically nested within Asian Colobines. Am J Primatol. 2003;60:85-93 pubmed
    ..The hybridization pattern also suggests that Nasalis is nested within Asian Colobines and shares a period of common descent with other Asian colobines after the divergence of Pygathrix...
  5. Li D, Ren B, Grueter C, Li B, Li M. Nocturnal sleeping habits of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey in Xiangguqing, China. Am J Primatol. 2010;72:1092-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Climate and social organization profoundly influence the nocturnal sleeping habits of R. bieti, while huddling behavior may help shield animals from cold nights and provide additional protection against predators...
  6. Osterholz M, Walter L, Roos C. Phylogenetic position of the langur genera Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus among Asian colobines, and genus affiliations of their species groups. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:58 pubmed publisher
    ..To address these issues, mitochondrial and Y chromosomal sequence data were phylogenetically related and combined with presence/absence analyses of retroposon integrations...
  7. Yang M, Yang Y, Cui D, Fickenscher G, Zinner D, Roos C, et al. Population genetic structure of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) as inferred from mitochondrial control region sequences, and comparison with R. roxellana and R. bieti. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;147:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..brelichi might be more vulnerable to environmental changes or climate oscillations than the other two Chinese snub-nosed monkey species. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc...
  8. Wang S, Luo Y, Cui G. Sleeping site selection of Francois's langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) in two habitats in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. Primates. 2011;52:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, water resources may influence choice of sites distant from the river; such sites were used less frequently during water shortages...
  9. Niu K, Tan C, Yang Y. Altitudinal movements of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China: implications for conservation management of a flagship species. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2010;81:233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..brelichi in the reserve...

More Information


  1. Qi X, Yang B, Garber P, Ji W, Watanabe K, Li B. Sexual interference in the Golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana): a test of the sexual competition hypothesis in a polygynous species. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluate the strength of the sexual competition hypothesis and the hormonally modulated aggression hypothesis in explaining patterns of SI in female Golden snub-nosed monkeys...
  2. Matsuda I, Tuuga A, Higashi S. The feeding ecology and activity budget of proboscis monkeys. Am J Primatol. 2009;71:478-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may help contribute to a better understanding of the dietary adaptations and feeding ecology of Asian colobines...
  3. Yang M, Sun D, Zinner D, Roos C. Reproductive parameters in Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi). Am J Primatol. 2009;71:266-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The risk of extinction is therefore particularly high in this species, given the small overall population size and slow population recovery potential...
  4. Zhao D, Ji W, Li B, Watanabe K. Mate competition and reproductive correlates of female dispersal in a polygynous primate species (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Behav Processes. 2008;79:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult female R. roxellana employ various reproductive strategies related to dispersal, which may increase their reproductive success...
  5. Karanth K, Singh L, Collura R, Stewart C. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia (Primates: Colobinae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;46:683-94 pubmed publisher
    The two recently proposed taxonomies of the langurs and leaf monkeys (Subfamily Colobinae) provide different implications to our understanding of the evolution of Nilgiri and purple-faced langurs. Groves (2001) [Groves, C.P., 2001...
  6. Ting N, Tosi A, Li Y, Zhang Y, Disotell T. Phylogenetic incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial markers in the Asian colobines and the evolution of the langurs and leaf monkeys. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;46:466-74 pubmed publisher
    ..this discordance has been well demonstrated in the Cercopithecinae, but has not yet been investigated in the Colobinae. The mitochondrial relationships between the colobine genera have recently been clarified and cluster Presbytis ..
  7. Yu L, Wang X, Ting N, Zhang Y. Mitogenomic analysis of Chinese snub-nosed monkeys: Evidence of positive selection in NADH dehydrogenase genes in high-altitude adaptation. Mitochondrion. 2011;11:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the other members of the subfamily Colobinae (or leaf-eating monkeys), these endangered primates are unique in being adapted to a high altitude environment ..
  8. Roos C, Zinner D, Kubatko L, Schwarz C, Yang M, Meyer D, et al. Nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA: evidence for hybridization in colobine monkeys. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that sex-specific dispersal patterns, promoted by a respective social organization of the species involved, can result in different hybridization scenarios...
  9. Chang Z, Luo M, Liu Z, Yang J, Xiang Z, Li M, et al. Human influence on the population decline and loss of genetic diversity in a small and isolated population of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Genetica. 2012;140:105-14 pubmed
    ..08. Based on our findings, we suggest that the SNR population should be monitored systematically and considered as an important conservation and management unit...
  10. Luo M, Liu Z, Pan H, Zhao L, Li M. Historical geographic dispersal of the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) and the influence of climatic oscillations. Am J Primatol. 2012;74:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Such range shifts involved considerable demographic changes, as revealed in the dramatic decreases in population size during the last 25,000 years...
  11. Sterner K, Raaum R, Zhang Y, Stewart C, Disotell T. Mitochondrial data support an odd-nosed colobine clade. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;40:1-7 pubmed
    ..This phylogenetic information will aid those developing conservation strategies for these highly endangered, diverse, and unique primates...
  12. Wei W, Qi X, Guo S, Zhao D, Zhang P, Huang K, et al. Market powers predict reciprocal grooming in golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36802 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that grooming reciprocation in R. roxellana was discrepancy. This investment-reciprocity rate could be explained by the exchange of other social services in lieu of grooming...
  13. Qi X, Li B, Garber P, Ji W, Watanabe K. Social dynamics of the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana): female transfer and one-male unit succession. Am J Primatol. 2009;71:670-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that golden snub-nosed monkeys are organized in a nonmatrilineal social system. Female mate choice and possibly incest avoidance appear to play important roles in female transfer, male tenure, and OMU stability...
  14. Matsuda I, Tuuga A, Akiyama Y, Higashi S. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia. Am J Primatol. 2008;70:1097-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, sleeping sites locations that offer arboreal escape routes may protect proboscis monkeys from leopard attack...
  15. Matsuda I, Kubo T, Tuuga A, Higashi S. A Bayesian analysis of the temporal change of local density of proboscis monkeys: implications for environmental effects on a multilevel society. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010;142:235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study shows the importance of data analysis that considers the effects of temporal autocorrelation, because the daily measurements of longitudinal data on monkeys are not independent of each other...
  16. Zhang P, Watanabe K, Li B, Tan C. Social organization of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, Central China. Primates. 2006;47:374-82 pubmed
    ..The OMU in the study area were smaller than those in Shennongjia area. The factors influencing the size of these OMU and the entire group are discussed...
  17. Geissmann T, Lwin N, Aung S, Aung T, Aung Z, Hla T, et al. A new species of snub-nosed monkey, genus Rhinopithecus Milne-Edwards, 1872 (Primates, Colobinae), from northern Kachin state, northeastern Myanmar. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data on hunting pressure suggest that the species is Critically Endangered...
  18. Tombak K, Reid A, Chapman C, Rothman J, Johnson C, Reyna Hurtado R. Patch depletion behavior differs between sympatric folivorous primates. Primates. 2012;53:57-64 pubmed publisher
  19. Li M, Liu Z, Gou J, Ren B, Pan R, Su Y, et al. Phylogeography and population structure of the golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana): inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Am J Primatol. 2007;69:1195-209 pubmed
    ..It is likely that recent phylogeographic history has shaped the pattern of genetic differentiation observed in the golden monkey and that its populations have suffered significant demographic fluctuation...
  20. Huang Z, Cui L, Scott M, Wang S, Xiao W. Seasonality of reproduction of wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha, Yunnan, China. Primates. 2012;53:237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..bieti. ..
  21. Kuykendall K, Rae T. Presence of the maxillary sinus in fossil Colobinae (Cercopithecoides williamsi) from South Africa. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:1499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..The developmental plasticity exhibited in this feature, indicated by multiple loss and reemergence, provides further evidence that paranasal pneumatization has undergone a complex history of suppression and expression. ..
  22. Grueter C, Li D, Ren B, Wei F. Choice of analytical method can have dramatic effects on primate home range estimates. Primates. 2009;50:81-4 pubmed publisher
  23. Xiang Z, Huo S, Xiao W. Habitat selection of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Tibet: implications for species conservation. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that over the short term, low-intensity disturbances may result in increased foliage diversity that enable groups of R. bieti to survive in this marginal habitat. ..
  24. Gong Y, Peng M, Zhou W, Zhang Y. Evolution of cd59 gene in mammals. Sci China C Life Sci. 2007;50:773-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, "branch-site-specific" model detected 1 positive site in cd59a and cd59b lineages which underwent accelerated evolution caused by positive selection after gene duplication in mouse. ..
  25. Youlatos D, Koufos G. Locomotor evolution of Mesopithecus (Primates: Colobinae) from Greece: evidence from selected astragalar characters. Primates. 2010;51:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These adaptations could have promoted the dispersal of the genus throughout Eurasia during the latest Miocene and Early Pliocene. ..
  26. Zhao D, Ji W, Watanabe K, Li B. Hand preference during unimanual and bimanual reaching actions in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Am J Primatol. 2008;70:500-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Hand preference for the bimanual action was stable over time, and the strength of hand preference was significantly stronger in the bimanual action than in the unimanual action. ..
  27. Zhang P. [Social network analysis of animal behavioral ecology: a cross-discipline approach]. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2013;34:651-65 pubmed
  28. Yu F, Wu Y, Li T, Cao J, Wang J, Hu S, et al. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi zoonotic genotype D in captive golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellanae) in zoos in China. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:158 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of high prevalence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D and J in golden snub-nosed monkeys suggest that golden snub-nosed monkeys may be the reservoir hosts for human microsporidiosis, and vice versa. ..
  29. Youlatos D, Couette S, Koufos G. A functional multivariate analysis of Mesopithecus (Primates: Colobinae) humeri from the Turolian of Greece. J Hum Evol. 2012;63:219-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the overall arboreal/terrestrial locomotor tendencies of these fossil forms are discussed in relation to their earlier migration from Africa and later dispersal to eastern and southern Asia. ..
  30. Hotter D, Krabbe T, Reith E, Gawanbacht A, Rahm N, Ayouba A, et al. Primate lentiviruses use at least three alternative strategies to suppress NF-?B-mediated immune activation. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006598 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that those of SIVcol and SIVolc infecting Colobinae monkeys showed the highest efficacy in suppressing NF-?B activation...
  31. Tan C, Yang Y, Niu K. Into the night: camera traps reveal nocturnal activity in a presumptive diurnal primate, Rhinopithecus brelichi. Primates. 2013;54:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the advantages of using camera traps in primate studies, and how the standardized use of meridian-based time by researchers would benefit comparisons of diel activity patterns among primates. ..
  32. Zhang P, Li B, Watanabe K, Qi X. Sleeping cluster patterns and retiring behaviors during winter in a free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey. Primates. 2011;52:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The variations in composition of sleeping clusters suggest affiliative patterns at night-sleeping sites differ from those during the day. ..
  33. Spassov N, Geraads D. Dolichopithecus balcanicus sp. nov., a new Colobinae (Primates, Cercopithecidae) from the early Pliocene of southeastern Europe, with a discussion on the taxonomy of the genus. J Hum Evol. 2007;52:434-42 pubmed
    ..ruscinensis hypsilophus, but the specimens reported from Asia are more distinct, and they probably represent a separate subgenus of Dolichopithecus, the valid name of which is D. (Parapresbytis) Kalmykov and Mashchenko. ..
  34. Xu B, Dai L, Li J, Deng M, Miao H, Zhou J, et al. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Xylanase from Massilia sp. RBM26 Isolated from the Feces of Rhinopithecus bieti. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;26:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, XynRBM26 is applicable to high-salt food and seafood processing, as well as other high-salt environmental biotechnological fields, because of its high catalytic activity in high-concentration NaCl. ..
  35. Xiang Z, Liang W, Nie S, Li M. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou. Am J Primatol. 2012;74:551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve. ..
  36. Pan R. Dental morphometric variation between African and Asian colobines, with special reference to the other Old World monkeys. J Morphol. 2006;267:1087-98 pubmed
    ..Canines were found to be important in distinguishing colobines from cercopithecines and in separating one subtribe from the other. ..
  37. Karanth K. Molecular systematics and conservation of the langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia. J Genet. 2010;89:393-9 pubmed
    ..According to the revised scores, Phayres leaf monkey and golden langur are priority species for conservation followed by capped and Nilgiri langurs. ..
  38. He K, Hu N, Orkin J, Nyein D, Ma C, Xiao W, et al. Molecular phylogeny and divergence time of Trachypithecus: with implications for the taxonomy of T. phayrei. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2012;33:E104-10 pubmed publisher
    ..p. crepuscula and T. p. phayrei. The incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggests that hybridization may have occurred, a fact that would benefit from re-examination using multiple unlinked nuclear genes. ..
  39. Tsuji Y, Widayati K, Hadi I, Suryobroto B, Watanabe K. Identification of individual adult female Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus sondaicus) by using patterns of dark pigmentation in the pubic area. Primates. 2013;54:27-31 pubmed publisher
  40. Chapman C, Speirs M, Gillespie T, Holland T, Austad K. Life on the edge: gastrointestinal parasites from the forest edge and interior primate groups. Am J Primatol. 2006;68:397-409 pubmed
  41. Murai T. Mating behaviors of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Am J Primatol. 2006;68:832-7 pubmed
    ..Sexual swelling was evident in 77.4% of copulating females, with copulating subadult females showing the most distinct swelling. ..
  42. Messier W, Stewart C. Episodic adaptive evolution of primate lysozymes. Nature. 1997;385:151-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Both adaptive episodes were followed by episodes of negative selection. Thus this approach can detect adaptive and purifying episodes, and localize them to specific lineages during protein evolution...
  43. Yin L, Jin T, Watanabe K, Qin D, Wang D, Pan W. Male attacks on infants and infant death during male takeovers in wild white-headed langurs (Trachypithecus leucocephalus). Integr Zool. 2013;8:365-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also show that infanticidal behavior was directed toward the infants, especially those who were still nursing. Female dispersal may function as a counter-strategy to avoid infanticide. ..
  44. Wang S, Huang Z, He Y, He X, Li D, Sun J, et al. [Mating behavior and birth seasonality of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Mt. Lasha]. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2012;33:241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Infants were born with a certain degree of synchronization, but different populations displayed different modes of synchronizations. ..
  45. Heistermann M, Ziegler T, van Schaik C, Launhardt K, Winkler P, Hodges J. Loss of oestrus, concealed ovulation and paternity confusion in free-ranging Hanuman langurs. Proc Biol Sci. 2001;268:2445-51 pubmed
    ..We believe that this is the first direct evidence that extended periods of sexual activity in catarrhine primates may have evolved as a female strategy to confuse paternity. ..
  46. Wei W, Qi X, Garber P, Guo S, Zhang P, Li B. Supply and demand determine the market value of access to infants in the golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65962 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the contention that grooming and infant handling may be traded in R. roxellana and that the price individuals paid for access to infants fluctuated with supply and demand. ..
  47. Prud homme B, Carroll S. Monkey see, monkey do. Nat Genet. 2006;38:740-1 pubmed
  48. Yang S. Altitudinal ranging of Rhinopithecus bieti at Jinsichang, Lijiang, China. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2003;74:88-91 pubmed
  49. Liedigk R, Yang M, Jablonski N, Momberg F, Geissmann T, Lwin N, et al. Evolutionary history of the odd-nosed monkeys and the phylogenetic position of the newly described Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37418 pubmed publisher
  50. Lambert J. Primate seed dispersers as umbrella species: a case study from Kibale National Park, Uganda, with implications for Afrotropical forest conservation. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:9-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in all available evaluations of frugivory in Afrotropical forests, guenons emerge as among the most important seed dispersers relative to other taxa...
  51. Jiang Q, Yan X, Wei L, Huang Y. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Trachypithecus francoisi. Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal. 2016;27:828-9 pubmed publisher
    ..francoisi were equivalent to that of most other vertebrates. The T. francoisi mtDNA could provide useful data for further studies on phylogenetics and conservation genetics of this species. ..
  52. Wang X, Wang C, Qi X, Guo S, Zhao H, Li B. A newly-found pattern of social relationships among adults within one-male units of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxenalla) in the Qinling Mountains, China. Integr Zool. 2013;8:400-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that the relationships within golden snub-nosed monkey OMUs indicated a third pattern in nonhuman primate societies. Future research is required to determine the potential mechanisms for such a pattern. ..
  53. Matsuda I, Tuuga A, Bernard H, Sugau J, Hanya G. Leaf selection by two Bornean colobine monkeys in relation to plant chemistry and abundance. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1873 pubmed publisher
  54. Borries C, Larney E, Derby A, Koenig A. Temporary absence and dispersal in Phayre's leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus phayrei). Folia Primatol (Basel). 2004;75:27-30 pubmed
  55. Xiang Z, Huo S, Xiao W, Quan R, Grueter C. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus bieti at Xiaochangdu, Tibet: adaptations to a marginal environment. Am J Primatol. 2007;69:1141-58 pubmed
    ..We discuss the results with reference to previous studies on other subpopulations living in habitats that are floristically more diverse and offer more plant food items than the marginal habitat at Xiaochangdu...
  56. Erb W, Borries C, Lestari N, Ziegler T. Demography of Simakobu (Simias concolor) and the impact of human disturbance. Am J Primatol. 2012;74:580-90 pubmed publisher
  57. Chapman C, Gillespie T, Speirs M. Parasite prevalence and richness in sympatric colobines: effects of host density. Am J Primatol. 2005;67:259-66 pubmed
  58. Hu G. Dietary breadth and resource use of François' langur in a seasonal and disturbed habitat. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:1176-87 pubmed publisher
  59. Lu A, Beehner J, Czekala N, Borries C. Juggling priorities: female mating tactics in Phayre's leaf monkeys. Am J Primatol. 2012;74:471-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these results suggest that females provide some information on ovulation, they also suggest that females attempt to confuse paternity, perhaps capitalizing on male differences in the ability to detect fertility...
  60. Zhao G, Cong M, Bian Q, Cheng W, Wang R, Qi M, et al. Molecular characterization of Cyclospora-like organisms from golden snub-nosed monkeys in Qinling Mountain in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58216 pubmed publisher
    ..roxellanae in hot and rainy weather, which would provide useful information for further understanding the molecular epidemiology of Cyclospora spp. and the control of Cyclospora infection in non-human primates as well as in human beings...
  61. Baoping R, Ming L, Yongcheng L, Fuwen W. Influence of day length, ambient temperature, and seasonality on daily travel distance in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey at Jinsichang, Yunnan, China. Am J Primatol. 2009;71:233-41 pubmed publisher
    ..g. rainy, cloudy, and sunny) did not influence the average DPL of the study group. Overall we found that the primary factors affecting DPL in R. bieti were day length and ambient temperature, especially daily highest temperature...
  62. Xiang Z, Sayers K. Seasonality of mating and birth in wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) at Xiaochangdu, Tibet. Primates. 2009;50:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern may be an adjustment to the extreme environmental conditions characteristic of this field site...
  63. Ostner J, Chalise M, Koenig A, Launhardt K, Nikolei J, Podzuweit D, et al. What Hanuman langur males know about female reproductive status. Am J Primatol. 2006;68:701-12 pubmed
  64. Yao H, Liu X, Stanford C, Yang J, Huang T, Wu F, et al. Male dispersal in a provisioned multilevel group of Rhinopithecus roxellana in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:1280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Males in hamadryas also disperse, but much less commonly than in R. roxellana. Provisioning may have influenced results, and confirming studies on unprovisioned groups would be valuable...
  65. Guo S, Ji W, Li B, Li M. Response of a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys to commercial logging in the Qinling Mountains, China. Conserv Biol. 2008;22:1055-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide important baseline information that will help decision makers in their efforts to conserve primates, especially in temperate regions, and to sustainably manage primate habitat...
  66. Shelmidine N, McAloose D, McCann C. Survival patterns and mortality in the North American population of silvered leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus cristatus). Zoo Biol. 2013;32:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..7%). Only older adult males died from degenerative diseases (i.e., heart failure, n?=?3, 42.9%). In general, this captive population demonstrated some similar trends to those observed in mammalian and Old World monkey populations...
  67. Grueter C, Li D, Ren B, Wei F, Xiang Z, van Schaik C. Fallback foods of temperate-living primates: a case study on snub-nosed monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;140:700-15 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Macaca sylvanus, Colobus angolensis, and Rhinopithecus roxellana. Other temperate-dwelling primates rely mainly on buds and bark as winter fallback foods...
  68. Li X, Yang S, Yang Y. Food habits of Rhinopithecus bieti as assessed by fecal analysis at Mt. Longma, Southwest China. Zoo Biol. 2011;30:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from the study also showed that the primary food items eaten by R. bieti in summer had higher CP and lower CT than in winter...
  69. Zhao D, Gao X, Li B, Watanabe K. First wild evidence of neonate nipple preference and maternal cradling laterality in Old World monkeys: a preliminary study from Rhinopithecus roxellana. Behav Processes. 2008;77:364-8 pubmed
    ..174, p=0.632; direction: r=0.624, p=0.054). Taken together, it is possible to suggest that wild R. roxellana show independent orientation laterality from the first week of life...
  70. Zhang P, Watanabe K, Li B. Female social dynamics in a provisioned free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China. Am J Primatol. 2008;70:1013-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We discussed influencing factors on female Sichuan snub-nosed monkey social dynamics, by comparing them with those of Hamadryas and gelada baboons that also have multilevel societies...
  71. Wangchuk T, Inouye D, Hare M. A new subspecies of golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) from Bhutan. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2003;74:104-8 pubmed
  72. Zhao Q, Tan C. Inter-unit contests within a provisioned troop of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although males initiated most inter-unit contests, a clear win-loss was most likely when females joined the fight. This sex difference may reflect the benefits to males vs. females of living in a multi-level society...
  73. Ingicco T, Balzeau A, Callou C, Fitriana Y. Brief communication: a cranial morphometric assessment of the taxonomic affinities of Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy, 1812 primates: Colobinae) with a reassessment of the T. auratus type specimen. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011;146:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This point is debated due to the complex and fluctuating taxonomy of Southeast Asian Colobinae (Brandon-Jones et al...
  74. Gruter C. Conflict and postconflict behaviour in captive black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti). Primates. 2004;45:197-200 pubmed
    ..Overall, the patterns of aggression and reconciliation observed in R. bieti bear many of the traits that characterise tolerant primate species...
  75. Kamilar J, Paciulli L. Examining the extinction risk of specialized folivores: a comparative study of Colobine monkeys. Am J Primatol. 2008;70:816-27 pubmed publisher independent variables to predict the IUCN category of a subfamily of specialized folivorous primates, the Colobinae. All data were transformed into phylogenetically independent contrasts and were analyzed using bivariate ..
  76. Zhang Y, Wang S, Guo A, Chen F, Cui L, Xiao W. [Spring food selection by Rhinopithecus bieti at Mt. Lasha in relation to phytochemical components]. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2013;34:152-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, if tannin content in food did not exceed the enduring threshold of R. bieti, the nutrient intake was prioritized by phosphorus and calcium regulation when the need for macronutrients dominated by protein was satisfied...
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    ..35% A, 29.28% T, 25.54% C and 12.83% G. All the genes in R. brelichi were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes which were encoded on the L-strand...
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    ..These differences may reflect variation in overall body size, dietary adaptation, and phylogeny...