Summary: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Radcliffe R, Hendrickson D, Richardson G, Zuba J, Radcliffe R. Standing laparoscopic-guided uterine biopsy in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2000;31:201-7 pubmed
    ..A leiomyoma was suspected on the basis of history, physical examination, ultrasonographic appearance, and histopathology. Prior rhinoceros laparoscopies have failed, primarily from limitations imposed by recumbency...
  2. Schaffer N, Foley G, Gill S, Pope C. Clinical implications of rhinoceros reproductive tract anatomy and histology. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001;32:31-46 pubmed
    ..Defining this unique morphology of rhinoceroses may help in understanding their reproductive physiology and will effect the development of appropriate reproductive techniques...
  3. Trifonov V, Yang F, Ferguson Smith M, Robinson T. Cross-species chromosome painting in the Perissodactyla: delimitation of homologous regions in Burchell's zebra (Equus Burchellii) and the white (Ceratotherium Simum) and black rhinoceros (Diceros Bicornis). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2003;103:104-10 pubmed
  4. Jackowiak H, Frackowiak H, Yoshimura K, Kumakura M, Kobayashi K. Comparative morphological study on the tongue and lingual papillae of horses (Perissodactyla) and selected ruminantia (Artiodactyla). Ital J Anat Embryol. 2005;110:55-63 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the fine structure of horse tongues may display a more primitive pattern than that present in goats and cattle...
  5. Portas T, Hermes R, Bryant B, Goritz F, Ladds P, Hildebrant T. Seminoma in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Vet Rec. 2005;157:556-8 pubmed
  6. Clauss M, Castell J, Kienzle E, Schramel P, Dierenfeld E, Flach E, et al. Macromineral absorption in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) compared with the domestic horse. J Nutr. 2006;136:2017S-2020S pubmed publisher
  7. Tougard C, Delefosse T, Hanni C, Montgelard C. Phylogenetic relationships of the five extant Rhinoceros species (Rhinocerotidae, Perissodactyla) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001;19:34-44 pubmed
    ..We estimate the Asian and African lineages to have diverged at about 26 million years before present...
  8. Trifonov V, Musilova P, Kulemsina A. Chromosome evolution in Perissodactyla. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2012;137:208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here were combined new physical mapping, comparative painting and genome sequencing data to refine the putative ancestral karyotype maps and to revise the previously proposed scenario of perissodactyl karyotype evolution...
  9. McCue M, Bannasch D, Petersen J, Gurr J, Bailey E, Binns M, et al. A high density SNP array for the domestic horse and extant Perissodactyla: utility for association mapping, genetic diversity, and phylogeny studies. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002451 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping of other Perissodactyla (zebras, asses, tapirs, and rhinoceros) was variably successful, with call rates and the number of polymorphic ..

More Information


  1. Portas T, Hildebrandt T, Bryant B, Goritz F, Hermes R. Seminoma in a southern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor): diagnosis, surgical management and effect on fertility. Aust Vet J. 2010;88:57-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the second documented case of a seminoma in a rhinoceros species and the first case in a black rhinoceros...
  2. Xu X, Arnason U. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and comparison with the mtDNA sequence of the Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1997;7:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculation suggested that this divergence took place approximately 27 million years before present...
  3. Hibert F, Sabatier D, Andrivot J, Scotti Saintagne C, Gonzalez S, Prévost M, et al. Botany, genetics and ethnobotany: a crossed investigation on the elusive tapir's diet in French Guiana. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25850 pubmed publisher
  4. de Thoisy B, da Silva A, Ruiz Garcia M, Tapia A, Ramirez O, Arana M, et al. Population history, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the last Neotropical mega-herbivore, the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris). BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:278 pubmed publisher
    ..Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrrestris, Perissodactyla, Tapiridae) is the largest Neotropical herbivore whose ancestors arrived in South America during the Great ..
  5. Wilson M, Hermes R, Bainbridge J, Bassett H. A case of metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma in a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:111-4 pubmed
    ..A large volume (100 L) of ascites fluid was present in the abdominal and pleural cavities...
  6. Wack A, Miller C, Wood C, Garner M, Haefele H. Melanocytic neoplasms in a black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and an Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:95-103 pubmed
    ..No evidence of vascular invasion or metastasis was found. These two cases represent the only melanocytic neoplasms in Rhinoceridae reported in detail in the literature...
  7. Harrison T, Stanley B, Sikarskie J, Bohart G, Ames N, Tomlian J, et al. Surgical amputation of a digit and vacuum-assisted-closure (V.A.C.) management in a case of osteomyelitis and wound care in an eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:317-21 pubmed
    ..The animal tolerated the machine and bandage changes well via operant conditioning. The use of negative-pressure wound therapy appeared to shorten time to resolution of slow-healing wounds in black rhinoceros...
  8. Trifonov V, Stanyon R, Nesterenko A, Fu B, Perelman P, O Brien P, et al. Multidirectional cross-species painting illuminates the history of karyotypic evolution in Perissodactyla. Chromosome Res. 2008;16:89-107 pubmed publisher
    The order Perissodactyla, the group of odd-toed ungulates, includes three extant families: Equidae, Tapiridae, and Rhinocerotidae...
  9. Orlando L, Leonard J, Thenot A, Laudet V, Guerin C, Hänni C. Ancient DNA analysis reveals woolly rhino evolutionary relationships. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2003;28:485-99 pubmed
    ..It also further establishes that the degraded nature of ancient DNA does not completely protect ancient DNA studies based on mitochondrial data from the problems associated with nuclear inserts...
  10. Neiffer D, Klein E, Wallace Switalski C. Leptospira infection in two black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis michaeli). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001;32:476-86 pubmed
    ..Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa was postulated as the etiologic agent, with transmission probably occurring through wallow contamination by wild raccoons (Procyon lotor). ..
  11. Valverde A, Crawshaw G, Cribb N, Bellei M, Gianotti G, Arroyo L, et al. Anesthetic management of a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) undergoing an emergency exploratory celiotomy for colic. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2010;37:280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4 hours of recumbency. Anesthetic management for an exploratory celiotomy with a midline approach is possible in rhinoceroses, although planning and extensive staff support is necessary to adequately position the patient. ..
  12. Miller M. Effect of venipuncture site and anticoagulant on selected hematologic values in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2003;34:59-64 pubmed
  13. Horowitz I, Dubielzig R, Botero Anug A, Lucio Forster A, Bowman D, Rosenzweig A, et al. Conjunctival habronemiasis in a square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Vet Ophthalmol. 2016;19:161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Fly repellent is now regularly applied around the eye of this rhinoceros, and a protective face mask has been fitted. Ongoing periodic relapses are treated with oral ivermectin, topical antibiotics, and steroids. ..
  14. Dennis P, Rajala Schultz P, Funk J, Blumer E, Miller R, Wittum T, et al. Risk factors associated with a skewed natal sex ratio in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) in the United States. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:533-9 pubmed
    ..No associations were found with the sex of offspring in captive-born dams: however, this lack of association could be a result of low power in the study. ..
  15. Portas T, Johnston S, Hermes R, Arroyo F, López Fernadez C, Bryant B, et al. Frozen-thawed rhinoceros sperm exhibit DNA damage shortly after thawing when assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay. Theriogenology. 2009;72:711-20 pubmed publisher
  16. Porensky L, Wittman S, Riginos C, Young T. Herbivory and drought interact to enhance spatial patterning and diversity in a savanna understory. Oecologia. 2013;173:591-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also emphasize that domestic herbivores can have significantly stronger impacts on plant community dynamics than wild herbivores, even in an ecosystem with a long history of grazing. ..
  17. MacLaren J, Nauwelaerts S. A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of upper forelimb morphology in the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) hints at subtle variations in locomotor ecology. J Morphol. 2016;277:1469-1485 pubmed publisher
    ..The limb morphology of the enigmatic tapir (Perissodactyla: Tapirus) has often been compared to that of basal perissodactyls, despite the lack of quantitative studies ..
  18. Condo S, Coletta M, Cicchetti R, Argentin G, Guerrieri P, Marini S, et al. The 'natural' hybrid haemoglobin from mule. Interrelationships with its parent haemoglobins from horse and donkey. Biochem J. 1992;282 ( Pt 2):595-9 pubmed
    ..It might represent an interesting example of how different species with similar functional needs find different ways to produce a similar functional behaviour. ..
  19. Hindle J, Möstl E, Hodges J. Measurement of urinary oestrogens and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone during ovarian cycles of black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceroses. J Reprod Fertil. 1992;94:237-49 pubmed
    ..This paper provides the first description of the pattern of excretion of urinary oestrogens and progesterone metabolites in African rhinoceroses. ..
    ..This tool also provides important information for assessing welfare in newly captured rhinoceroses. ..
  21. Milewski A, Dierenfeld E. Structural and functional comparison of the proboscis between tapirs and other extant and extinct vertebrates. Integr Zool. 2013;8:84-94 pubmed publisher
    Tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) are the only living vertebrates, beyond the order Proboscidea, found to possess a true proboscis, defined as a flexible tubular extension of the joint narial and upper labial musculature that serves, at ..
  22. Bush M, Raath J, Grobler D, Klein L. Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2004;75:79-84 pubmed
    ..After regaining their feet following reversal of the anaesthesia, the animals' blood gas values return towards normality. ..
  23. Clauss M, Wilkins T, Hartley A, Hatt J. Diet composition, food intake, body condition, and fecal consistency in captive tapirs (Tapirus spp.) in UK collections. Zoo Biol. 2009;28:279-91 pubmed publisher
  24. Pettorelli N, Bro Jørgensen J, Durant S, Blackburn T, Carbone C. Energy availability and density estimates in African ungulates. Am Nat. 2009;173:698-704 pubmed publisher
  25. Palmieri G, Sanna L, Asole A, Farina V, Bo Minelli L. On the collateral sesamoidean (suspensory navicular) ligament of equines: topographic relations and sensitive innervation. Arch Anat Histol Embryol. 1990;73:47-58 pubmed
  26. Wassall D, Gregory R, Phipps L. Comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of dourine. Vet Parasitol. 1991;39:233-9 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that ELISA would be relatively easy to standardise between laboratories and an ELISA protocol could be adopted as the internationally approved test for equine health certification...
  27. Stoops M, West G, Roth T, Lung N. Use of urinary biomarkers of ovarian function and altrenogest supplementation to enhance captive breeding success in the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Zoo Biol. 2014;33:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that a science based management strategy that relies on urinary biomarkers of ovarian function can facilitate naturally breeding captive Indian rhinoceroses. ..
  28. Williams J, Espie I, Van Wilpe E, Matthee A. Neosporosis in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) calf. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2002;73:38-43 pubmed
    ..The dam showed no sign of illness. Neosporosis affecting white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) has not previously been reported. A summarised overview of neosporosis from selected publications and a recent review is given. ..
  29. Metrione L, Harder J. Fecal corticosterone concentrations and reproductive success in captive female southern white rhinoceros. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;171:283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Wild-caught females had a higher (p<0.05) average corticosterone concentration than captive-born females. Average corticosterone concentration did not differ (p>0.05) between acyclic and cycling, or nulliparous and parous females. ..
  30. Franz R, Hummel J, Müller D, Bauert M, Hatt J, Clauss M. Herbivorous reptiles and body mass: effects on food intake, digesta retention, digestibility and gut capacity, and a comparison with mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011;158:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The reasons why the theoretically derived JBP has little empirical support remain to be investigated. Until then, the JBP should not be evoked to explain niche differentiation along a body size axis in terms of digestive physiology...
  31. Luo H, Arndt W, Zhang Y, Shi G, Alekseyev M, Tang J, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of genome rearrangements among five mammalian orders. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;65:871-82 pubmed publisher resolve the relationships among 10 genomes belonging to the mammalian orders Primates, Rodentia, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla...
  32. Stoops M, O Brien J, Roth T. Gamete rescue in the African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Theriogenology. 2011;76:1258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the need for further refinements, gamete rescue in the rhinoceros has promise for producing rhinoceros embryos, as well as testing sperm functions in vitro. ..
  33. Moser I, Prodinger W, Hotzel H, Greenwald R, Lyashchenko K, Bakker D, et al. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:399-406 pubmed
    ..This would prevent the transfer of tuberculosis by asymptomatic animals. ..
  34. Bertelsen M, Steele S, Grøndahl C, Baandrup U. Pheochromocytoma in a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:521-3 pubmed
    ..Although rare, pheochromocytoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of suspected hypertension and acute death in rhinos. ..
  35. Clauss M, Jessup D, Norkus E, Chen T, Holick M, Streich W, et al. Fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:402-13 pubmed
    ..001) and higher vitamin A concentrations in liver tissue samples (P < 0.001) than other rhinoceros species. Equine requirements are not recommended as a model for rhinoceros vitamin requirements. ..
  36. Harper C, Vermeulen G, Clarke A, de Wet J, Guthrie A. Extraction of nuclear DNA from rhinoceros horn and characterization of DNA profiling systems for white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2013;7:428-33 pubmed publisher
  37. Ganz T, Nemeth E. Iron homeostasis and its disorders in mice and men: potential lessons for rhinos. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:S19-26 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge in humans and mice regarding the physiology and molecular basis of iron overload, and it explores how it can be applied to the problem of iron overload in captive rhino populations. ..
  38. Modarai B, Sawyer A, Ellis H. The glands of Owen. J R Soc Med. 2004;97:494-5 pubmed
  39. Molenaar F, Sainsbury A, Waters M, Amin R. High serum concentrations of iron, transferrin saturation and gamma glutamyl transferase in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis). Vet Rec. 2008;162:716-21 pubmed
  40. Miller M, Olea Popelka F, Joubert J, Mathebula N, Zimmerman D, Hausler G, et al. Serum iron and selected biochemical values in free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) from South Africa. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:S55-60 pubmed
    ..6 g/dL) in black rhinoceros. Further investigations should be conducted to examine the role of age, location, and time in boma confinement on iron values in South African rhinoceros to understand iron metabolism in these species. ..
  41. Porter C, Goodman M, Stanhope M. Evidence on mammalian phylogeny from sequences of exon 28 of the von Willebrand factor gene. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1996;5:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The orders Primates, Proboscidea, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Artiodactyla were represented by more than one species which joined in each case to form a monophyletic ..
  42. Saragusty J, Diecke S, Drukker M, Durrant B, Friedrich Ben Nun I, Galli C, et al. Rewinding the process of mammalian extinction. Zoo Biol. 2016;35:280-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Zoo Biol. 35:280-292, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  43. Springer M, Gatesy J. The gene tree delusion. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2016;94:1-33 pubmed publisher
    ..2012). Robust support for a Perissodactyla+Carnivora clade within Laurasiatheria is also lost, contradicting a second major conclusion of this study...
  44. Capiro J, Stoops M, Freeman E, Clawson D, Schook M. Effects of management strategies on glucocorticoids and behavior in Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis): translocation and operant conditioning. Zoo Biol. 2014;33:131-43 pubmed publisher
  45. Schlanser J, Bohart G, Paperd D, Wagner C, MARQUARDT M, Harrison T. Technique for venipuncture of the transverse facial vein in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Zoo Biol. 2016;35:570-573 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure was well-tolerated by the rhinoceros and could be performed regularly without complication. Zoo Biol. 35:570-573, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  46. Morar D, Tijhaar E, Negrea A, Hendriks J, van Haarlem D, Godfroid J, et al. Cloning, sequencing and expression of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the production of rhinoceros IFN-gamma specific antibodies. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;115:146-54 pubmed
    ..This preliminary IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the potential to be developed into a diagnostic assay for M. bovis infection in rhinoceros. ..
  47. Cinková I, Policht R. Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros. Anim Cogn. 2015;18:385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros. ..
  48. Olivier A, Lane E, Volkmann D, Hofmeyr M, Stegmann G. Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Part 2: surgery and necropsy. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2001;72:242-4 pubmed
    ..The cause of the injury is not known, although back injuries, presumably sustained during mating by bulls, have been recorded in white rhinoceros. An encounter with elephants could also have been responsible for the injury in this case...
  49. House J. African horse sickness. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1993;9:355-64 pubmed
    ..Prevention and control measures include quarantines, control of insects, and vaccination. There is no treatment for AHS. Neurotropic strains of AHSV may cause retinitis and encephalitis in humans...
  50. Dennis P, Funk J, Rajala Schultz P, Blumer E, Miller R, Wittum T, et al. A review of some of the health issues of captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:509-17 pubmed
    ..This article offers a brief review of some of the health issues of concern for the captive black rhinoceros population and proposes some possible avenues of research for consideration...
  51. Nijhof A, Penzhorn B, Lynen G, Mollel J, Morkel P, Bekker C, et al. Babesia bicornis sp. nov. and Theileria bicornis sp. nov.: tick-borne parasites associated with mortality in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2249-54 pubmed
    ..Screening of black rhinoceroses in South Africa revealed, in addition to B. bicornis, a second parasite, designated Theileria bicornis sp. nov...
  52. Govender D, Oosthuizen M, Oosthuisen M, Penzhorn B. Piroplasm parasites of white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) in the Kruger National Park, and their relation to anaemia. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2011;82:36-40 pubmed
    ..2 %) tested positive for Theileria equi. None of the rhinoceroses sampled tested positive for Babesia bicornis, a parasite associated with mortalities in black rhinoceroses...
  53. Dunn M, Estrada N, Smith D. The coexistence of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) and indigenous hunters in northeastern Honduras. Integr Zool. 2012;7:429-438 pubmed publisher
    ..The article concludes with a discussion regarding the potential positive role of indigenous hunters in tapir conservation throughout its distribution range...
  54. Wesley I, Schroeder Tucker L. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:508-12 pubmed
    ..Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis...
  55. Willerslev E, Gilbert M, Binladen J, Ho S, Campos P, Ratan A, et al. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from extinct and extant rhinoceroses reveals lack of phylogenetic resolution. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:95 pubmed publisher
    ..One notable example concerns the rhinoceroses, a group for which several contradictory phylogenies were proposed on the basis of morphology, then apparently resolved using mitochondrial DNA fragments...
  56. Bryant B, Blyde D, Eamens G, Whittington R. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis cultured from the feces of a Southern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) with diarrhea and weight loss. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:391-3 pubmed
    ..Although the Rhinocerotidae are likely to be resistant to Johne's disease, this case raises the possibility that they can become transiently infected with the causative organism...
  57. Garniera J, Green D, Pickard A, Shaw H, Holt W. Non-invasive diagnosis of pregnancy in wild black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) by faecal steroid analysis. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1998;10:451-8 pubmed
    ..The use of this technique in wild black rhinoceros populations will offer new perspectives for in situ management of this endangered species...
  58. Smith R, Muir R, Walpole M, Balmford A, Leader Williams N. Governance and the loss of biodiversity. Nature. 2003;426:67-70 pubmed
  59. Selvaraj V, Wildt D, Pukazhenthi B. Induced pluripotent stem cells for conserving endangered species?. Nat Methods. 2011;8:805-7 pubmed publisher
  60. Mylniczenko N, Sullivan K, Corcoran M, Fleming G, Valdes E. Management strategies of iron accumulation in a captive population of black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis minor). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:S83-91 pubmed
    ..The results of this integrated approach showed some significant improvements and an overall positive impact on the animals...
  61. Wenger S, Boardman W, Buss P, Govender D, Foggin C. The cardiopulmonary effects of etorphine, azaperone, detomidine, and butorphanol in field-anesthetized white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:380-7 pubmed
    ..Running for a shorter distance during induction could be beneficial in the prevention of severe acid-base imbalances and capture myopathy...
  62. Owen Smith N, Mills M. Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web. J Anim Ecol. 2008;77:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the large carnivore assemblage was dominated overwhelmingly by the largest predator, which contributed the major share of animals killed across a wide size range...
  63. Dorsey C, Dennis P, Fascetti A, Wood T, Brown J. Hypoaminoacidemia is not associated with ulcerative lesions in black rhinoceroses, Diceros bicornis. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:22-7 pubmed
    ..These data will be useful for future assessments of rhino nutritional status and other potential metabolic diseases...
  64. Roth T, O Brien J, McRae M, Bellem A, Romo S, Kroll J, et al. Ultrasound and endocrine evaluation of the ovarian cycle and early pregnancy in the Sumatran rhinoceros, Dicerorhinus sumatrensis. Reproduction. 2001;121:139-49 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the important role that basic research and reproductive technology can play in developing a natural breeding programme for an endangered animal in captivity...
  65. Carew J. Wildlife devastation in Zimbabwe. Biologist (London). 2002;49:96 pubmed
  66. Roth T, Reinhart P, Romo J, Candra D, Suhaery A, Stoops M. Sexual maturation in the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). Zoo Biol. 2013;32:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..5 years of age. Results from this study indicate that male and female Sumatran rhino calves are sexually mature at 6-6.5 and 5-5.5 years of age, respectively...
  67. Moore P. Ecology: palms in motion. Nature. 2003;426:26-7 pubmed
  68. Borque C, Pérez Garnelo S, Delclaux M, Martinez E, de la Fuente J. Fecal steroid evaluation to monitor reproductive status in wild ungulate females using enzyme immunoassay commercial kits. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:537-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, ELISA methodologies used here could be a practical alternative to other ELISAs that require more complex procedures or whose commercial availability is difficult...
  69. McGeoch D, Gatherer D, Dolan A. On phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of the Gammaherpesvirinae. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:307-16 pubmed
    ..Transfer of dates from mammalian palaeontology then allowed estimation of dates for nodes in the gammaherpesvirus tree...
  70. Sternberg S, Bernodt K, Holmström A, Röken B. Survey of tuberculin testing in Swedish zoos. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2002;33:378-80 pubmed
    ..Zoo veterinarians should try to adopt a common scheme for the regular testing of zoo animals to improve the diagnostic ability and comparison of results between institutions...
  71. Adams W, Robinson K, Jones R, Edwards G. Overdose during chemical restraint in a black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Vet Anaesth Analg. 2005;32:53-7 pubmed
    ..The case highlights some of the practical problems that may be encountered in dealing with dangerous and unfamiliar species...
  72. Muller A, Moller M, Adams L, Warren R, Hoal E, van Helden P. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2012;136:117-22 pubmed publisher
  73. Hilborn R, Arcese P, Borner M, Hando J, Hopcraft G, Loibooki M, et al. Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science. 2006;314:1266 pubmed
    ..Conversely, expanded budgets and antipoaching patrols since the mid-1980s have greatly reduced poaching and allowed populations of buffalo, elephants, and rhinoceros to rebuild...
  74. Gandolf A, Wolf T, Radcliffe R. Serial chemical restraint for treatment of decubitus ulcers in two neonatal white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006;37:387-92 pubmed
    ..or i.m.) alone or in combination with detomidine (i.m.), serial chemical restraint was conducted over a 6-wk period to facilitate wound care. Anesthesia was well tolerated in both calves, and lesions responded well to medical treatment...
  75. Hernandez Divers S, Aguilar R, Leandro Loria D, Foerster C. Health evaluation of a radiocollared population of free-ranging Baird's tapirs (Tapirus bairdii) in Costa Rica. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:176-87 pubmed
    ..One of nine skin biopsies examined was abnormal and diagnosed as leukoderma. This report represents the first health assessment of a free-ranging population of tapirs...
  76. Goodman G, Rhind S, Meredith A. Successful treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum. Vet Dermatol. 2007;18:460-3 pubmed
    ..This is the first detailed report of the successful treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma not associated with the horn in a rhinoceros...
  77. Groves C, Fernando P, Robovský J. The sixth rhino: a taxonomic re-assessment of the critically endangered northern white rhinoceros. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9703 pubmed publisher
    ..Since their last taxonomic assessment over three decades ago, new material and analytical techniques have become available, necessitating a review of available information and re-assessment of the taxonomy...
  78. Shadwick R, Russell A, Lauff R. The structure and mechanical design of rhinoceros dermal armour. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1992;337:419-28 pubmed
  79. Forsyth D, Caley P. Testing the irruptive paradigm of large-herbivore dynamics. Ecology. 2006;87:297-303 pubmed
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    ..Increased antioxidant status caused by the use of tannin substances could have a beneficial effect on animal health, but if tannins should be incorporated in designed diets, other tannin sources, such as grape pomace should be tested...
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