hares

Summary

Summary: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.

Top Publications

  1. Walker S, Johnston C, Hoey E, Fairweather I, Borgsteede F, Gaasenbeek C, et al. Potential role of hares in the spread of liver fluke in the Netherlands. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:179-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Hares (Lepus europeanus) sharing pasture with cattle from six locations in the Netherlands were examined for the presence of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and shown to have prevalences of infection ranging from 0 to 41%...
  2. Frölich K, Kujawski O, Rudolph M, Ronsholt L, Speck S. European brown hare syndrome virus in free-ranging European brown hares from Argentina. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:121-4 pubmed
    From 1998 to 2000, serum samples of 80 shot European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Argentina were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and 80 spleen samples were tested for EBHSV-antigen by ..
  3. Melo Ferreira J, Alves P, Freitas H, Ferrand N, Boursot P. The genomic legacy from the extinct Lepus timidus to the three hare species of Iberia: contrast between mtDNA, sex chromosomes and autosomes. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:2643-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The three species of hares present in the Iberian Peninsula harbour high frequencies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Lepus timidus, an ..
  4. Smith S, de Bellocq J, Suchentrunk F, Schaschl H. Evolutionary genetics of MHC class II beta genes in the brown hare, Lepus europaeus. Immunogenetics. 2011;63:743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present data from three MHC class II beta genes (DPB, DQB, and DRB) for brown hares in two geographic regions and compare them against previous results from a class II alpha-chain gene (DQA)...
  5. Drews B, Szentiks C, Roellig K, Fickel J, Schroeder K, Duff J, et al. Epidemiology, control and management of an EBHS outbreak in captive hares. Vet Microbiol. 2011;154:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Pregnant females either aborted their foetuses and survived or died pregnant. All foetuses (n=10) of the pregnant hares were PCR positive for EBHSV. Only one offspring born during the outbreak survived...
  6. Lumeij J, Mikalová L, Smajs D. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares. Vet Microbiol. 2013;164:190-4 pubmed publisher
    Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T...
  7. Muller W, Bocklisch H, Schuler G, Hotzel H, Neubauer H, Otto P. Detection of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in Thuringia, Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2007;123:225-9 pubmed
    ..The epidemiology of tularemia in Germany is discussed and a risk assessment for humans is made...
  8. Melo Ferreira J, Boursot P, Randi E, Kryukov A, Suchentrunk F, Ferrand N, et al. The rise and fall of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) during Pleistocene glaciations: expansion and retreat with hybridization in the Iberian Peninsula. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:605-18 pubmed
    ..b>Hares in the Iberian Peninsula appear to illustrate this phenomenon...
  9. Loncaric I, Kübber Heiss A, Posautz A, Stalder G, Hoffmann D, Rosengarten R, et al. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. carrying the mecC gene, isolated from wildlife. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:2222-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and provide molecular characterization of MRSA and methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus staphylococci (MRnSA) isolated from wildlife that carried the gene mecC...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Tomaso H, Al Dahouk S, Hofer E, Splettstoesser W, Treu T, Dierich M, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Austrian Francisella tularensis holarctica biovar II strains. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005;26:279-84 pubmed
    The antibiotic susceptibilities of 50 Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica biovar II strains isolated from hares and human patients from the eastern part of Austria were examined...
  2. Kasapidis P, Suchentrunk F, Magoulas A, Kotoulas G. The shaping of mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic patterns of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) under the combined influence of Late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and anthropogenic translocations. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;34:55-66 pubmed
    ..The genetic analysis presented here provides a framework for designing proper conservation and management guidelines for this species...
  3. Norman R, Ross D, Laurenson M, Hudson P. The role of non-viraemic transmission on the persistence and dynamics of a tick borne virus--Louping ill in red grouse ( Lagopus lagopus scoticus) and mountain hares ( Lepus timidus). J Math Biol. 2004;48:119-34 pubmed
    ..The model is used to describe the dynamics of Louping ill virus in red grouse (the viraemic host) and hares (the non-viraemic host). However, these results are applicable to many other systems...
  4. Melo Ferreira J, Alves P, Rocha J, Ferrand N, Boursot P. Interspecific X-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA introgression in the Iberian hare: selection or allele surfing?. Evolution. 2011;65:1956-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This illustrates the difficulty of distinguishing demographic and selective effects and the need for genome and species-wide based demographic models...
  5. Ehrich D, Henden J, Ims R, Doronina L, Killengren S, Lecomte N, et al. The importance of willow thickets for ptarmigan and hares in shrub tundra: the more the better?. Oecologia. 2012;168:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We document a functional response in the use of willow thickets by ptarmigan, but not by hares. For hares, whose range extends into forested regions, occurrence increased overall with willow cover...
  6. Roellig K, Goeritz F, Hildebrandt T. Ultrasonographic characterisation of prenatal development in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778): an evolutionary approach. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2010;22:448-58 pubmed publisher
    ..tract and prenatal development using high-resolution ultrasound of 159 pregnancies in 45 captive female hares. Consecutive examination of live hares was particularly useful in evaluating the very early stages of gestation...
  7. Melo Ferreira J, Boursot P, Carneiro M, Esteves P, Farelo L, Alves P. Recurrent introgression of mitochondrial DNA among hares (Lepus spp.) revealed by species-tree inference and coalescent simulations. Syst Biol. 2012;61:367-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of a clear phylogeny of hares (genus Lepus) has been hampered by poor genomic sampling and possible occurrence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ..
  8. Avril A, Letty J, Pradel R, Léonard Y, Santin Janin H, Pontier D. A multi-event model to study stage-dependent dispersal in radio-collared hares: when hunting promotes costly transience. Ecology. 2012;93:1305-16 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we tested that hypothesis using 152 radio-collared European hares in a harvested population...
  9. Koutsogiannouli E, Moutou K, Sarafidou T, Stamatis C, Spyrou V, Mamuris Z. Major histocompatibility complex variation at class II DQA locus in the brown hare (Lepus europaeus). Mol Ecol. 2009;18:4631-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The differentiating patterns detected between genetic and functional polymorphism, i.e. the number and the distribution of pocket variants within and among populations, indicated a hierarchical action of selection pressures...
  10. Hildebrandt T, Roellig K, Goeritz F, Fassbender M, Krieg R, Blottner S, et al. Artificial insemination of captive European brown hares (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778) with fresh and cryopreserved semen derived from free-ranging males. Theriogenology. 2009;72:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, AI has the potential to enhance breeding programs for EBH especially when cryopreserved semen from wild donors is used...
  11. Newey S, Shaw D, Kirby A, Montieth P, Hudson P, Thirgood S. Prevalence, intensity and aggregation of intestinal parasites in mountain hares and their potential impact on population dynamics. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:367-73 pubmed
    Mountain hare Lepus timidus populations show unstable dynamics and since hares carry a significant helminth infection and host-parasite interactions are known to be destabilising, they have been proposed as a possible causal mechanism ..
  12. Sheriff M, Krebs C, Boonstra R. The sensitive hare: sublethal effects of predator stress on reproduction in snowshoe hares. J Anim Ecol. 2009;78:1249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..glucocorticoid concentrations directly cause a decline in reproduction in individual free-ranging female snowshoe hares, Lepus americanus...
  13. Valencak T, Hackländer K, Ruf T. Peak energy turnover in lactating European hares: a test of the heat dissipation limitation hypothesis. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2832-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tested whether heat dissipation limitation (HDL) also constrains energy turnover in lactating European hares. Experimentally, we made use of the fact that hares nurse their young only once per day, which allowed us to keep ..
  14. Frölich K, Wisser J, Schmüser H, Fehlberg U, Neubauer H, Grunow R, et al. Epizootiologic and ecologic investigations of European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) in selected populations from Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:751-61 pubmed
    ..Sera of 321 hares (shot between 1998-2000) from four study areas were examined for antibodies against European brown hare syndrome ..
  15. Alves P, Melo Ferreira J, Freitas H, Boursot P. The ubiquitous mountain hare mitochondria: multiple introgressive hybridization in hares, genus Lepus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008;363:2831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such high levels of introgressive hybridization should discourage attempts to revise hare taxonomy based solely on mtDNA...
  16. Valencak T, Tataruch F, Ruf T. Peak energy turnover in lactating European hares: the role of fat reserves. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:231-7 pubmed publisher
    European hares (Lepus europaeus) in central Europe have high energetic costs of reproduction, mainly due to precocial, rapidly growing young that rely largely on energy-rich milk...
  17. Pikula J, Adam V, Bandouchova H, Beklova M, Horakova J, Horakova H, et al. Blood coagulation times in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). Vet Clin Pathol. 2007;36:361-3 pubmed
    ..Many causes of mortality in the European brown hare, such as bacterial and viral infections, anticoagulant poisoning, and trauma, may result in hemorrhage. There are, however, no reference values concerning blood clotting in this species...
  18. Marco I, Cuenca R, Pastor J, Velarde R, Lavin S. Hematology and serum chemistry values of the European brown hare. Vet Clin Pathol. 2003;32:195-8 pubmed
    Hematology and serum biochemistry values can be useful for evaluating the health of populations of captive and free-living European brown hares (Lepus europaeus). However, current information is fragmented and incomplete.
  19. Billinis C, Psychas V, Tontis D, Spyrou V, Birtsas P, Sofia M, et al. European brown hare syndrome in wild European brown hares from Greece. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:783-6 pubmed
    From 1999 to mid-2003, 97 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) found dead throughout Greece were examined by necropsy, histopathology, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of European brown hare ..
  20. Smith S, Turbill C, Suchentrunk F. Introducing mother's curse: low male fertility associated with an imported mtDNA haplotype in a captive colony of brown hares. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We looked for this so-called mother's curse effect in our captive colony of European brown hares. Significantly reduced male reproductive success was detected for a divergent haplotype that could be traced back ..
  21. Gyuranecz M, Szeredi L, Makrai L, Fodor L, Mészáros A, Szépe B, et al. Tularemia of European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus): a pathological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical study. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:958-63 pubmed publisher
    ..the lesions induced by Francisella tularensis in 50 cases of naturally infected seropositive European brown hares. Gross pathological examination revealed scant to numerous grayish-white foci with diameters of 0.1 to 1...
  22. Krebs C. Of lemmings and snowshoe hares: the ecology of northern Canada. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Snowshoe hares across the boreal forest are a key food for many predators and their cycles have been the subject of large-scale ..
  23. Liu J, Yu L, Arnold M, Wu C, Wu S, Lu X, et al. Reticulate evolution: frequent introgressive hybridization among Chinese hares (genus lepus) revealed by analyses of multiple mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:223 pubmed publisher
  24. Devillard S, Bray Y. Assessing the effect on survival of natal dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Ecology. 2009;90:2902-12 pubmed
    ..We emphasize the usefulness and reliability of our model in the broader context of studies of natal dispersal costs, as well as the evolutionary and management implications of such a dispersal cost in declining European hare populations...
  25. Hauri A, Hofstetter I, Seibold E, Kaysser P, Eckert J, Neubauer H, et al. Investigating an airborne tularemia outbreak, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22...
  26. Kjelland V, Ytrehus B, Vikørren T, Stuen S, Skarpaas T, Slettan A. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in skin of Norwegian mountain hares (Lepus timidus) without signs of dissemination. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:293-9 pubmed
    ..Necropsy and laboratory examinations of 36 hares found dead or diseased during 2007-2009 in Vest- and Aust-Agder counties showed that disease and deaths were ..
  27. Goüy de Bellocq J, Suchentrunk F, Baird S, Schaschl H. Evolutionary history of an MHC gene in two leporid species: characterisation of Mhc-DQA in the European brown hare and comparison with the European rabbit. Immunogenetics. 2009;61:131-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of the expressed major histocompatibility complex class II DQA locus in natural populations of European brown hares, Lepus europaeus, from Austria and Belgium (267 individuals in total)...
  28. Stamatis C, Giannouli S, Suchentrunk F, Sert H, Stathopoulos C, Mamuris Z. Recruitment of mitochondrial tRNA genes as auxiliary variability markers for both intra- and inter-species analysis: The paradigm of brown hare (Lepus europaeus). Gene. 2008;410:154-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this notion and according to our results, we propose that mitochondrial tRNA genes can be used as valuable auxiliary molecular markers for contemporaneous and linked biochemical and genetic analyses...
  29. Thulin C, Fang M, Averianov A. Introgression from Lepus europaeus to L. timidus in Russia revealed by mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms and nuclear microsatellites. Hereditas. 2006;143:68-76 pubmed
    ..Our observation differs from previous observations of mtDNA introgression in Sweden and Iberia, and provides further support for a reticulated mode of introgression within the genus Lepus...
  30. Muller W, Hotzel H, Otto P, Karger A, Bettin B, Bocklisch H, et al. German Francisella tularensis isolates from European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) reveal genetic and phenotypic diversity. BMC Microbiol. 2013;13:61 pubmed publisher
    ..In Germany most human infections are caused by contact with infected European brown hares (Lepus europaeus)...
  31. Alves P, Harris D, Branco M, Ferrand N, Suchentrunk F, Melo Ferreira J, et al. Hares on thin ice: introgression of mitochondrial DNA in hares and its implications for recent phylogenetic analyses. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;40:640-1 pubmed
  32. Wu C, Wu J, Bunch T, Li Q, Wang Y, Zhang Y. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of Lepus in Eastern Asia based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;37:45-61 pubmed
    ..The genus appears to have arisen approximately 10.76 MYA (+/-0.86 MYA), with most speciation events occurring during the Pliocene epoch (5.65+/-1.15 MYA approximately 1.12 +/- 0.47 MYA)...
  33. Melo Ferreira J, Boursot P, Suchentrunk F, Ferrand N, Alves P. Invasion from the cold past: extensive introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus) mitochondrial DNA into three other hare species in northern Iberia. Mol Ecol. 2005;14:2459-64 pubmed
    ..Multiple hybridizations and, potentially, a selective advantage for the L. timidus lineage can explain the remarkable taxonomic and geographical range of this mitochondrial introgression...
  34. Schmidt N, Asferg T, Forchhammer M. Long-term patterns in European brown hare population dynamics in Denmark: effects of agriculture, predation and climate. BMC Ecol. 2004;4:15 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we analyse the association between agricultural land-use, predator abundance and winter severity on the number of European brown hares harvested in Denmark in the years 1955 through 2000.
  35. Alves P, Melo Ferreira J, Branco M, Suchentrunk F, Ferrand N, Harris D. Evidence for genetic similarity of two allopatric European hares (Lepus corsicanus and L. castroviejoi) inferred from nuclear DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;46:1191-7 pubmed publisher
  36. Carmo C, Esteves P, Ferrand N, van der Loo W. Genetic variation at chemokine receptor CCR5 in leporids: alteration at the 2nd extracellular domain by gene conversion with CCR2 in Oryctolagus, but not in Sylvilagus and Lepus species. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:494-501 pubmed
    ..cuniculus algirus and O. cuniculus cuniculus. Allelic variation at the rabbit CCR5 locus confirmed that the gene conversion predates the subspecies split (1-2 Ma)...
  37. Alves P, Ferrand N, Suchentrunk F, Harris D. Ancient introgression of Lepus timidus mtDNA into L. granatensis and L. europaeus in the Iberian Peninsula. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2003;27:70-80 pubmed
    ..L. timidus mtDNA is common in the northern part of the L. granatensis range. Finally, we reassessed the phylogenetic relationships of the five European hare species based on both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences...
  38. Waltari E, Cook J. Hares on ice: phylogeography and historical demographics of Lepus arcticus, L. othus, and L. timidus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha). Mol Ecol. 2005;14:3005-16 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region in 192 arctic hares (Lepus arcticus, Lepus othus, Lepus timidus) and two individual Lepus townsendii...
  39. Forsyth N, Elder F, Shay J, Wright W. Lagomorphs (rabbits, pikas and hares) do not use telomere-directed replicative aging in vitro. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:685-91 pubmed
    ..Pika was unique in displaying endogenous telomerase activity throughout time in culture. These results show that it is unlikely that lagomorphs use telomere shortening and replicative senescence as a tumor protective mechanism...
  40. Robinson T, Yang F, Harrison W. Chromosome painting refines the history of genome evolution in hares and rabbits (order Lagomorpha). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2002;96:223-7 pubmed
    ..The molecular cytogenetic data allow for a refinement of the structural changes that have shaped genome evolution in this group of mammals and underscore the rapid radiation of the Leporidae suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequence data...
  41. van de Graaf R, IJpma F, Nicolai J. Lagophthalmos or hare eye: an etymologic eye opener. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:573-4 pubmed publisher
  42. Le Pendu J, Abrantes J, Bertagnoli S, Guitton J, Le Gall Reculé G, Lopes A, et al. Proposal for a unified classification system and nomenclature of lagoviruses. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1658-1666 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that an international working group could coordinate the nomenclature of lagoviruses and any proposals for revision. ..
  43. Schai Braun S, Reichlin T, Ruf T, Klansek E, Tataruch F, Arnold W, et al. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134278 pubmed publisher
    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy...
  44. Marques J, Ferreira M, Farelo L, Callahan C, Hackländer K, Jenny H, et al. Mountain hare transcriptome and diagnostic markers as resources to monitor hybridization with European hares. Sci Data. 2017;4:170178 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of 85 random independent SNPs was successfully validated using PCR and Sanger sequencing. These valuable genomic resources can be used to design tools to assess population status and monitor hybridization between species...
  45. Awadi A, Suchentrunk F, Makni M, Ben Slimen H. Variation of partial transferrin sequences and phylogenetic relationships among hares (Lepus capensis, Lagomorpha) from Tunisia. Genetica. 2016;144:497-512 pubmed
    North African hares are currently included in cape hares, Lepus capensis sensu lato, a taxon that may be considered a superspecies or a complex of closely related species...
  46. L vov D, Shchelkanov M, Kolobukhina L, L vov D, Galkina I, Aristova V, et al. [Serological monitoring of arbovirus infections in the estuary of the Kuban River (the 2006-2007 data)]. Vopr Virusol. 2008;53:30-5 pubmed
    ..test were used to study the sera from human beings (152 samples), agricultural animals (n = 77), hares (n = 3), and wild birds (n = 69), collected in 2006-2007 in the Kuban River estuary (Temryuk District, Krasnodar ..
  47. Straede S, Treue T. Beyond buffer zone protection: a comparative study of park and buffer zone products' importance to villagers living inside Royal Chitwan National Park and to villagers living in its buffer zone. J Environ Manage. 2006;78:251-67 pubmed
  48. Laakkonen J, Nyyssönen T, Hiltunen M, Kauhala K, Nikander S, Soveri T. Effects of Protostrongylus sp. and Pneumocystis sp. on the pulmonary tissue and the condition of mountain and brown hares from Finland. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:780-7 pubmed
    Mountain hares (Lepus timidus) and brown hares (Lepus europaeus) shot by hunters in several game management districts in southern and central Finland during the hunting season from September to the end of February 1998-2001 were examined ..
  49. Tomanová K, Literak I, Klimes J, Pavlacík L, Mrlík V, Smola J. Lawsonia intracellularis in wild mammals in the Slovak Carpathians. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:407-11 pubmed
    ..Lawsonia intracellularis was found in two samples from wolves, in two samples from foxes, and one sample from red deer. This is the first description of L. intracellularis in these three species. ..
  50. Tape K, Gustine D, Ruess R, Adams L, Clark J. Range Expansion of Moose in Arctic Alaska Linked to Warming and Increased Shrub Habitat. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152636 pubmed publisher
    ..The northern shift in the distribution of moose, like that of snowshoe hares, has been in response to the spread of their shrub habitat in the Arctic, but at the same time, herbivores have ..
  51. Cringoli G, Rinaldi L, Veneziano V, Genchi C. A dual anthelmintic treatment strategic scheme for the control of fasciolosis in dairy sheep farms. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:700-5 pubmed
    ..This scheme did not influence the albendazole SO efficacy against GI nematodes and might be used for the treatment of fasciolosis in dairy sheep farms...
  52. Acevedo P, Melo Ferreira J, Real R, Alves P. Past, present and future distributions of an Iberian Endemic, Lepus granatensis: ecological and evolutionary clues from species distribution models. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51529 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its current environmental envelope and evolutionary history, we discuss the macroecology of the Iberian hare and its sensitivity to climate change. ..
  53. Bardon J, Pijácek M, Harna J, Bzdil J, Vyroubalová S, Skalka P. [Brucella suis--a little-known zoonotic agent]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek. 2012;18:53-4 pubmed
    ..The short communication reports two cases of hare brucellosis in Moravia, Czech Republic, and experiences with isolate identification by the MALDI-TOF method. ..
  54. Bartova E, Sedlak K, Treml F, Holko I, Literak I. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in European brown hares in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:155-8 pubmed publisher
    European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) coming from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria were tested for serum antibodies against Neospora caninum by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for serum antibodies ..
  55. Dik B, Uslu U. Prevalence of Haemodipsus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae) species found on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in Konya Province, Turkey. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32:146-8 pubmed
    This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of lice on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in the Konya province of Turkey from October 2003 to January 2007...
  56. Santos C, Melo V, Amaral J, Estevinho L, Oliveira M, Mafra I. Identification of hare meat by a species-specific marker of mitochondrial origin. Meat Sci. 2012;90:836-41 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be concluded that the proposed new primers can be used by both species-specific end-point PCR or real-time PCR to accurately authenticate hare meat...
  57. Clausen T, Chen J, Bryant J, Provenza F, Villalba J. Dynamics of the volatile defense of winter "dormant" balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:461-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, 6-HCH's role as a defensive agent must evolve over the course of the winter from being a co-toxin to a cue for a conditioned flavor aversion (CFA) to finally having no role by late spring...
  58. Silva E, Marques S, Osorio H, Carvalheira J, Thompson G. Endogenous hepatitis C virus homolog fragments in European rabbit and hare genomes replicate in cell culture. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49820 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may lead to novel research approaches on the HCV origin, genesis, evolution and diversity...
  59. Solomonov N, Anufriev A, Yadrikhinskii V, Okhlopkov I, Solomonova T. Ecological and physiological characteristics of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) cold resistance in the northeastern Siberia. Dokl Biol Sci. 2008;419:139-42 pubmed
  60. Dik B, Uslu U. Haemodipsus species occurring on hares (Lepus eurapeus, L.): two new species in Turkish lice fauna. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2007;31:119-22 pubmed
    The aim of this paper was to give information about Haemodipsus species occurring on hares in the Konya province. Thirty three lice specimens collected from forty hares (Lepus europaeus, L...
  61. Spirić Z, Srebocan E, Crnić A. Mercury in hares organs (Lepus europaeus Pallas) in the vicinity of the mercury-contaminated natural gas treatment plant in Croatia. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47:77-83 pubmed publisher
    In the last two decades (1990-2008), as part of a comprehensive monitoring of the eco-system, hares were collected in the vicinity of the mercury contaminated natural gas production and treatment plant Molve, Croatia...
  62. Lemos de Matos A, McFadden G, Esteves P. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus. Immunogenetics. 2014;66:43-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV. ..
  63. Tape K, Christie K, Carroll G, O Donnell J. Novel wildlife in the Arctic: the influence of changing riparian ecosystems and shrub habitat expansion on snowshoe hares. Glob Chang Biol. 2016;22:208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..examine the physical and biological processes contributing to the expanded riparian habitat and range of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in northern Alaska...
  64. Pusterla N, Mapes S, Rejmanek D, Gebhart C. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis by real-time PCR in the feces of free-living animals from equine farms with documented occurrence of equine proliferative enteropathy. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:992-8 pubmed
    ..Because the fecal samples were collected at equine farms with confirmed cases of EPE, striped skunks, Virginian opossums, jackrabbits, and coyotes may act as potential sources of infection to susceptible weanlings...
  65. Townsend S, Newey S, Thirgood S, Matthews L, Haydon D. Can parasites drive population cycles in mountain hares?. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1611-7 pubmed publisher
    ..retortaeformis in the UK's only native lagomorph, the mountain hare, has exactly these properties, and the hares exhibit strong population fluctuations...
  66. Suchentrunk F, Mamuris Z, Sfougaris A, Stamatis C. Biochemical genetic variability in brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from Greece. Biochem Genet. 2003;41:127-40 pubmed
    Allozyme variability of 91 brown hares (Lepus europaeus) from seven regions in Greece was compared to existing data of Bulgarian populations to test the hypothesis of the occurrence ofspecific alleles in Greece, likely stemming from an ..