lions

Summary

Summary: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.

Top Publications

  1. Driscoll C, Menotti Raymond M, Nelson G, Goldstein D, O Brien S. Genomic microsatellites as evolutionary chronometers: a test in wild cats. Genome Res. 2002;12:414-23 pubmed
    ..of genomic diversity for ninety feline microsatellite loci among previously characterized populations of cheetahs, lions and pumas in recapitulating demographic history...
  2. Bauer H, De Iongh H, Princée F, Ngantou D. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa. C R Biol. 2003;326 Suppl 1:S112-8 pubmed
    ..Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here...
  3. Packer C, Ikanda D, Kissui B, Kushnir H. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania. Nature. 2005;436:927-8 pubmed
    ..the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308...
  4. Sachdev M, Sankaranarayanan R, Reddanna P, Thangaraj K, Singh L. Major histocompatibility complex class I polymorphism in Asiatic lions. Tissue Antigens. 2005;66:9-18 pubmed
    Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica), whose only natural habitat in the world is the Gir forest sanctuary of Gujarat State in India, are highly endangered and are considered to be highly inbred with narrow genetic diversity...
  5. Packer C, Pusey A, Eberly L. Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science. 2001;293:690-3 pubmed
    ..Female African lions demonstrate a unique form of plural breeding in which companions consistently produce similar numbers of surviving ..
  6. Pawar R, Lakshmikantan U, Hasan S, Poornachandar A, Shivaji S. Detection and molecular characterization of ascarid nematode infection (Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati) in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica). Acta Parasitol. 2012;57:67-73 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the ascarid infection in Asiatic lions using scat samples, based on microscopic analysis, PCR amplification of the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA and sequence analysis of the amplicons...
  7. de la Fe C, Rodriguez J, Ramirez G, Hervas J, Gil J, Poveda J. Sudden death associated with Clostridium sordellii in captive lions (Panthera leo). Vet Pathol. 2006;43:370-4 pubmed
    In the spring of 2003, a series of sudden deaths in a group of adult lions (Panthera leo) with a previous history of depression, inanition, and lethargy, was investigated...
  8. Troyer J, Pecon Slattery J, Roelke M, Black L, Packer C, O Brien S. Patterns of feline immunodeficiency virus multiple infection and genome divergence in a free-ranging population of African lions. J Virol. 2004;78:3777-91 pubmed
    ..Free-ranging lions, Panthera leo, carry a chronic species-specific strain of FIV, FIV-Ple, which so far has not been convincingly ..
  9. Guiserix M, Bahi Jaber N, Fouchet D, Sauvage F, Pontier D. The canine distemper epidemic in Serengeti: are lions victims of a new highly virulent canine distemper virus strain, or is pathogen circulation stochasticity to blame?. J R Soc Interface. 2007;4:1127-34 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may also be involved in other infectious disease emergences or re-emergences...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Troyer J, Roelke M, Jespersen J, Baggett N, Buckley Beason V, Macnulty D, et al. FIV diversity: FIV Ple subtype composition may influence disease outcome in African lions. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;143:338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..National Park, Tanzania, three divergent subtypes of lion FIV (FIV(Ple)) are endemic, whereby 100% of adult lions are infected with one or more of these strains...
  2. Packer C, Hilborn R, Mosser A, Kissui B, Borner M, Hopcraft G, et al. Ecological change, group territoriality, and population dynamics in Serengeti lions. Science. 2005;307:390-3 pubmed
    ..buffer populations against short-term environmental perturbations, but we have found that group living in African lions causes a complex response to long-term ecological change...
  3. Driciru M, Siefert L, Prager K, Dubovi E, Sande R, Princee F, et al. A serosurvey of viral infections in lions (Panthera leo), from Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:667-71 pubmed
    Serum samples from 14 lions (Panthera leo) from Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, were collected during 1998 and 1999 to determine infectious disease exposure in this threatened population...
  4. Molia S, Chomel B, Kasten R, Leutenegger C, Steele B, Marker L, et al. Prevalence of Bartonella infection in wild African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:31-41 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
  5. Burkala E, Poss M. Evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus Gag proteins. Virus Genes. 2007;35:251-64 pubmed
    ..Our data are based on FIV sequences derived from domestic cat (FIVfca), cougar (FIVpco), and lions (FIVple)...
  6. Lehmann M, Funston P, Owen C, Slotow R. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo) on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3998 pubmed publisher
    ..We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo) after reintroduction onto the 85 km(2) Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999-2005, using radio-telemetry...
  7. Pfefferle D, West P, Grinnell J, Packer C, Fischer J. Do acoustic features of lion, Panthera leo, roars reflect sex and male condition?. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;121:3947-53 pubmed
    ..This paper provides a description of the acoustic features of roars recorded from 18 male and 6 female lions (Panthera leo) living in the Serengeti National park, Tanzania...
  8. Funston P, Groom R, Lindsey P. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59044 pubmed publisher
    Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the ..
  9. Owen Smith N, Mills M. Shifting prey selection generates contrasting herbivore dynamics within a large-mammal predator-prey web. Ecology. 2008;89:1120-33 pubmed
    ..We assessed changing prey selection by lions, the major predator for 12 large herbivore species in South Africa's Kruger National Park...
  10. Pecon Slattery J, McCracken C, Troyer J, Vandewoude S, Roelke M, Sondgeroth K, et al. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:66 pubmed publisher
    ..In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but ..
  11. Lindsey P, Balme G, Booth V, Midlane N. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29332 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as ..
  12. Hayward M, Hayward G, Tambling C, Kerley G. Do lions Panthera leo actively select prey or do prey preferences simply reflect chance responses via evolutionary adaptations to optimal foraging?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23607 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows), and compared prey ..
  13. Dorso L, Risi E, Triau S, Labrut S, Nguyen F, Guigand L, et al. High-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandibular salivary gland in a lion (Panthera leo). Vet Pathol. 2008;45:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case report, we point out the importance of the immunohistochemical characterization for differential diagnosis between various types of carcinomas of the salivary gland...
  14. Appel M, Yates R, Foley G, Bernstein J, Santinelli S, Spelman L, et al. Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1994;6:277-88 pubmed
    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection occurred in captive leopards (Panthera pardus), tigers (Panthera tigris), lions (Panthera leo), and a jaguar (Panthera onca) in 1991 and 1992...
  15. Endo Y, Uema M, Miura R, Tsukiyama Kohara K, Tsujimoto H, Yoneda K, et al. Prevalence of canine distemper virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus in captive African lions (Panthera leo) in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:1587-9 pubmed
    ..virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were evaluated in 20 captive lions in two Japanese zoos. Anti-CDV antibody was detected in 13 of 20 lions...
  16. Keet D, Michel A, Bengis R, Becker P, van Dyk D, van Vuuren M, et al. Intradermal tuberculin testing of wild African lions (Panthera leo) naturally exposed to infection with Mycobacterium bovis. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:384-91 pubmed publisher
    African lions in the southern half of Kruger National Park (KNP) are infected with Mycobacterium bovis...
  17. Roelke M, Brown M, Troyer J, Winterbach H, Winterbach C, Hemson G, et al. Pathological manifestations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in wild African lions. Virology. 2009;390:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple-infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV seroprevalence emphasize the concern as to whether ..
  18. Shamir M, Rubin G, Aizenberg Z, Berkovich Z, Reifen R, Horowitz I, et al. Needle biopsy for hepatic vitamin A levels in lions (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:207-13 pubmed
    ..skull malformations resulting in neurologic abnormalities and death have been, and still are, reported in captive lions (Panthera leo) worldwide...
  19. Craft M, Volz E, Packer C, Meyers L. Disease transmission in territorial populations: the small-world network of Serengeti lions. J R Soc Interface. 2011;8:776-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, territoriality in Serengeti lions may be less protective and non-residents less important for disease transmission than previously considered.
  20. de Barros J, de Paula T, da Matta S, Fonseca C, Leite F, Rossi J, et al. Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves in adult captive African lions (Panthera leo, Linnaeus, 1758). Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;102:350-6 pubmed
    ..Testicular fragments of five adult African lions was fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl ..
  21. Packer C, Brink H, Kissui B, Maliti H, Kushnir H, Caro T. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania. Conserv Biol. 2011;25:142-53 pubmed publisher
    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters...
  22. Packer C, Loveridge A, Canney S, Caro T, Garnett S, Pfeifer M, et al. Conserving large carnivores: dollars and fence. Ecol Lett. 2013;16:635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas fenced reserves can maintain lions at 80% of their potential densities on annual management budgets of $500 km(-2) , unfenced populations require ..
  23. Packer C, Swanson A, Ikanda D, Kushnir H. Fear of darkness, the full moon and the nocturnal ecology of African lions. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22285 pubmed publisher
    ..behavior across the lunar cycle on the largest dataset of lion attacks ever assembled and found that African lions are as sensitive to moonlight when hunting humans as when hunting herbivores and that lions are most dangerous to ..
  24. Barnett R, Shapiro B, Barnes I, Ho S, Burger J, Yamaguchi N, et al. Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:1668-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Lions were the most widespread carnivores in the late Pleistocene, ranging from southern Africa to the southern USA, but little is known about the evolutionary relationships among these Pleistocene populations or the dynamics that led to ..
  25. Lagendijk D, Gusset M. Human-carnivore coexistence on communal land bordering the greater Kruger area, South Africa. Environ Manage. 2008;42:971-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve...
  26. Lindsey P, Balme G, Funston P, Henschel P, Hunter L, Madzikanda H, et al. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73808 pubmed publisher
    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice...
  27. Torina A, Naranjo V, Pennisi M, Patania T, Vitale F, Laricchiuta P, et al. Serologic and molecular characterization of tickborne pathogens in lions (Panthera leo) from the Fasano Safari Park, Italy. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:591-3 pubmed
    b>Lions (Panthera leo) are an endangered species threatened by illegal hunting, habitat loss, and infectious diseases. Little is known about the tick-borne pathogens that infect lions and could contribute to population declines...
  28. Tambling C, Druce D, Hayward M, Castley J, Adendorff J, Kerley G. Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo. Ecology. 2012;93:1297-304 pubmed
  29. Burger J, Rosendahl W, Loreille O, Hemmer H, Eriksson T, Götherström A, et al. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;30:841-9 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis shows that the ancient sequences form a clade that is most closely related to the extant lions from Africa and Asia; at the same time, cave lions appear to be highly distinct from their living relatives...
  30. Whitman K, Starfield A, Quadling H, Packer C. Sustainable trophy hunting of African lions. Nature. 2004;428:175-8 pubmed
    ..In species such as lions, excessive trophy hunting could theoretically cause male replacements (and associated infanticide) to become ..
  31. Bull M, Kennedy Stoskopf S, Levine J, Loomis M, Gebhard D, Tompkins W. Evaluation of T lymphocytes in captive african lions (Panthera leo) infected with feline immunodeficiency virus. Am J Vet Res. 2003;64:1293-300 pubmed
    To determine whether FIV infection in captive African lions is associated with changes in immune cell variables similar to those detected in domestic cats infected with FIV.
  32. Antunes A, Troyer J, Roelke M, Pecon Slattery J, Packer C, Winterbach C, et al. The evolutionary dynamics of the lion Panthera leo revealed by host and viral population genomics. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000251 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1...
  33. Dailidiene D, Dailide G, Ogura K, Zhang M, Mukhopadhyay A, Eaton K, et al. Helicobacter acinonychis: genetic and rodent infection studies of a Helicobacter pylori-like gastric pathogen of cheetahs and other big cats. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:356-65 pubmed
    ..S. zoo and two lions in a European circus, and the other group from a tiger and a lion-tiger hybrid in the same circus...
  34. Miller M, Swanson H, Wolfe L, Quartarone F, Huwer S, Southwick C, et al. Lions and prions and deer demise. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e4019 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration...
  35. Harrison T, McKnight C, Sikarskie J, Kitchell B, Garner M, Raymond J, et al. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo). Vet Pathol. 2010;47:952-7 pubmed publisher
    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo)...
  36. Penzhorn B, Kjemtrup A, Lopez Rebollar L, Conrad P. Babesia leo n. sp. from lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and its relation to other small piroplasms. J Parasitol. 2001;87:681-5 pubmed
    Babesia leo, a small piroplasm isolated from lions in South Africa is described as a distinct species based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Intraerythrocytic trophozoite and merozoite stages of B...
  37. Mosser A, Fryxell J, Eberly L, Packer C. Serengeti real estate: density vs. fitness-based indicators of lion habitat quality. Ecol Lett. 2009;12:1050-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined density vs. fitness-based measures of habitat quality for lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania...
  38. Banerjee K, Jhala Y, Chauhan K, Dave C. Living with lions: the economics of coexistence in the Gir forests, India. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e49457 pubmed publisher
    ..We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India...
  39. Munson L, Terio K, Kock R, Mlengeya T, Roelke M, Dubovi E, et al. Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in African lions. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2545 pubmed publisher
    ..A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic ..
  40. Valeix M, Loveridge A, Chamaillé Jammes S, Davidson Z, Murindagomo F, Fritz H, et al. Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use. Ecology. 2009;90:23-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we combined spatiotemporal fine-scale data from GPS radio collars on lions with habitat use information on 11 African herbivores in Hwange National Park (Zimbabwe) to test whether the risk ..
  41. Welburn S, Picozzi K, Coleman P, Packer C. Patterns in age-seroprevalence consistent with acquired immunity against Trypanosoma brucei in Serengeti lions. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e347 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered a distinct peak and decrease in age prevalence of T. brucei s.l. infection in wild African lions that is consistent with being driven by an exposure-dependent increase in cross-immunity following infections with ..
  42. Sakai H, Yanai T, Yonemaru K, Hirata A, Masegi T. Gallbladder adenocarcinomas in two captive African lions (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2003;34:302-6 pubmed
    Gallbladder adenocarcinomas in two captive African lions (Panthera leo), an 18-yr-old male and a 17-yr-old female, are described in this report. Grossly, both lions had hemoperitoneum with thickened and sclerotic gallbladder walls...
  43. Smirnova N, Troyer J, Schissler J, Terwee J, Poss M, Vandewoude S. Feline lentiviruses demonstrate differences in receptor repertoire and envelope structural elements. Virology. 2005;342:60-76 pubmed
    ..Pumas and lions are hosts for apparently apathogenic lentiviruses (PLV, LLV) distinct from FIV...
  44. Whitman K, Starfield A, Quadling H, Packer C. Modeling the effects of trophy selection and environmental disturbance on a simulated population of African lions. Conserv Biol. 2007;21:591-601 pubmed
    Tanzania is a premier destination for trophy hunting of African lions (Panthera leo) and is home to the most extensive long-term study of unhunted lions...
  45. Valeix M, Chamaillé Jammes S, Loveridge A, Davidson Z, Hunt J, Madzikanda H, et al. Understanding patch departure rules for large carnivores: lion movements support a patch-disturbance hypothesis. Am Nat. 2011;178:269-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We used global positioning system collars to monitor the movements of African lions (Panthera leo) and identified their kill sites to distinguish between these two hypotheses...
  46. Fryxell J, Mosser A, Sinclair A, Packer C. Group formation stabilizes predator-prey dynamics. Nature. 2007;449:1041-3 pubmed
    ..All of the prey species typically captured by Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) are gregarious, exhibiting nonlinear relationships between prey-group density and population ..
  47. Yu C, Kim K, Hwang D, Yhee J, Moon C, Hur T, et al. Peribiliary cysts associated with severe liver disease: a previously unrecognized tumor in a lion (Panthera leo). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:709-12 pubmed
    ..Given the presence of multiple organized cysts in the liver, the lesion was consistent with peribiliary cysts. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of peribiliary cysts in an animal...
  48. Gross Tsubery R, Chai O, Shilo Y, Miara L, Horowitz I, Shmueli A, et al. Computed tomographic analysis of calvarial hyperostosis in captive lions. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010;51:34-8 pubmed
    Osseous malformations in the skull and cervical vertebrae of lions in captivity are believed to be caused by hypovitaminosis A. These often lead to severe neurologic abnormalities and may result in death...
  49. Li X, Yeung L, Taniyasu S, Lam P, Yamashita N, Xu M, et al. Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China. Chemosphere. 2008;73:1649-53 pubmed publisher
    ..compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-..
  50. Trinkel M, Cooper D, Packer C, Slotow R. Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:494-500 pubmed
    ..To restore the health status of the HiP lion population, outbred lions were translocated into the existing population...
  51. Adams H, van Vuuren M, Kania S, Bosman A, Keet D, New J, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of a nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of lentivirus infection in lions (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:608-15 pubmed
    ..The lentivirus of African lions (Panthera leo), referred to as FIVple, is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa...
  52. Zucca P, Baciadonna L, Masci S, Mariscoli M. Illness as a source of variation of laterality in lions (Panthera leo). Laterality. 2011;16:356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In a preliminary stage, the clinical conditions of 24 adult lions were assessed. The same animals were scored for forelimb preference when in the quadrupedal standing position...
  53. Brennan G, Podell M, Wack R, Kraft S, Troyer J, Bielefeldt Ohmann H, et al. Neurologic disease in captive lions (Panthera leo) with low-titer lion lentivirus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4345-52 pubmed
    ..Three captive lions diagnosed with LLV infection displayed lymphocyte subset alterations and progressive behavioral, locomotor, and ..
  54. Roelke M, Pecon Slattery J, Taylor S, Citino S, Brown E, Packer C, et al. T-lymphocyte profiles in FIV-infected wild lions and pumas reveal CD4 depletion. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:234-48 pubmed
    ..reveal patterns consistent with coadaptation of virus and host in free-ranging FIV-Ple-infected African lions (Panthera leo) and FIV-Pco-infected pumas (Puma concolor) populations...
  55. Wenger S, Buss P, Joubert J, Steenkamp J, Shikwambana P, Hatt J. Evaluation of butorphanol, medetomidine and midazolam as a reversible narcotic combination in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo). Vet Anaesth Analg. 2010;37:491-500 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the effects of the combination butorphanol, medetomidine and midazolam (BMM) and its reversibility in lions.
  56. Shamir M, Shilo Y, Fridman A, Chai O, Reifen R, Miara L. Sub-occipital craniectomy in a lion (Panthera leo) with occipital bone malformation and hypovitaminosis A. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:455-9 pubmed
    ..accompanied by malformation of both the skull and the cervical vertebrae has been previously described in lions kept in captivity worldwide, and this dysfunction and malformation were most often related to vitamin A deficiency...
  57. Tucker A, Ramsay E, Donnell R. Oligodendroglioma in an african lion (Panthera leo). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:650-4 pubmed
    ..All findings were consistent with an oligodendroglioma. A second neoplasm, a pulmonary adenoma, was also iidentified at necropsy...
  58. Bull M, Gebhard D, Tompkins W, Kennedy Stoskopf S. Polymorphic expression in the CD8alpha chain surface receptor of African lions (Panthera leo). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002;84:181-9 pubmed
    ..The percentage of CD8 cells from lion peripheral blood was considerably lower than in the domestic cat. Lions with elevated levels of CD8+ cells were typically infected with FIV, similar to observations in the domestic cat...
  59. Hofmann Lehmann R, Fehr D, Grob M, Elgizoli M, Packer C, Martenson J, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east Africa. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996;3:554-62 pubmed
    ..are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), ..