ursidae

Summary

Summary: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.

Top Publications

  1. Seger R, Cross R, Rosen C, Causey R, Gundberg C, Carpenter T, et al. Investigating the mechanism for maintaining eucalcemia despite immobility and anuria in the hibernating American black bear (Ursus americanus). Bone. 2011;49:1205-12 pubmed publisher
  2. Willis E, Kersey D, Durrant B, Kouba A. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21159 pubmed publisher
    ..Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion. ..
  3. Yasukochi Y, Kurosaki T, Yoneda M, Koike H, Satta Y. MHC class II DQB diversity in the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus japonicus. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:230 pubmed publisher
    ..To prevent further decline of potential resistance against pathogens, a conservation policy for the Japanese black bear should be designed to maintain MHC rare variants in each local population. ..
  4. Zhu L, Zhan X, Meng T, Zhang S, Wei F. Landscape features influence gene flow as measured by cost-distance and genetic analyses: a case study for giant pandas in the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountains. BMC Genet. 2010;11:72 pubmed publisher
    ..Landscape-based genetic analysis suggests that gene flow will be enhanced if the connectivity between currently fragmented bamboo forests is increased. ..
  5. Sahdo B, Evans A, Arnemo J, Frobert O, Särndahl E, Blanc S. Body temperature during hibernation is highly correlated with a decrease in circulating innate immune cells in the brown bear (Ursus arctos): a common feature among hibernators?. Int J Med Sci. 2013;10:508-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of a difference in lymphocyte counts in this context requires further investigations. ..
  6. Jin K, Xue C, Wu X, Qian J, Zhu Y, Yang Z, et al. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22602 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch. ..
  7. Chow B, Hamilton J, Alsop D, Cattet M, Stenhouse G, Vijayan M. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;167:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. ..
  8. Stenvinkel P, Jani A, Johnson R. Hibernating bears (Ursidae): metabolic magicians of definite interest for the nephrologist. Kidney Int. 2013;83:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The hibernating bear (Ursidae) should be of specific interest to the nephrologist as they ingest no food or water for months, remaining anuric ..
  9. Lindqvist C, Schuster S, Sun Y, Talbot S, Qi J, Ratan A, et al. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5053-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, polar bears provide an excellent example of evolutionary opportunism within a widespread mammalian lineage...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Laske T, Harlow H, Garshelis D, Iaizzo P. Extreme respiratory sinus arrhythmia enables overwintering black bear survival--physiological insights and applications to human medicine. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2010;3:559-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The accelerated heart rate during breathing efficiently transports oxygen, with the heart "resting" between breaths to minimize energy usage. This adaptive cardiac physiology may have broad implications for human medicine...
  2. Fedorov V, Goropashnaya A, Tøien Ø, Stewart N, Chang C, Wang H, et al. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus). BMC Genomics. 2011;12:171 pubmed publisher
  3. Glad T, Bernhardsen P, Nielsen K, Brusetti L, Andersen M, Aars J, et al. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in Arctic Svalbard. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:10 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006...
  4. Lin Q, Li H, Gao M, Wang X, Ren W, Cong M, et al. Characterization of Baylisascaris schroederi from Qinling subspecies of giant panda in China by the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that the ITS-1 rDNA provides a suitable molecular marker for the inter-species phylogenetic analysis and differential identification of nematodes in order Ascaridata...
  5. Chen Y, Zhu Y, Wan Q, Lou J, Li W, Ge Y, et al. Patterns of adaptive and neutral diversity identify the Xiaoxiangling mountains as a refuge for the giant panda. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70229 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study identified XXL as a glacial refuge, specifically harboring the most number of primitive DQB alleles. ..
  6. Kersey D, Wildt D, Brown J, Snyder R, Huang Y, Monfort S. Endocrine milieu of perioestrus in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), as determined by non-invasive hormone measures. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2010;22:901-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach has potential value for providing point-in-time information on the reproductive status of free-living individuals...
  7. Goda N, Mano T, Kosintsev P, Vorobiev A, Masuda R. Allelic diversity of the MHC class II DRB genes in brown bears (Ursus arctos) and a comparison of DRB sequences within the family Ursidae. Tissue Antigens. 2010;76:404-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogenetic analysis of the DRB alleles among three genera (Ursus, Tremarctos, and Ailuropoda) in the family Ursidae revealed that DRB allelic lineages were not separated according to species...
  8. He G, Wang T, Yang G, Fei Y, Zhang Z, Wang C, et al. Sequence analysis of Bs-Ag2 gene from Baylisascaris schroederi of giant panda and evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Bs-Ag2 antigen in mice. Vaccine. 2009;27:3007-11 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Our data supported the use of Bs-Ag2 as a potential candidate for vaccination against B. schroederi infection...
  9. Finarelli J. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?. Biol Lett. 2010;6:350-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy of fewer, larger offspring correlating with increased encephalization remains intact even after independent changes in encephalization allometries in the evolutionary history of this clade...
  10. Qin Q, Li D, Zhang H, Hou R, Zhang Z, Zhang C, et al. Serosurvey of selected viruses in captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study emphasize the need for research on infectious diseases of giant pandas and development of suitable vaccines for the species...
  11. Miller W, Schuster S, Welch A, Ratan A, Bedoya Reina O, Zhao F, et al. Polar and brown bear genomes reveal ancient admixture and demographic footprints of past climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2382-90 pubmed publisher
  12. Huo T, Zhang Y, Lin J. Functional annotation from the genome sequence of the giant panda. Protein Cell. 2012;3:602-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nineteen proteins were predicted to be zinc-binding proteins, thus affecting the activities of nucleic acids. The 32 panda-specific proteins will be further investigated by structural and functional analysis...
  13. Regehr E, Hunter C, Caswell H, Amstrup S, Stirling I. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice. J Anim Ecol. 2010;79:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore are relevant to the extinction risk facing approximately one-third of the world's polar bears...
  14. Peigné S, Goillot C, Germonpré M, Blondel C, Bignon O, Merceron G. Predormancy omnivory in European cave bears evidenced by a dental microwear analysis of Ursus spelaeus from Goyet, Belgium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15390-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also raise questions about the ecological role and causes of the extinction of cave bears...
  15. Zhao G, Xu M, Zhu X. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Baylisascaris schroederi of the giant panda. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:216 pubmed publisher
    ..MicroRNA (miRNA) has been identified as one of the key factors for gene regulations at the post-transcriptional level, and also considered as a potential control and treatment target against infectious diseases...
  16. He G, Chen S, Wang T, Yan Y, Zhang Z, Li D, et al. Sequence analysis of the Bs-Ag1 gene of Baylisascaris schroederi from the giant panda and an evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Baylisascaris schroederi Bs-Ag1 antigen in mice. DNA Cell Biol. 2012;31:1174-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study supports the use of Bs-Ag1 as a potential candidate for vaccination against B. schroederi infection and provides basic data for further vaccination trials with mixtures of antigens (with Bs-Ag2 and Bs-Ag3) to B. schroederi...
  17. Zhao G, Li H, Ryan U, Cong M, Hu B, Gao M, et al. Phylogenetic study of Baylisascaris schroederi isolated from Qinling subspecies of giant panda in China based on combined nuclear 5.8S and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) ribosomal DNA sequences. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:497-500 pubmed publisher
    ..8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences provide alternative genetic markers for the identification of B. schroederi and for phylogenetic analysis of parasites in the family Ascarididae...
  18. Fink T, Rasmussen J, Emmersen J, Pilgaard L, Fahlman A, Brunberg S, et al. Adipose-derived stem cells from the brown bear (Ursus arctos) spontaneously undergo chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Stem Cell Res. 2011;7:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could have implications for the use of hibernating brown bears as a model to study disuse osteoporosis...
  19. Abella J, Alba D, Robles J, Valenciano A, Rotgers C, Carmona R, et al. Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48985 pubmed publisher
    The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae), has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century...
  20. Zhao S, Zheng P, Dong S, Zhan X, Wu Q, Guo X, et al. Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation. Nat Genet. 2013;45:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified three distinct panda populations that show genetic adaptation to their environments. However, in all three populations, anthropogenic activities have negatively affected pandas for 3,000 years...
  21. Tøien Ø, Blake J, Edgar D, Grahn D, Heller H, Barnes B. Hibernation in black bears: independence of metabolic suppression from body temperature. Science. 2011;331:906-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The pronounced reduction and delayed recovery of metabolic rate in hibernating bears suggest that the majority of metabolic suppression during hibernation is independent of lowered body temperature...
  22. Wan Q, Zhang P, Ni X, Wu H, Chen Y, Kuang Y, et al. A novel HURRAH protocol reveals high numbers of monomorphic MHC class II loci and two asymmetric multi-locus haplotypes in the Père David's deer. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14518 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the Père David's deer are currently at risk for increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens...
  23. Slater G, Figueirido B, Louis L, Yang P, Van Valkenburgh B. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13870 pubmed publisher
  24. Tao Y, Zeng B, Xu L, Yue B, Yang D, Zou F. Interferon-gamma of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): complementary DNA cloning, expression, and phylogenetic analysis. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results represent a first step into the study of IFN-gamma in giant panda...
  25. Swaisgood R, Wei F, Wildt D, Kouba A, Zhang Z. Giant panda conservation science: how far we have come. Biol Lett. 2010;6:143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss recent advancements in conservation science for giant pandas and suggest that the way forward is more direct application of emerging science to management and policy...
  26. Nelson O, Robbins C. Cardiac function adaptations in hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). J Comp Physiol B. 2010;180:465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings will aid in rational approaches to identifying underlying molecular mechanisms...
  27. Kersey D, Wildt D, Brown J, Snyder R, Huang Y, Monfort S. Unique biphasic progestagen profile in parturient and non-parturient giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) as determined by faecal hormone monitoring. Reproduction. 2010;140:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, progestagen excretion patterns throughout this period could not be used to discriminate among non-pregnant, pregnant or pseudopregnant states...
  28. Figueirido B, Palmqvist P, Pérez Claros J, Dong W. Cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Naturwissenschaften. 2011;98:107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that cranial shape did not remain essentially uniform in the Ailuropoda lineage, as previously thought, but underwent a number of changes during more than 2 Myr...
  29. McGee Lawrence M, Wojda S, Barlow L, Drummer T, Bunnell K, Auger J, et al. Six months of disuse during hibernation does not increase intracortical porosity or decrease cortical bone geometry, strength, or mineralization in black bear (Ursus americanus) femurs. J Biomech. 2009;42:1378-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse and age-related osteoporoses...
  30. Nielsen S, Shafer A, Boyce M, Stenhouse G. Does learning or instinct shape habitat selection?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53721 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that habitat selection in grizzly bears are partly learned from their mothers, which could have implications for the translocation of wildlife to novel environments. ..
  31. Wei F, Hu Y, Zhu L, Bruford M, Zhan X, Zhang L. Black and white and read all over: the past, present and future of giant panda genetics. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:5660-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, on the basis of these advances and predictable future changes in genetic technology, we discuss future research directions that seem promising for giant panda biology and conservation...
  32. Hansen R, Carr M, Apanavicius C, Jiang P, Bissell H, Gocinski B, et al. Seasonal shifts in giant panda feeding behavior: relationships to bamboo plant part consumption. Zoo Biol. 2010;29:470-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that unique seasonal foraging behaviors observed in wild pandas are also apparent in captive animals in relation to plant part selectivity and feeding behaviors...
  33. Schwab C, Gänzle M. Comparative analysis of fecal microbiota and intestinal microbial metabolic activity in captive polar bears. Can J Microbiol. 2011;57:177-85 pubmed publisher
    The composition of the intestinal microbiota depends on gut physiology and diet. Ursidae possess a simple gastrointestinal system composed of a stomach, small intestine, and indistinct hindgut...
  34. Zhang L, Yang X, Wu H, Gu X, Hu Y, Wei F. The parasites of giant pandas: individual-based measurement in wild animals. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:164-71 pubmed
    ..Using noninvasive genetic sampling to avoid such bias should form a standard tool in the management of endangered species and their parasites...
  35. Ordiz A, Støen O, Delibes M, Swenson J. Predators or prey? Spatio-temporal discrimination of human-derived risk by brown bears. Oecologia. 2011;166:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, bears adjust their behavior to avoid human encounters, which resembles the way prey avoid their predators. Bears responded to fine-scale variations in human-derived risk, both on a seasonal and a daily basis...
  36. Zhu L, Zhan X, Wu H, Zhang S, Meng T, Bruford M, et al. Conservation implications of drastic reductions in the smallest and most isolated populations of giant pandas. Conserv Biol. 2010;24:1299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a targeted conservation action--translocation--has been proposed and is being implemented by the Chinese government...
  37. Steinmetz R, Garshelis D, Chutipong W, Seuaturien N. The shared preference niche of sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in a tropical forest mosaic. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14509 pubmed publisher
    ..This model of the niche has received little attention in ecology, but appears to be relatively common in nature. ..
  38. Hunter C, Caswell H, Runge M, Regehr E, Amstrup S, Stirling I. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis. Ecology. 2010;91:2883-97 pubmed
    ..These projections were instrumental in the decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act...
  39. Li R, Fan W, Tian G, Zhu H, He L, Cai J, et al. The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome. Nature. 2010;463:311-7 pubmed publisher
  40. McGee Lawrence M, Wojda S, Barlow L, Drummer T, Castillo A, Kennedy O, et al. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Bone. 2009;45:1186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis...
  41. Edwards C, Suchard M, Lemey P, Welch J, Barnes I, Fulton T, et al. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..arctos) or their response to previous environmental change...
  42. Vestergaard P, Støen O, Swenson J, Mosekilde L, Heickendorff L, Frobert O. Vitamin D status and bone and connective tissue turnover in brown bears (Ursus arctos) during hibernation and the active state. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21483 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, brown bears (Ursus arctos) are highly immobilised for half of the year during hibernation without signs of bone loss and therefore may serve as a model for prevention of osteoporosis...
  43. Hailer F, Kutschera V, Hallström B, Klassert D, Fain S, Leonard J, et al. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage. Science. 2012;336:344-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight that multilocus genomic analyses are crucial for an accurate understanding of evolutionary history...
  44. Goda N, Mano T, Masuda R. Genetic diversity of the MHC class-II DQA gene in brown bears (Ursus arctos) on Hokkaido, Northern Japan. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:530-5 pubmed publisher
  45. Kuduk K, Babik W, Bojarska K, Sliwinska E, Kindberg J, Taberlet P, et al. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:197 pubmed publisher
    ..DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae.
  46. Fahlman A, Arnemo J, Swenson J, Pringle J, Brunberg S, Nyman G. Physiologic evaluation of capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine in brown bears (Ursus arctos). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:1-11 pubmed
    ..Oxygen supplementation is recommended to counteract hypoxemia during anesthesia...
  47. Iaizzo P, Laske T, Harlow H, McClay C, Garshelis D. Wound healing during hibernation by black bears (Ursus americanus) in the wild: elicitation of reduced scar formation. Integr Zool. 2012;7:48-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Unique approaches may be found to improve healing for malnourished, hypothermic, diabetic and elderly patients or to reduce scarring associated with burns and traumatic injuries...
  48. Schwab C, Cristescu B, Boyce M, Stenhouse G, Gänzle M. Bacterial populations and metabolites in the feces of free roaming and captive grizzly bears. Can J Microbiol. 2009;55:1335-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A consistent data set was obtained that associated fecal microbiota and metabolites with the distinctive gut physiology and diet of grizzly bears...
  49. Cronin M, Amstrup S, Talbot S, Sage G, Amstrup K. Genetic variation, relatedness, and effective population size of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea, Alaska. J Hered. 2009;100:681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results verify and expand field data on reproduction by females and provide new data on reproduction by males and estimates of relatedness and N(e) in a polar bear population...
  50. Molnár P, Klanjscek T, Derocher A, Obbard M, Lewis M. A body composition model to estimate mammalian energy stores and metabolic rates from body mass and body length, with application to polar bears. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:2313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our method is simple, non-invasive and provides considerably more information on the energetic status of individuals than currently available methods...
  51. Zhang H, Li D, Wang C, Hull V. Delayed implantation in giant pandas: the first comprehensive empirical evidence. Reproduction. 2009;138:979-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study informs reproductive biology by exploring the little-studied phenomenon of delayed implantation in relationship to physiological changes in pregnant giant panda females...
  52. Edwards M, Derocher A, Hobson K, Branigan M, Nagy J. Fast carnivores and slow herbivores: differential foraging strategies among grizzly bears in the Canadian Arctic. Oecologia. 2011;165:877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Grizzlies of the Mackenzie Delta live in extremely harsh conditions and identifying within-population diet specialization has improved our understanding of varying habitat requirements within the population...
  53. Rode K, Amstrup S, Regehr E. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:768-82 pubmed
    ..These results, based on analysis of a long-term data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population...
  54. Du Y, Hou Y, Hou W. Molecular characterization of a gene POLR2H encoded an essential subunit for RNA polymerase II from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca). Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:1495-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 kDa polypeptide in line with the predicted protein. On the basis of what has already been achieved in this study, further deep-in research will be conducted, which has great value in theory and practical significance...
  55. Zhang W, Yie S, Yue B, Zhou J, An R, Yang J, et al. Determination of Baylisascaris schroederi infection in wild giant pandas by an accurate and sensitive PCR/CE-SSCP method. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41995 pubmed publisher
    ..schroederi was found to be only 33% in the 91 fecal samples, 32% in the fecal samples of the 31 identified giant pandas, and no reliable infectious intensity was observed...
  56. Frederick C, Kyes R, Hunt K, Collins D, Durrant B, Wasser S. Methods of estrus detection and correlates of the reproductive cycle in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Theriogenology. 2010;74:1121-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, data for cytology, vulva changes and behavior were consistent with, and complementary to, hormonal data; collectively, they delineated estrus and identified specific reproductive types...
  57. Zhu L, Wu Q, Dai J, Zhang S, Wei F. Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the giant panda gut microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17714-9 pubmed publisher
  58. Zhao S, Shao C, Goropashnaya A, Stewart N, Xu Y, Tøien Ø, et al. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:201 pubmed publisher
    Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group...
  59. Zhao H, Yang J, Xu H, Zhang J. Pseudogenization of the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in the giant panda coincided with its dietary switch to bamboo. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:2669-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, additional factors are likely involved because herbivores such as cow and horse still retain an intact Tas1r1...
  60. Xie Y, Zhang Z, Wang C, Lan J, Li Y, Chen Z, et al. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Baylisascaris schroederi, Baylisascaris ailuri and Baylisascaris transfuga from giant panda, red panda and polar bear. Gene. 2011;482:59-67 pubmed publisher