raccoons

Summary

Summary: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.

Top Publications

  1. Srithayakumar V, Castillo S, Rosatte R, Kyle C. MHC class II DRB diversity in raccoons (Procyon lotor) reveals associations with raccoon rabies virus (Lyssavirus). Immunogenetics. 2011;63:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (RRV) is an endemic wildlife disease which causes acute encephalopathies and is a strong selective force on raccoons (Procyon lotor), with estimates of ?85% of the population succumbing to the disease when epizootic...
  2. Smyser T, Page L, Rhodes O. Optimization of Raccoon latrine surveys for quantifying exposure to Baylisascaris procyonis. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:929-33 pubmed
    ..Further, evaluation of exposure risk based on individual scats has the potential to greatly reduce the time and expense associated with obtaining precise estimates of B. procyonis exposure risk...
  3. Evans R. Baylisascaris procyonis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) eggs in raccoon (Procyon lotol) latrine scats in Orange County, California. J Parasitol. 2002;88:189-90 pubmed
    ..However, EPG exhibited a significant rise (37,730 +/- 1,865) in the fall and a significant decline (26,204 +/- 1,446) in the winter (ANOVA, P = 0.045). The overall egg prevalence was 100%, and the overall mean EPG was 30,265 +/- 867...
  4. Foroutan P, Meltzer M, Smith K. Cost of distributing oral raccoon-variant rabies vaccine in Ohio: 1997-2000. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;220:27-32 pubmed
    Analysis of the cost of 8 distributions of oral rabies vaccine (ORV) with strains known to infect raccoons in Ohio between 1997 and 2000. Original study...
  5. Kaneko K, Akiya Y, Sato H, Tanaka A, Aoki H, Miyoshi M, et al. Seasonal influence on testicular function of male raccoons, Procyon lotor. J Reprod Dev. 2005;51:477-82 pubmed
    In order to clarify the breeding capability of male raccoons in Japan, the testes of raccoons, a nuisance animal, collected in Kanagawa Prefecture and Hokkaido were histologically inspected...
  6. Krebs J, Mandel E, Swerdlow D, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2004. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:1912-25 pubmed
    ..Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bats (19.9%), 389 foxes (5.7%), 281 cats (4.1%), 115 cattle (1...
  7. Linhart S, Wlodkowski J, Kavanaugh D, Motes Kreimeyer L, Montoney A, Chipman R, et al. A new flavor-coated sachet bait for delivering oral rabies vaccine to raccoons and coyotes. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:363-77 pubmed
    Research was conducted during 1996-2000 to develop baits for delivering an oral rabies vaccine to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans)...
  8. Hernandez S, Galbreath B, Riddle D, Moore A, Palamar M, Levy M, et al. Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from North Carolina and current status of the parasite in the USA. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:693-8 pubmed publisher
    Baylisascaris procyonis is an intestinal nematode of raccoons (Procyon lotor) that can cause fatal larva migrans in numerous species of birds and mammals, including humans...
  9. Okuyama M, Shimozuru M, Takahashi N, Fukui D, Nakamura R, Tsubota T. Seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and peripheral testosterone concentration in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:727-32 pubmed
    Feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) have been increasing in number since 1979 and are currently subject to pest control in Hokkaido...

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Lucey B, Russell C, Smith D, Wilson M, Long A, Waller L, et al. Spatiotemporal analysis of epizootic raccoon rabies propagation in Connecticut, 1991-1995. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2002;2:77-86 pubmed
  2. Dubey J, Quirk T, Pittt J, Sundar N, Velmurugan G, Kwok O, et al. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), cats (Felis domesticus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), black bear (Ursus americanus), and cougar (Puma concolor) from Canada. J Parasitol. 2008;94:42-5 pubmed publisher
    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats (Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus ..
  3. Wyatt J, Barker W, Bennett N, Hanlon C. Human rabies postexposure prophylaxis during a raccoon rabies epizootic in New York, 1993 and 1994. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:415-23 pubmed
    ..g., raccoon saliva on pet dogs' and cats' fur) should also be considered. ..
  4. Hamir A, Hanlon C, Rupprecht C. Prevalence of psammoma bodies in meninges and choroid plexuses of raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Parramore Island, Virginia. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:76-9 pubmed
    Microscopic evidence of multifocal mineralizations (psammoma bodies) were seen in brains of 33/53 (62%) raccoons (Procyon lotor) necropsied on Parramore Island, Virginia...
  5. Russell C, Smith D, Waller L, Childs J, Real L. A priori prediction of disease invasion dynamics in a novel environment. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:21-5 pubmed
    ..These results have general implications for predicting future pathogen invasions and evaluating potential containment strategies. ..
  6. Porcella D, Zillioux E, Grieb T, Newman J, West G. Retrospective study of mercury in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in south Florida. Ecotoxicology. 2004;13:207-21 pubmed
    ..However, large differences existed between sites, amounting to a factor of 20 for raccoons collected during 2000 and during the period prior to 1960 (museum samples)...
  7. Velasco Villa A, Orciari L, Souza V, Juárez Islas V, Gomez Sierra M, Castillo A, et al. Molecular epizootiology of rabies associated with terrestrial carnivores in Mexico. Virus Res. 2005;111:13-27 pubmed
    ..Two other skunk foci share a common ancestor with canine rabies and were distributed in northwest Mexico and Yucatan. ..
  8. Hanlon C, Niezgoda M, Hamir A, Schumacher C, Koprowski H, Rupprecht C. First North American field release of a vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus. J Wildl Dis. 1998;34:228-39 pubmed
    ..An annual total of 887 raccoons were live-trapped for sedation, physical examination and blood collection for rabies antibody determination; ..
  9. Hancock K, Zajac A, Pung O, Elvinger F, Rosypal A, Lindsay D. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from an urban area of northern Virginia. J Parasitol. 2005;91:470-2 pubmed
    b>Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are reservoir hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi...
  10. Hamir A, Kunkle R, Miller J, Richt J. Second passage of sheep scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agents in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol. 2005;42:844-51 pubmed
    ..and pathogenicity of sheep scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agents derived from raccoons (first passage), raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either TME (one source) or scrapie (two ..
  11. Hamir A, Picton R, Blythe L, Heidel J. Diagnostic exercise: astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol. 2008;45:949-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to be the only reported case of astrocytoma that involved multiple anatomic sites in the central nervous system of this raccoon. ..
  12. Sorvillo F, Ash L, Berlin O, Morse S. Baylisascaris procyonis: an emerging helminthic zoonosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:355-9 pubmed
    Baylisascaris procyonis, a roundworm infection of raccoons, is emerging as an important helminthic zoonosis, principally affecting young children...
  13. Olson C, Mitchell K, Werner P. Bait ingestion by free-ranging raccoons and nontarget species in an oral rabies vaccine field trial in Florida. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:734-43 pubmed
    ..Bait ingestion was estimated by microscopic detection of tetracycline in tooth and bone samples from 244 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 33 opossums (Didelphis virginianus), 31 feral cats, and two gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)..
  14. Junge R, Bauman K, King M, Gompper M. A serologic assessment of exposure to viral pathogens and Leptospira in an urban raccoon (Procyon lotor) population inhabiting a large zoological park. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:18-26 pubmed
    In urban environments, raccoons (Procyon lotor) may act as reservoirs for an array of pathogenic organisms, presenting spillover risks for human, domestic animal, and captive (zoo) animal populations...
  15. Monello R, Gompper M. Biotic and abiotic predictors of tick (Dermacentor variabilis) abundance and engorgement on free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Parasitology. 2007;134:2053-62 pubmed
    ..of adult Dermacentor variabilis ticks to attach and engorge with blood across 10 populations of free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor)...
  16. Birkenheuer A, Marr H, Hladio N, Acton A. Molecular evidence of prevalent dual piroplasma infections in North American raccoons (Procyon lotor). Parasitology. 2008;135:33-7 pubmed
    Based on 18S rRNA sequence analyses 2 distinct genotypes of piroplasms have been described in raccoons. One genotype resides in the Babesia sensu stricto clade and the other in the Babesia microti-like clade...
  17. Raizman E, Dharmarajan G, Beasley J, Wu C, Pogranichniy R, Rhodes O. Serologic survey for selected infectious diseases in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Indiana, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:531-6 pubmed
    ..of this study was to characterize the antibody prevalence of important livestock and domestic animal pathogens in raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped and sampled in 39 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA, between 2004 and 2005...
  18. Roellig D, Ellis A, Yabsley M. Genetically different isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi elicit different infection dynamics in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi infection dynamics in two common North American reservoirs, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor)...
  19. Mencher J, Smith S, Powell T, Stinchcomb D, Osorio J, Rocke T. Protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5502-5 pubmed
    ..Antibody titers against Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly (P < 0.01) in vaccinees, and their survival was significantly higher upon challenge with Y. pestis than that of negative controls (P < 0.01). ..
  20. Wise M, Sorvillo F, Shafir S, Ash L, Berlin O. Severe and fatal central nervous system disease in humans caused by Baylisascaris procyonis, the common roundworm of raccoons: a review of current literature. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:317-23 pubmed
    Baylisascaris procyonis, a parasitic infection of raccoons, causes severe neurologic disease in humans when infective eggs from raccoon feces are ingested...
  21. Cullingham C, Pond B, Kyle C, Rees E, Rosatte R, White B. Combining direct and indirect genetic methods to estimate dispersal for informing wildlife disease management decisions. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:4874-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding dispersal behaviours of raccoons can contribute to refining management protocols to reduce economic impacts...
  22. Page L, Gehrt S, Cascione A, Kellner K. The relationship between Baylisascaris procyonis prevalence and raccoon population structure. J Parasitol. 2009;95:1314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) are the definitive host of Baylisascaris procyonis , an intestinal roundworm...
  23. Henderson H, Jackson F, Bean K, Panasuk B, Niezgoda M, Slate D, et al. Oral immunization of raccoons and skunks with a canine adenovirus recombinant rabies vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:7194-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, captive raccoons and skunks were used to evaluate a vaccine developed by incorporating the rabies virus glycoprotein gene into a ..
  24. Root J, Bentler K, Sullivan H, Blitvich B, McLean R, Franklin A. Antibody responses of raccoons naturally exposed to influenza A virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:821-3 pubmed publisher
    An investigation was performed to describe the responses of naturally acquired antibodies to influenza A virus in raccoons (Procyon lotor) over time...
  25. Oie K, Durrant G, Wolfinbarger J, Martin D, Costello F, Perryman S, et al. The relationship between capsid protein (VP2) sequence and pathogenicity of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV): a possible role for raccoons in the transmission of ADV infections. J Virol. 1996;70:852-61 pubmed
    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) DNA was identified by PCR in samples from mink and raccoons on commercial ranches during an outbreak of Aleutian disease (AD)...
  26. Lednicky J, Meehan T, Kinsel M, Dubach J, Hungerford L, Sarich N, et al. Effective primary isolation of wild-type canine distemper virus in MDCK, MV1 Lu and Vero cells without nucleotide sequence changes within the entire haemagglutinin protein gene and in subgenomic sections of the fusion and phospho protein genes. J Virol Methods. 2004;118:147-57 pubmed
    ..model of morbillivirus virulence and pathogenesis through a study of distemper in naturally infected free-ranging raccoons. The isolation of CDV from raccoon tissues is essential for this work...
  27. Russell C, Real L, Smith D. Spatial control of rabies on heterogeneous landscapes. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e27 pubmed
  28. Monello R, Gompper M. Relative importance of demographics, locale, and seasonality underlying louse and flea parasitism of raccoons (Procyon lotor). J Parasitol. 2009;95:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..to explain louse (Trichodectes octomaculatus) and flea (Orchopeas howardi) infestation across 10 populations of raccoons (Procyon lotor)...
  29. Kreindel S, McGuill M, Meltzer M, Rupprecht C, Demaria A. The cost of rabies postexposure prophylaxis: one state's experience. Public Health Rep. 1998;113:247-51 pubmed
    ..4 million to $6.4 million. Given the rapid increase in use of PEP, further studies should be undertaken to determine the appropriateness of use, and other alternatives, such as oral wildlife vaccines, should be considered. ..
  30. Fehlner Gardiner C, Rudd R, Donovan D, Slate D, Kempf L, Badcock J. Comparing ONRAB® AND RABORAL V-RG® oral rabies vaccine field performance in raccoons and striped skunks, New Brunswick, Canada, and Maine, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:157-67 pubmed
    ..USA, and the province of New Brunswick (NB), Canada, to compare the performance of two oral rabies vaccines in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis)...
  31. Beasley J, Olson Z, Beatty W, Dharmarajan G, Rhodes O. Effects of culling on mesopredator population dynamics. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58982 pubmed publisher
    ..During 2007 we removed 382 raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 30 forest patches throughout a fragmented agricultural ecosystem to test hypotheses ..
  32. Hanlon C, Niezgoda M, Morrill P, Rupprecht C. Oral efficacy of an attenuated rabies virus vaccine in skunks and raccoons. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:420-7 pubmed
    b>Raccoons and skunks are major rabies reservoirs in North America. Oral vaccination is one method to consider for disease control in these carnivores. Under field conditions in the USA, only one oral rabies vaccine has been used...
  33. Blackwell B, Seamans T, White R, Patton Z, Bush R, Cepek J. Exposure time of oral rabies vaccine baits relative to baiting density and raccoon population density. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:222-9 pubmed
    ..landscape at PBS: and 2) quantify the time that placebo, Merial RABORAL V-RG vaccine baits were available to raccoons. From August through November 2002 we surveyed raccoon use of PBS along 19...
  34. Page L, Gehrt S, Robinson N. Land-use effects on prevalence of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis). J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:594-9 pubmed
    ..procyonis has been reported in 68-82% of raccoons. Raccoon populations have increased in response to changes in human land use, and often reach higher densities in ..
  35. Rosatte R, Donovan D, Davies J, Allan M, Bachmann P, Stevenson B, et al. Aerial distribution of ONRAB baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario, Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:363-74 pubmed
    ..Bait acceptance during 2006 was 62 and 74% in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in areas baited at 150 baits/km(2) and 75 and 77% in plots baited at 300 baits/km(2)...
  36. Rosatte R, Donovan D, Allan M, Bruce L, Buchanan T, Sobey K, et al. The control of raccoon rabies in Ontario Canada: proactive and reactive tactics, 1994-2007. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:772-84 pubmed
    ..A total of 96,621 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 7,967 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were live captured using 1,221,044 trap nights, ..
  37. Page K, Beasley J, Olson Z, Smyser T, Downey M, Kellner K, et al. Reducing Baylisascaris procyonis roundworm larvae in raccoon latrines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:90-3 pubmed publisher
    Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms, a parasite of raccoons, can infect humans, sometimes fatally. Parasite eggs can remain viable in raccoon latrines for years...
  38. Kollars T, Kengluecha A. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting raccoons (Carnivora: Procyonidae) and opossums (Marsupialia: Didelphimorphidae) in Tennessee. J Med Entomol. 2001;38:601-2 pubmed
    Spotted fever group Rickettsia were present in 13 of 1,171 (1.1%) of adult Dermacentor variabilis Say removed from raccoons (Procyon lotor L.) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana Kerr) in western Tennessee...
  39. Gavin P, Kazacos K, Tan T, Brinkman W, Byrd S, Davis A, et al. Neural larva migrans caused by the raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:971-5 pubmed
    ..In many regions of North America, large populations of raccoons with high rates of endemic B...
  40. Asano M, Matoba Y, Ikeda T, Suzuki M, Asakawa M, Ohtaishi N. Growth pattern and seasonal weight changes of the feral raccoon (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan. Jpn J Vet Res. 2003;50:165-73 pubmed
    The growth pattern and seasonal weight fluctuations of feral raccoons in Hokkaido were evaluated between 1999 and 2001...
  41. Krebs J, Wheeling J, Childs J. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2002. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;223:1736-48 pubmed
    ..The relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: raccoons (36.3%; 2,891 cases), skunks (30.5%; 2,433), bats (17.2%; 1,373), foxes (6.4%; 508), cats (3.8%; 299), dogs (1...
  42. Roussere G, Murray W, Raudenbush C, Kutilek M, Levee D, Kazacos K. Raccoon roundworm eggs near homes and risk for larva migrans disease, California communities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1516-22 pubmed
    ..The presence of B. procyonis eggs in raccoon latrines was common, widespread, and closely associated with human habitation. Where raccoon densities are high, education of the public and removal of raccoons may be necessary.
  43. Miller C, Kinsella J, Garner M, Evans S, Gullett P, Schmidt R. Endemic infections of Parastrongylus (=Angiostrongylus) costaricensis in two species of nonhuman primates, raccoons, and an opossum from Miami, Florida. J Parasitol. 2006;92:406-8 pubmed
    ..in 2 Ma's night monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) from the DuMond Conservancy located at Monkey Jungle in Miami, in 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped near the MetroZoo, and in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) trapped at the MetroZoo...
  44. Henderson J, Biek R, Hanlon C, O Dee S, Real L. Rabies virus in raccoons, Ohio, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:650-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone...
  45. Yabsley M, Murphy S, Luttrell M, Wilcox B, Ruckdeschel C. Raccoons (Procyon lotor), but not rodents, are natural and experimental hosts for an ehrlichial organism related to "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". Vet Microbiol. 2008;131:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine prevalence and distribution, we conducted a molecular survey of free-ranging raccoons (n=197) from 10 populations in 3 states and found that infections were common in tick-infested populations (50-94%..
  46. Henn J, Chomel B, Boulouis H, Kasten R, Murray W, Bar Gal G, et al. Bartonella rochalimae in raccoons, coyotes, and red foxes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1984-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated B. rochalimae from 1 red fox near Paris, France, and from 11 raccoons and 2 coyotes from California, USA. Co-infection with B. vinsonii subsp...
  47. Clark K, Savick K, Butler J. Babesia microti in rodents and raccoons from northeast Florida. J Parasitol. 2012;98:1117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..microti sensu stricto strains that are pathogenic to humans, and strains found in raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) most closely resembles previously described raccoon-related strains of B. microti sensu lato...
  48. Meltzer M. Assessing the costs and benefits of an oral vaccine for raccoon rabies: a possible model. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2:343-9 pubmed
  49. Chang H, Eidson M, Noonan Toly C, Trimarchi C, Rudd R, Wallace B, et al. Public health impact of reemergence of rabies, New York. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:909-13 pubmed
    ..were submitted to the state laboratory from 1993 to 1998; 8,858 (16%) animals were confirmed rabid, with raccoons the most common species (75%)...
  50. McCarthy A, Shaw M, Goodman S. Pathogen evolution and disease emergence in carnivores. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:3165-74 pubmed
  51. Hamer G, Kitron U, Brawn J, Loss S, Ruiz M, Goldberg T, et al. Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae): a bridge vector of West Nile virus to humans. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:125-8 pubmed
    ..Additional blood meals were derived from four mammal species, primarily humans and raccoons (Procyon lotor)...
  52. Yabsley M, Murphy S, Luttrell M, Little S, Massung R, Stallknecht D, et al. Experimental and field studies on the suitability of raccoons (Procyon lotor) as hosts for tick-borne pathogens. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:491-503 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the experimental susceptibility and natural exposure of raccoons (Procyon lotor) to five tick-borne pathogens of human and veterinary importance, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E...
  53. Hall J, Bentler K, Landolt G, Elmore S, Minnis R, Campbell T, et al. Influenza infection in wild raccoons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1842-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are common, widely distributed animals that frequently come into contact with wild waterfowl, agricultural operations, and humans. Serosurveys showed that raccoons are exposed to avian influenza virus...
  54. Cullingham C, Kyle C, Pond B, Rees E, White B. Differential permeability of rivers to raccoon gene flow corresponds to rabies incidence in Ontario, Canada. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from the two regions suggest different permeabilities to raccoons between New York and Ontario that may be attributed to the rivers...
  55. Ohno Y, Sato H, Suzuki K, Yokoyama M, Uni S, Shibasaki T, et al. Detection of antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus in raccoons, raccoon dogs and wild boars in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1035-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, antibodies against JEV in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor), wild boars (Sus scrofa) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan were examined...
  56. Inoue K, Kabeya H, Fujita H, Makino T, Asano M, Inoue S, et al. Serological survey of five zoonoses, scrub typhus, Japanese spotted fever, tularemia, Lyme disease, and Q fever, in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:15-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis), Lyme disease (Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii), and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) captured in Hokkaido and Kanagawa Prefectures in Japan...
  57. Dela Cruz F, Giannitti F, Li L, Woods L, Del Valle L, Delwart E, et al. Novel polyomavirus associated with brain tumors in free-ranging raccoons, western United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:77-84 pubmed publisher
    Tumors of any type are exceedingly rare in raccoons. High-grade brain tumors, consistently located in the frontal lobes and olfactory tracts, were detected in 10 raccoons during March 2010-May 2012 in California and Oregon, suggesting an ..
  58. Appel M, Yates R, Foley G, Bernstein J, Santinelli S, Spelman L, et al. Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1994;6:277-88 pubmed
    ..CDV-infected raccoons were thought to be the source of infection in these cats...
  59. Moore D. Spatial diffusion of raccoon rabies in Pennsylvania, USA. Prev Vet Med. 1999;40:19-32 pubmed
    ..Once the disease reached the northern counties, the disease moved west toward Ohio. I believe that TSA was useful in identifying the pattern of raccoon-rabies diffusion across the stage from the inherent noise of disease-reporting data...
  60. Yabsley M, Noblet G. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in raccoons from South Carolina and Georgia. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:75-83 pubmed
    ..Further, T. cruzi has been reported from over 20 species of wildlife reservoir hosts in the USA, with raccoons (Procyon lotor) and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) being the most common. Whereas previous studies on T...
  61. Moran G. Dogs, cats, raccoons, and bats: where is the real risk for rabies?. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39:541-3 pubmed
  62. Gordon E, Krebs J, Rupprecht C, Real L, Childs J. Persistence of elevated rabies prevention costs following post-epizootic declines in rates of rabies among raccoons (Procyon lotor). Prev Vet Med. 2005;68:195-222 pubmed
    ..The costs for rabies prevention activities reached apices during the epizootic stage of raccoon rabies (2.7-10.8 times baseline) an unforeseen finding indicated elevated costs persisted (1.7-7.2 times baseline) into the enzootic stage...
  63. Gaines K, Boring C, Porter D. The development of a spatially explicit model to estimate radiocaesium body burdens in raccoons (Procyon lotor) for ecological risk assessment. Sci Total Environ. 2005;341:15-31 pubmed
    ..An inductive approach was employed to develop three sub-models using the ecological requirements of raccoons studied in the following habitats: (1) man-made reservoirs, (2) bottomland hardwood/riverine systems, and (3) ..
  64. Smith D, Waller L, Russell C, Childs J, Real L. Assessing the role of long-distance translocation and spatial heterogeneity in the raccoon rabies epidemic in Connecticut. Prev Vet Med. 2005;71:225-40 pubmed
    ..LDT events are a concern, but this analysis suggests that at a local scale they can be isolated and managed...
  65. Dietrich G, Montenieri J, Panella N, Langevin S, Lasater S, Klenk K, et al. Serologic evidence of west nile virus infection in free-ranging mammals, Slidell, Louisiana, 2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:288-92 pubmed
    ..Seroprevalence was measured in opossum, Didelphis virginiana (75%, n = 8), raccoons, Procyon lotor (60%, n = 5), black rats, Rattus rattus (6%, n = 36), hispid cotton rats, Sigmodon hispidus (4%, n ..
  66. Mainguy J, Rees E, Canac Marquis P, Bélanger D, Fehlner Gardiner C, Séguin G, et al. Oral rabies vaccination of raccoons and striped skunks with ONRAB® baits: multiple factors influence field immunogenicity. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:979-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objectives were to estimate rabies antibody prevalence in wild-caught raccoons and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and identify factors influencing the probability of being antibody ..
  67. Burger J, Lord C, Yurkow E, McGrath L, Gaines K, Brisbin I, et al. Metals and metallothionein in the liver of raccoons: utility for environmental assessment and monitoring. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000;60:243-61 pubmed
    ..metallothionein levels and concentrations of several metals and radionuclides was examined in liver tissues of raccoons (Procyon lotor, n = 47) from the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine the ..
  68. Childs J, Curns A, Dey M, Real L, Feinstein L, Bjørnstad O, et al. Predicting the local dynamics of epizootic rabies among raccoons in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13666-71 pubmed
    ..epizootics at the county level by examining a database spanning more than 20 years and including 35,387 rabid raccoons. The size, number, and periodicity of rabies epizootics among raccoons were compared with predictions derived ..
  69. Smith D, Lucey B, Waller L, Childs J, Real L. Predicting the spatial dynamics of rabies epidemics on heterogeneous landscapes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:3668-72 pubmed
  70. Asano M, Matoba Y, Ikeda T, Suzuki M, Asakawa M, Ohtaishi N. Reproductive characteristics of the feral raccoon (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:369-73 pubmed
    Reproduction of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan, was examined during a 2-year period by analysis of placental scars or fetuses in the uterus...
  71. Dugan V, Gaydos J, Stallknecht D, Little S, Beall A, Mead D, et al. Detection of Ehrlichia spp. in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Georgia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:162-71 pubmed
    b>Raccoons (Procyonis lotor) and opossums (Didelphis virginianus) acquired from six contiguous counties in the Piedmont physiographic region of Georgia were investigated for their potential role in the epidemiology of ehrlichial and ..
  72. Sato H, Suzuki K, Osanai A, Kamiya H, Furuoka H. Identification and characterization of the threadworm, Strongyloides procyonis, from feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. J Parasitol. 2006;92:63-8 pubmed
    Strongyloides procyonis Little, 1966 was detected about 45 years ago in raccoons (Procyon lotor) of southern Louisiana, U.S.A...
  73. Sato H, Suzuki K. Gastrointestinal helminths of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:311-8 pubmed
    The population and distribution of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) are expanding in Japan after escape or release from animal-owners...
  74. Slate D, Rupprecht C, Donovan D, Badcock J, Messier A, Chipman R, et al. Attaining raccoon rabies management goals: history and challenges. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;131:439-47 pubmed
    ..We report on the challenges of achieving enhanced rabies surveillance, containment of raccoon rabies, and local elimination of raccoon rabies, as well as the need for international coordination in meeting these challenges...
  75. Sashika M, Abe G, Matsumoto K, Inokuma H. Molecular survey of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infections of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:349-54 pubmed publisher
    Infection by Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan, was examined by molecular methods. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screen for Anaplasmataceae, based on 16S rRNA, showed that 38 (5...
  76. Totton S, Tinline R, Rosatte R, Bigler L. Contact rates of raccoons (Procyon lotor) at a communal feeding site in rural eastern Ontario. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:313-9 pubmed
    Intra- and interspecific contact rates of 12 adult (five females, seven males) raccoons (Procyon lotor) were recorded while these animals fed at a rural garbage dump 40 km north of Kingston, Ontario, Canada from 15 June to 5 September ..
  77. Childs J, Curns A, Dey M, Real A, Rupprecht C, Krebs J. Rabies epizootics among raccoons vary along a North-South gradient in the Eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1:253-67 pubmed
    The characteristics of rabies epizootics among raccoons were investigated in 11 eastern states along a North-South gradient from New York to North Carolina...
  78. Russell C, Smith D, Childs J, Real L. Predictive spatial dynamics and strategic planning for raccoon rabies emergence in Ohio. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e88 pubmed
    ..public health concern in North America because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. The costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to ..
  79. Wright A, Gompper M. Altered parasite assemblages in raccoons in response to manipulated resource availability. Oecologia. 2005;144:148-56 pubmed
    ..plays in structuring parasite assemblages was examined by experimentally increasing the contact rates of raccoons, Procyon lotor...
  80. Childs J, Krebs J, Real L, Gordon E. Animal-based national surveillance for zoonotic disease: quality, limitations, and implications of a model system for monitoring rabies. Prev Vet Med. 2007;78:246-61 pubmed
    ..Active surveillance may be required in locales with sparse human populations when a high degree of confidence in the status of rabies is required...
  81. Biek R, Henderson J, Waller L, Rupprecht C, Real L. A high-resolution genetic signature of demographic and spatial expansion in epizootic rabies virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7993-8 pubmed
    ..Our analysis of a 30-yr data set covering a large-scale rabies virus outbreak among North American raccoons reveals the long lasting effect of the initial infection wave in determining how viral populations are ..
  82. Rosatte R, MacDonald E, Sobey K, Donovan D, Bruce L, Allan M, et al. The elimination of raccoon rabies from Wolfe Island, Ontario: animal density and movements. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:242-50 pubmed
    ..The raccoon population on Wolfe Island declined dramatically (71% reduction) from 1,067 raccoons (mean density = 8.4/km(2) [6.4-12.4, 95% CI]) during 1999 to 305 raccoons (mean density = 2.4/km(2) [0.87-4...
  83. Jinnai M, Kawabuchi Kurata T, Tsuji M, Nakajima R, Fujisawa K, Nagata S, et al. Molecular evidence for the presence of new Babesia species in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:241-7 pubmed publisher
    We recently reported that feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) with splenomegaly native to Japan were carriers of a Babesia microti-like parasite identical to that found in the United States, which was likely introduced to Japan from North ..
  84. Lemey P, Rambaut A, Welch J, Suchard M. Phylogeography takes a relaxed random walk in continuous space and time. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1877-85 pubmed publisher
  85. Jardine C, Janecko N, Allan M, Boerlin P, Chalmers G, Kozak G, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3873-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada...
  86. Telford S, Forrester D. Hemoparasites of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Florida. J Wildl Dis. 1991;27:486-90 pubmed
    ..species (Babesia lotori, Trypanosoma cruzi, Dirofilaria tenuis and Mansonella llewellyni) were found in raccoons (Procyon lotor) collected from 1972 to 1974 in Duval (n = 14) and Collier (n = 170) counties, Florida (USA)...
  87. Park S, Glaser C, Murray W, Kazacos K, Rowley H, Fredrick D, et al. Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) encephalitis: case report and field investigation. Pediatrics. 2000;106:E56 pubmed
    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common and widespread parasite of raccoons in the United States and Canada. With large raccoon populations occurring in many areas, the potential risk of human infection with B procyonis is high...
  88. Palmer M, Waters W, Whipple D. Susceptibility of raccoons (Procyon lotor) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:266-74 pubmed
    ..Various wild carnivores and omnivores, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), are infected with M. bovis within the endemic area...
  89. Tinline R, Rosatte R, MacInnes C. Estimating the incubation period of raccoon rabies: a time-space clustering approach. Prev Vet Med. 2002;56:89-103 pubmed
    ..With the practical limits of those radii, there was an intensive effort to eliminate raccoons. Our procedure is easy to implement and provides an estimate of the shape of the distribution of incubation ..
  90. Berrada Z, Goethert H, Telford S. Raccoons and skunks as sentinels for enzootic tularemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1019-21 pubmed
    ..Skunks and raccoons were frequently seroreactive, whereas white-footed mice, cottontail rabbits, deer, rats, and dogs were not...
  91. Rosatte R, Sobey K, Donovan D, Bruce L, Allan M, Silver A, et al. Behavior, movements, and demographics of rabid raccoons in Ontario, Canada: management implications. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:589-605 pubmed
    During 1999-2003, 127 cases of raccoon variant rabies were reported in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Ontario, Canada...
  92. Brown L, Rosatte R, Fehlner Gardiner C, Knowles M, Bachmann P, Davies J, et al. Immunogenicity and efficacy of two rabies vaccines in wild-caught, captive raccoons. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:182-94 pubmed
    The immunogenicity and efficacy of two rabies vaccines in wild-caught, captive raccoons (Procyon lotor) were investigated...