otters

Summary

Summary: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.

Top Publications

  1. Basu N, Scheuhammer A, O Brien M. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis). Environ Pollut. 2007;149:25-30 pubmed
    ..organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004...
  2. Newsome S, Tinker M, Monson D, Oftedal O, Ralls K, Staedler M, et al. Using stable isotopes to investigate individual diet specialization in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Ecology. 2009;90:961-74 pubmed
    ..Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) offer a unique opportunity for testing this approach because (1) they consume a wide ..
  3. Salomon A, Tanape N, Huntington H. Serial depletion of marine invertebrates leads to the decline of a strongly interacting grazer. Ecol Appl. 2007;17:1752-70 pubmed
    ..exploitation, the erosion of culturally based season and size restrictions) and with the reestablishment of sea otters. We propose that a spatial concentration in shoreline collection pressure through time, increased harvest ..
  4. Larson S, Casson C, Wasser S. Noninvasive reproductive steroid hormone estimates from fecal samples of captive female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;134:18-25 pubmed
    ..were validated for monitoring fecal metabolites of reproductive hormones (total estrogens and progestagens) in sea otters. Several captive female sea otters were sampled an average of two to three times per week over at least 1 year to ..
  5. Blundell G, Ben David M, Groves P, Bowers R, Geffen E. Characteristics of sex-biased dispersal and gene flow in coastal river otters: implications for natural recolonization of extirpated populations. Mol Ecol. 2002;11:289-303 pubmed
    River otters (Lontra canadensis) were extirpated from much of their historic distribution because of exposure to pollution and urbanization, resulting in expansive reintroduction programmes that continue today for this and other species ..
  6. Constantino P, Lee J, Morris D, Lucas P, Hartstone Rose A, Lee W, et al. Adaptation to hard-object feeding in sea otters and hominins. J Hum Evol. 2011;61:89-96 pubmed publisher
    The large, bunodont postcanine teeth in living sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been likened to those of certain fossil hominins, particularly the 'robust' australopiths (genus Paranthropus)...
  7. Jessup D, Miller M, Kreuder Johnson C, Conrad P, Tinker M, Estes J, et al. Sea otters in a dirty ocean. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:1648-52 pubmed
    ..An example of the interconnectedness of human, animal, and ecosystem health is provided by the situation facing southern sea otters off the US Pacific coast.
  8. Conrad P, Miller M, Kreuder C, James E, Mazet J, Dabritz H, et al. Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1155-68 pubmed
    Toxoplasma gondii affects a wide variety of hosts including threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) which serve as sentinels for the detection of the parasite's transmission into marine ecosystems...
  9. Miller M, Barr B, Nordhausen R, James E, Magargal S, Murray M, et al. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    In 2004, three wild sea otters were diagnosed with putative Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Miller M, Grigg M, Kreuder C, James E, Melli A, Crosbie P, et al. An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:275-84 pubmed
    Toxoplasma gondii-associated meningoencephalitis is a significant disease of California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), responsible for 16% of total mortality in fresh, beachcast carcasses...
  2. Roe A, Meyer C, Nibbelink N, Ben David M. Differential tree and shrub production in response to fertilization and disturbance by coastal river otters in Alaska. Ecology. 2010;91:3177-88 pubmed
    ..interacting effects of marine-derived nutrient fertilization and physical disturbance introduced by coastal river otters (Lontra canadensis) on the production and nutrient status of pristine shrub and tree communities in Prince William ..
  3. Lemasson A, Mikus M, Blois Heulin C, Lodé T. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus). Naturwissenschaften. 2013;100:275-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the ..
  4. Nakamura K, Tanimura H, Katsuragi K, Shibahara T, Kadota K. Differentiated basal cell carcinoma in a Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis). J Comp Pathol. 2002;127:223-7 pubmed
    ..The neoplasm, characterized by its metachronous and recurrent nature, metastasis to the local lymph node and amyloidosis, closely resembled human differentiated basal cell carcinoma, both clinically and pathologically...
  5. Mason C, Stephenson A. Metals in tissues of European otters (Lutra lutra) from Denmark, Great Britain and Ireland. Chemosphere. 2001;44:351-3 pubmed
    Samples of livers of European otters from Denmark, Great Britain and Ireland were analyzed for manganese, chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and cobalt. Concentrations were generally significantly higher in samples from Great Britain...
  6. Miller M, Conrad P, Harris M, Hatfield B, Langlois G, Jessup D, et al. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:183-94 pubmed publisher
    During April 2004, 40 sick and dead southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were recovered over 18km of coastline near Morro Bay, California...
  7. Larson S, Jameson R, Etnier M, Fleming M, Bentzen P. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. Mol Ecol. 2002;11:1899-903 pubmed
    ..Reduced genetic variation may lead to inbreeding depression and we believe sea otter populations should be closely monitored for potential associated negative effects...
  8. Sherrard Smith E, Cable J, Chadwick E. Distribution of Eurasian otter biliary parasites, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metorchis albidus (Family Opisthorchiidae), in England and Wales. Parasitology. 2009;136:1015-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The digenean Pseudamphistomum truncatum had previously been found in UK otters collected between 2000 and 2007...
  9. Kreuder C, Miller M, Lowenstine L, Conrad P, Carpenter T, Jessup D, et al. Evaluation of cardiac lesions and risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:289-99 pubmed
    To describe cardiac lesions and identify risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in beach-cast southern sea otters.
  10. Hanni K, Mazet J, Gulland F, Estes J, Staedler M, Murray M, et al. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:837-50 pubmed
    ..72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences...
  11. Rejmanek D, Miller M, Grigg M, Crosbie P, Conrad P. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California. Vet Parasitol. 2010;170:20-9 pubmed publisher
    ..S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, ..
  12. Thomas N, Dubey J, Lindsay D, Cole R, Meteyer C. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): a histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases. J Comp Pathol. 2007;137:102-21 pubmed
    ..Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis...
  13. Tinker M, Bentall G, Estes J. Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we report on dietary and associated behavioral changes that occurred with the experimental translocation of sea otters from a food-poor to a food-rich environment...
  14. Sundar N, Asmundsson I, Thomas N, Samuel M, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals...
  15. Miller M, Gardner I, Kreuder C, Paradies D, Worcester K, Jessup D, et al. Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:997-1006 pubmed
    ..marine ecosystem with the zoonotic protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, and extensive infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) along the California coast was documented by this study...
  16. Kannan K, Newsted J, Halbrook R, Giesy J. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in mink and river otters from the United States. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:2566-71 pubmed
    Mink and otters are good integrators of their aquatic environments and useful sentinel species for determining exposure to environmental contaminants...
  17. Short J, Maselko J, Lindeberg M, Harris P, Rice S. Vertical distribution and probability of encountering intertidal Exxon Valdez oil on shorelines of three embayments within Prince William Sound, Alaska. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:3723-9 pubmed
    ..distribution of oil remaining from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and to estimate the probability that sea otters and ducks would encounter oil while foraging there...
  18. Miller M, Miller W, Conrad P, James E, Melli A, Leutenegger C, et al. Type X Toxoplasma gondii in a wild mussel and terrestrial carnivores from coastal California: new linkages between terrestrial mammals, runoff and toxoplasmosis of sea otters. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1319-28 pubmed publisher
    Sea otters in California are commonly infected with Toxoplasma gondii...
  19. Birkenheuer A, Harms C, Neel J, Marr H, Tucker M, Acton A, et al. The identification of a genetically unique piroplasma in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis). Parasitology. 2007;134:631-5 pubmed
    ..Subsequently 39 wild-trapped North American river otters from North Carolina were tested for the presence of piroplasma deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) via polymerase chain ..
  20. Cassini M, Fasola L, Chehébar C, Macdonald D. Scale-dependent analysis of an otter-crustacean system in Argentinean Patagonia. Naturwissenschaften. 2009;96:593-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the distributions of otters and macro-crustaceans along a north-south regional gradient, between river basins of northern Patagonia, in an ..
  21. Miller M, Byrne B, Jang S, Dodd E, Dorfmeier E, Harris M, et al. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff. Vet Res. 2010;41:1 pubmed publisher
    Although protected for nearly a century, California's sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona...
  22. Singh G, Markel R, Martone R, Salomon A, Harley C, Chan K. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65435 pubmed publisher
    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M...
  23. Neiffer D, Klein E, Calle P, Linn M, Terrell S, Walker R, et al. Mortality associated with melarsomine dihydrochloride administration in two North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2002;33:242-8 pubmed
    Two adult North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) and an adult red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) at three separate institutions died within 22 hr after receiving single 2.5- to 2...
  24. Smith W, Mazet J, Hirsh D. Salmonella in California wildlife species: prevalence in rehabilitation centers and characterization of isolates. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2002;33:228-35 pubmed
    ..Chromosomal fingerprints with XbaI and XhoI restriction enzymes differed between serotypes but not between individuals carrying the same serotype of Salmonella...
  25. Kim B, Kim J, Yoo M, Kim D. Lymphosarcoma in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris). J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:616-7 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis was based on gross and light microscopic studies. The cause of this neoplasm was not determined. This is the first case of lymphosarcoma reported in sea otters.
  26. Jessup D, Murray M, Casper D, Brownstein D, Kreuder Johnson C. Canine distemper vaccination is a safe and useful preventive procedure for southern sea otters (Enhydra lutra nereis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:705-10 pubmed
    From 2002 to 2006, eight captive southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) at research and display institutions in California at risk of exposure to potentially lethal morbiliviruses were vaccinated with a commercial recombinant ..
  27. Wendte J, Miller M, Nandra A, Peat S, Crosbie P, Conrad P, et al. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes...
  28. Ben David M, Duffy L, Blundell G, Bowyer R. Natural exposure of coastal river otters to mercury: relation to age, diet, and survival. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2001;20:1986-92 pubmed
    ..Bay, reference site), diet as determined by stable isotopes, and age on mercury concentrations in individual river otters (Lontra canadensis) from Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA...
  29. Goldstein T, Mazet J, Gill V, Doroff A, Burek K, Hammond J. Phocine distemper virus in northern sea otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:925-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific ..
  30. Goldstein T, Gill V, Tuomi P, Monson D, Burdin A, Conrad P, et al. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:579-92 pubmed
    ..Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, ..
  31. Klenavic K, Champoux L, Mike O, Daoust P, Evans R, Evans H. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:359-66 pubmed publisher
    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada...
  32. Sundar N, Cole R, Thomas N, Majumdar D, Dubey J, Su C. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:125-32 pubmed
    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and at times succumb to clinical disease. Here, we determined genotypes of 39 T...
  33. Newsome S, Bentall G, Tinker M, Oftedal O, Ralls K, Estes J, et al. Variation in delta13C and delta15N diet-vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:1744-52 pubmed
    ..a tissue that is rapidly becoming an informative isotopic substrate for ecologists, of a wild population of sea otters for which individual diet has been quantified through extensive observational study...
  34. Levin M, Leibrecht H, Mori C, Jessup D, De Guise S. Immunomodulatory effects of organochlorine mixtures upon in vitro exposure of peripheral blood leukocytes differ between free-ranging and captive southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;119:269-77 pubmed
    ..opportunity to assess the potential differences in susceptibility to OCs between captive and free-ranging sea otters originating from the same genetic population...
  35. Pertoldi C, Hansen M, Loeschcke V, Madsen A, Jacobsen L, Baagoe H. Genetic consequences of population decline in the European otter (Lutra lutra): an assessment of microsatellite DNA variation in Danish otters from 1883 to 1993. Proc Biol Sci. 2001;268:1775-81 pubmed
    ..weak but statistically significant genetic differentiation between the extant population and historical samples of otters from other regions in Denmark, more likely reflecting differentiation among original populations rather than ..
  36. Basu N, Scheuhammer A, Grochowina N, Klenavic K, Evans D, O Brien M, et al. Effects of mercury on neurochemical receptors in wild river otters (Lontra canadensis). Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:3585-91 pubmed
    Fish-eating wildlife, such as river otters (Lontra canadensis), accumulate mercury (Hg) at concentrations known to impair animal behavior, but few studies have explored the underlying biochemical changes that precede clinical ..
  37. Asmundsson I, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:352-60 pubmed
    ..Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers...
  38. Chadwick E, Simpson V, Nicholls A, Slater F. Lead levels in Eurasian otters decline with time and reveal interactions between sources, prevailing weather, and stream chemistry. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:1911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..modeling to explore spatial and temporal variation in bone Pb levels measured in samples taken from 329 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) found dead in southwest England...
  39. Miller M, Conrad P, James E, Packham A, Toy Choutka S, Murray M, et al. Transplacental toxoplasmosis in a wild southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Restriction enzyme digestion followed by gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of Type X T. gondii, the strain identified in the majority of southern sea otter infections...
  40. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Saville W, Reed S, Granstrom D, Speer C. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:89-131 pubmed
    ..in a variety of mammals including cats, mink, raccoons, skunks, Pacific harbor seals, ponies, and Southern sea otters. Cats can act as an experimental intermediate host harboring the sarcocyst stage after ingesting sporocysts...
  41. Neff J, Page D, Boehm P. Exposure of sea otters and harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, to shoreline oil residues 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:659-72 pubmed publisher
    We assessed whether sea otters and harlequin ducks in an area of western Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA (PWS), oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil residues 20 ..
  42. Tim Tinker M, Guimarães P, Novak M, Marquitti F, Bodkin J, Staedler M, et al. Structure and mechanism of diet specialisation: testing models of individual variation in resource use with sea otters. Ecol Lett. 2012;15:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We used weighted networks to analyze the resource use by sea otters, testing three alternative models for how individual diet specialisation may arise...
  43. Hernandez Divers S, Kollias G, Abou Madi N, Hartup B. Surgical technique for intra-abdominal radiotransmitter placement in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2001;32:202-5 pubmed
    Twenty-two free-ranging North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) from northern and eastern New York were captured and surgically implanted with radiotransmitters as part of a relocation project...
  44. Kreuder C, Miller M, Jessup D, Lowenstine L, Harris M, Ames J, et al. Patterns of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998-2001. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:495-509 pubmed
    Detailed postmortem examination of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found along the California (USA) coast has provided an exceptional opportunity to understand factors influencing survival in this threatened marine mammal ..
  45. Perdue B, Snyder R, Zhihe Z, Marr M, Maple T. Sex differences in spatial ability: a test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora. Biol Lett. 2011;7:380-3 pubmed publisher
    ..in which males inhabit larger ranges than females, but did not observe sex differences in Asian small-clawed otters, a related monogamous species in which males and females share home ranges...
  46. Schott K, Krusor C, Tinker M, Moore J, Conrad P, Shapiro K. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Parasitology. 2016;143:1703-1712 pubmed
    ..have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans...
  47. Schlanser J, Patterson J, Kiupel M, Hencken C, Sikarskie J, Harrison T. Disseminated pheochromocytoma in a North American river otter (Lontra canadensis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:407-11 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the necropsy finding, metastasis of the pheochromocytoma might have contributed to the observed clinical signs...
  48. Spencer S, Shutler D, O Brien M. Correlates of mercury in female river otters (Lontra canadensis) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:1879-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Mercury concentrations were greater in otters from watersheds with bedrock substrates known to contain more available Hg, from otters trapped farther inland, ..
  49. Boehm P, Page D, Neff J, Brown J. Are sea otters being exposed to subsurface intertidal oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill?. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;62:581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some scientists hypothesize that sea otters continue to be exposed to SSOR by direct contact when otters dig pits in search of clams...
  50. Larson S, Belting T, Rifenbury K, Fisher G, Boutelle S. Preliminary findings of fecal gonadal hormone concentrations in six captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris) after deslorelin implantation. Zoo Biol. 2013;32:307-15 pubmed publisher
    The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a popular exhibit animal in many zoos and aquariums worldwide. Captive sea otters from these populations are owned by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)...
  51. Arzi B, Winer J, Kass P, Verstraete F. Osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). J Comp Pathol. 2013;149:486-94 pubmed publisher
    Museum skull specimens (n = 1,008) of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were examined macroscopically according to defined criteria for the presence, severity and characteristics of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA)..
  52. Tseng Z, Su D, Wang X, White S, Ji X. Feeding capability in the extinct giant Siamogale melilutra and comparative mandibular biomechanics of living Lutrinae. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15225 pubmed publisher
    At 50?kg in estimated weight, the extinct Siamogale melilutra is larger than all living otters, and ranks among the largest fossil otters. The biomechanical capability of S...
  53. Zasypkin M. [Allozyme variation in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris L. 1758). Analysis of materials from animals that died on Bering Island in the winter of 1992/1993]. Genetika. 1998;34:662-70 pubmed
    ..The samples were taken from 72 sea otters (Enhydra lutris L.) that perished on Bering Island (Komandor Islands) in winter 1992-1993...
  54. Ben David M, Duffy L, Bowyer R. Biomarker responses in river otters experimentally exposed to oil contamination. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37:489-508 pubmed
    ..Investigations in Prince William Sound (Alaska, USA) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) revealed that river otters (Lontra canadensis) on oiled shores had lower body mass and elevated values of biomarkers, than did otters living ..
  55. Hyvärinen H, Tyni P, Nieminen P. Effects of moult, age, and sex on the accumulation of heavy metals in the otter (Lutra lutra) in Finland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;70:278-84 pubmed
  56. Mass A, Supin A. Adaptive features of aquatic mammals' eye. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2007;290:701-15 pubmed
    ..toothed and baleen whales), pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses), sirenians (manatees and dugongs), and sea otters. Eye anatomy and optics, retinal laminar morphology, and topography of ganglion cell distribution are discussed ..
  57. Dias Fonseca F, Malm O, Francine Waldemarin H. Mercury levels in tissues of Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Rio Negro, Pantanal, Brazil. Environ Res. 2005;98:368-71 pubmed
    This research reports the first data on mercury levels found in Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) from South America...
  58. Dewit T, Clulow V, Dave N, Mirka M, Parker G, Peterson Schaffner N. Ra-226 in bone of mink (Mustela vison) and otter ( Lutra canadensis) taken near U workings at Elliot Lake, Canada, and from reference areas, with calculation of transfer parameters. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;68:878-84 pubmed
  59. Ferrando A, Ponsà M, Marmi J, Domingo Roura X. Eurasian otters, Lutra lutra, have a dominant mtDNA haplotype from the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia. J Hered. 2004;95:430-5 pubmed
    ..The Eurasian otter mtDNA control region has a 220-bp variable minisatellite in Domain III that we sequenced in 29 otters. We found a total of 19 minisatellite haplotypes, but they showed no phylogenetic information.
  60. Nataraj K, Wenstrup J. Roles of inhibition in creating complex auditory responses in the inferior colliculus: facilitated combination-sensitive neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:3294-312 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that these complex response properties arise through a series of neural interactions in the auditory brain stem and midbrain. ..
  61. Boehm P, Page D, Neff J, Johnson C. Potential for sea otter exposure to remnants of buried oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:6860-7 pubmed
    A study was conducted in 2005 and 2006 to examine the hypothesis that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) continue to be exposed to residues of subsurface oil (SSO) while foraging on shorelines in the northern Knight Island (NKI) area of Prince ..
  62. Centron D, Ramirez B, Fasola L, Macdonald D, Chehébar C, Schiavini A, et al. Diversity of mtDNA in Southern River Otter (Lontra provocax) from Argentinean Patagonia. J Hered. 2008;99:198-201 pubmed publisher
    ..provocax that deserve conservation attention and that the southern population appears not to have suffered a human-induced population bottleneck of the sort typically experienced by various otter species around the world. ..
  63. Kannan K, Perrotta E, Thomas N, Aldous K. A comparative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in Southern sea otters that died of infectious diseases and noninfectious causes. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;53:293-302 pubmed
    Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from the California coast continue to exhibit a slower population regrowth rate than the population in Alaska. Infectious diseases have been identified as a frequent cause of death...
  64. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Rosenthal B, Thomas N. Sarcocysts of an unidentified species of Sarcocystis in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). J Parasitol. 2003;89:397-9 pubmed
    The number of Sarcocystis species that infect sea otters (Enhydra lutris) is unknown. Sea otter tissues were recently shown to harbor sarcocysts of S. neurona and of unidentified species of Sarcocystis. Whereas sarcocysts of S...
  65. Tinker M, Doak D, Estes J, Hatfield B, Staedler M, Bodkin J. Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters. Ecol Appl. 2006;16:2293-312 pubmed
    ..Our results can be used to focus future research on southern sea otters by highlighting the life history stages and mortality factors most relevant to conservation...
  66. Hildebrand J, Popiołek M, Zaleśny G, Piróg A. A record of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) in the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.) from Poland. Wiad Parazytol. 2011;57:151-4 pubmed
    ..Poland) in March 2009. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the otter from Poland, the description, biometrical data and figure are presented...
  67. Haines K, Evans R, O Brien M, Evans H. Accumulation of mercury and selenium in the brain of river otters (Lontra canadensis) and wild mink (Mustela vison) from Nova Scotia, Canada. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:537-42 pubmed publisher
    Total Hg, methyl-Hg (MeHg) and Se levels were measured in the brain of river otters (Lontra canadensis) and wild mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected from Nova Scotia, Canada...
  68. Yeates L, Williams T, Fink T. Diving and foraging energetics of the smallest marine mammal, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). J Exp Biol. 2007;210:1960-70 pubmed
    As the smallest and one of the most recently evolved marine mammals, sea otters face physiological challenges rarely encountered by larger, more derived aquatic species...
  69. Tanaka N, Izawa T, Kashiwagi Yamamoto E, Kuwamura M, Ozaki M, Nakao T, et al. Primary cerebral T-cell lymphoma in a sea otter (enhydra lutris). J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:1667-9 pubmed
    ..No neoplastic proliferation of T-cells was found in other organs. Taken together, we diagnosed this case as a primary cerebral T-cell lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary cerebral T-cell lymphoma in a sea otter. ..
  70. Bertschinger H, Asa C, Calle P, Long J, Bauman K, DeMatteo K, et al. Control of reproduction and sex related behaviour in exotic wild carnivores with the GnRH analogue deslorelin: preliminary observations. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2001;57:275-83 pubmed
    ..In the USA study, three male sea otters that had been treated with 6 mg deslorelin ceased antagonistic behaviour and blood testosterone concentrations and ..
  71. Belfiore N. Trapping and handling of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in a managed marsh. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:13-20 pubmed
    North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) were trapped in a managed marsh in northern California between July and November of 1998. Five trap types using several set configurations were utilized in this study...