Summary: The family of omnivorous New World skunks, showing typical warning coloration of patterned black and white and able to eject a malodorous secretion when the animal is startled or in danger.

Top Publications

  1. McQuiston J, Yager P, Smith J, Rupprecht C. Epidemiologic characteristics of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States, 1999. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218:1939-42 pubmed
    ..To evaluate epidemiologic features of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States during 1999 and assess the role of bat-associated variants...
  2. Krebs J, Mondul A, Rupprecht C, Childs J. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2000. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219:1687-99 pubmed
    ..One case of human rabies acquired outside the United States that resulted from a dog bite was caused by the canine variant of the rabies virus...
  3. Guerra M, Curns A, Rupprecht C, Hanlon C, Krebs J, Childs J. Skunk and raccoon rabies in the eastern United States: temporal and spatial analysis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1143-50 pubmed
    ..In areas where the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic, spatio-temporal analysis does not provide evidence that this rabies virus variant is currently cycling independently among skunks...
  4. Krebs J, Mandel E, Swerdlow D, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2004. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:1912-25 pubmed
    ..In Wisconsin, a teenager contracted rabies from a bat bite and became the first known person to survive rabies despite not having received rabies vaccine prior to symptom onset...
  5. Leslie M, Messenger S, Rohde R, Smith J, Cheshier R, Hanlon C, et al. Bat-associated rabies virus in Skunks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1274-7 pubmed
    ..Laboratory analyses showed causative rabies viruses associated with bats, which indicated cross-species transmission of unprecedented magnitude. Public health infrastructure must be maintained to address emerging zoonotic diseases...
  6. Blanton J, Hanlon C, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2006. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:540-56 pubmed
    ..The cases in Indiana and Texas were attributed to bat rabies virus variants, whereas the case in California was attributed to an exposure to a dog in the Philippines...
  7. Sterner R, Sun B, Bourassa J, Hale R, Shwiff S, Jay M, et al. Skunk rabies in California (1992-2003)--implications for oral rabies vaccination. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:1008-13 pubmed
    ..Results imply that future ORV campaigns for skunk-variant rabies in the Pacific Coastal Plain could deter spread from SLO into SB County, as well as deterring the reintroduction of skunk-variant rabies into southern California...
  8. Perelman P, Graphodatsky A, Dragoo J, Serdyukova N, Stone G, Cavagna P, et al. Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes. Chromosome Res. 2008;16:1215-31 pubmed publisher
    The karyotypic relationships of skunks (Mephitidae) with other major clades of carnivores are not yet established...
  9. Dangoudoubiyam S, Vemulapalli R, Kazacos K. PCR assays for detection of Baylisascaris procyonis eggs and larvae. J Parasitol. 2009;95:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No DNA amplification was seen when the genomic DNA of related ascarids (including B. transfuga) and a hookworm was used as template in the PCR; however, amplification was seen with the very closely related B. columnaris...

More Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kuzmin I, Shi M, Orciari L, Yager P, Velasco Villa A, Kuzmina N, et al. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002786 pubmed publisher
    ..Roles of the amino acid changes, detected in our study, require additional investigations, using reverse genetics and other approaches...
  2. Rosatte R, Donovan D, Allan M, Howes L, Silver A, Bennett K, et al. Emergency response to raccoon rabies introduction into Ontario. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37:265-79 pubmed
    ..This number is far below the level of rabies prevalence in USA jurisdictions where raccoon rabies was epizootic. In the future, PIC methodologies will continue to be used in Ontario to contain isolated cases of raccoon rabies...
  3. Feldman K, Enscore R, Lathrop S, Matyas B, McGuill M, Schriefer M, et al. An outbreak of primary pneumonic tularemia on Martha's Vineyard. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:1601-6 pubmed
    ..In the summer of 2000, an outbreak of primary pneumonic tularemia occurred on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The only previously reported outbreak of pneumonic tularemia in the United States also occurred on the island in 1978...
  4. Hanlon C, Niezgoda M, Morrill P, Rupprecht C. Oral efficacy of an attenuated rabies virus vaccine in skunks and raccoons. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:420-7 pubmed
    ..Given these results, SAG-2 is a promising candidate vaccine that may satisfy both safety and efficacy concerns for oral rabies immunization of major North American rabies reservoirs...
  5. Blanton J, Palmer D, Christian K, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2007. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:884-97 pubmed publisher
    ..One human rabies case was reported from Minnesota during 2007. Although typing of the rabies virus variant in this case was not possible, an investigation of this case indicated a bat as the most likely source of exposure...
  6. Barton H, Gregory A, Davis R, Hanlon C, Wisely S. Contrasting landscape epidemiology of two sympatric rabies virus strains. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:2725-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest a holistic approach for future studies of emerging infectious diseases that includes studies of viral properties, host characteristics, and spatial features...
  7. Taufik E, Sekii N, Senda A, Fukuda K, Saito T, Eisert R, et al. Neutral and acidic milk oligosaccharides of the striped skunk (Mephitidae: Mephitis mephitis). Anim Sci J. 2013;84:569-78 pubmed publisher
  8. Neiswenter S, Pence D, Dowler R. Helminths of sympatric striped, hog-nosed, and spotted skunks in west-central Texas. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:511-7 pubmed
    ..Differences in helminth communities across these three sympatric skunks may be related to differences in their relative abundance, behavior, food habits, and geographic range. ..
  9. Balsamo G, Ratard R, Claudet A. The epidemiology of animal bite, scratch, and other potential rabies exposures, Louisiana. J La State Med Soc. 2009;161:260-5 pubmed
    ..The increased risk to children demonstrates a need for public education, animal control programs, and evaluation of risk from certain breeds. Promotion of rabies vaccine compliance is of utmost importance to public health. ..
  10. Rosatte R. Evolution of wildlife rabies control tactics. Adv Virus Res. 2011;79:397-419 pubmed publisher
    ..As well, cost-effective rabies management techniques need to be adopted by developing nations so that wildlife rabies control is a realistic and achievable goal globally...
  11. Richardson D, Gauthier J. A serosurvey of leptospirosis in Connecticut peridomestic wildlife. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2003;3:187-93 pubmed
    ..Additional investigation is warranted to clarify their role in the epidemiology of this zoonotic disease in the northeastern United States. ..
  12. Lesmeister D, Millspaugh J, Wade S, Gompper M. A survey of parasites identified in the feces of eastern spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius) in western Arkansas. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:1041-4 pubmed
    ..1+/-2.1, although this is likely an underestimate because some individuals were sampled more intensively than others. Most of the identified parasite species were also found in other skunk species or in other small carnivore species. ..
  13. Blanton J, Robertson K, Palmer D, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2008. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;235:676-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The case in Missouri was attributed to a rabies virus variant associated with eastern pipistrelle and silver-haired bats...
  14. Jacobo Salcedo M, Alonso Castro A, Zarate Martinez A. Folk medicinal use of fauna in Mapimi, Durango, México. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133:902-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further experiments with medicinal fauna from Mapimi are needed to be carried out to obtain experimental information about their traditional uses, especially with C. atrox. ..
  15. Mead R, Eroschenko V. Changes in uterine estrogen and progesterone receptors during delayed implantation and early implantation in the spotted skunk. Biol Reprod. 1995;53:827-33 pubmed
    ..The data also indicate that renewed embryonic development and implantation is not associated with an increase in these uterine steroid receptors. ..
  16. Sundar N, Asmundsson I, Thomas N, Samuel M, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana)...
  17. Wang X, Werner B, Konomi R, Hennigan D, Fadden D, Caten E, et al. Animal rabies in Massachusetts, 1985-2006. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:375-87 pubmed
    ..Wild animal rabies presents a significant threat to humans and domestic/companion animals and increased costs related to increased demand for rabies testing, postexposure prophylaxis as well as euthanasia of valuable domestic animals. ..
  18. Rosatte R, Donovan D, Davies J, Brown L, Allan M, von Zuben V, et al. High-density baiting with ONRAB® rabies vaccine baits to control Arctic-variant rabies in striped skunks in Ontario, Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:459-65 pubmed
    ..During 2009, only eight skunks were diagnosed with the Arctic variant of rabies virus in Ontario. ..
  19. Srithayakumar V, Castillo S, Mainguy J, Kyle C. Evidence for evolutionary convergence at MHC in two broadly distributed mesocarnivores. Immunogenetics. 2012;64:289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, the similarities observed between the two mesocarnivore species may rather be due to evolutionary convergence. ..
  20. Burcham G, Ramos Vara J, Vemulapalli R. Systemic sarcocystosis in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). Vet Pathol. 2010;47:560-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, canine distemper virus infection was confirmed with histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Concurrent canine distemper suggests that immunosuppression may have played a role in S neurona infection in this skunk. ..
  21. Wirsing A, Azevedo F, Larivière S, Murray D. Patterns of gastrointestinal parasitism among five sympatric prairie carnivores: are males reservoirs?. J Parasitol. 2007;93:504-10 pubmed
  22. Knowles M, Nadin Davis S, Sheen M, Rosatte R, Mueller R, Beresford A. Safety studies on an adenovirus recombinant vaccine for rabies (AdRG1.3-ONRAB) in target and non-target species. Vaccine. 2009;27:6619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..8% of fecal specimens found to be positive. The low rates of recovery of vaccine virus from tissues, feces and the oral cavity suggest that the likelihood of ONRAB causing a negative impact on wildlife species is unlikely. ..
  23. Tinline R, MacInnes C. Ecogeographic patterns of rabies in southern Ontario based on time series analysis. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:212-21 pubmed
  24. Gómez Puerta L, Ticona D, López Urbina M, Gonzalez A. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:334-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite...
  25. Davis R, Nadin Davis S, Moore M, Hanlon C. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of skunk-associated rabies viruses in North America with special emphasis on the central plains. Virus Res. 2013;174:27-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These patterns reflect the virus phylogeny but no amino acid residues associated specifically with the skunk host were identified...
  26. Wobeser G, Bollinger T, Leighton F, Blakley B, Mineau P. Secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:163-72 pubmed
    ..Use of anticholinesterase pesticides to poison coyotes is illegal, but the practice continues and secondary poisoning of eagles is a problem of unknown proportions in western North America. ..
  27. Hass C, Dragoo J. Rabies in hooded and striped skunks in Arizona. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:825-9 pubmed
    ..Skunks live-trapped during 1996-2002 had a low prevalence of rabies-virus neutralizing antibodies. This study was the first to document rabies in hooded skunks (Mephitis macroura). ..
  28. Borucki M, Chen Harris H, Lao V, Vanier G, Wadford D, Messenger S, et al. Ultra-deep sequencing of intra-host rabies virus populations during cross-species transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2555 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that analysis of rare variants within a viral population may yield clues to ancestral genomes and identify rare variants that have the potential to be selected for if environment conditions change. ..
  29. Berria M, DeSantis M, Mead R. Effects of suprachiasmatic nuclear ablation and melatonin on delayed implantation in the spotted skunk. Neuroendocrinology. 1988;48:371-5 pubmed
    ..7 days) skunks when compared to all other groups. These data are not consistent with the hypothesis that the SCN are required for melatonin to exert its influence on timing of implantation in the spotted skunk. ..
  30. Redrobe S. Vaccination and 'de-scenting' of skunks. Vet Rec. 2003;153:188 pubmed
  31. Gupta G, Lakritz J, Saville W, Livingston R, Dubey J, Middleton J, et al. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1027-33 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species...
  32. Neill J, Seal B. Development of PCR primers for specific amplification of two distinct regions of the genomes of San Miguel sea-lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses. Mol Cell Probes. 1995;9:33-7 pubmed
    ..The results of this study demonstrate the genetic relatedness of SMSV and VESV and the potential usefulness of RT-PCR to detect and identify these viruses in diagnostic and routine screening applications...
  33. Balsamo G, Ratard R. Epidemiology of animal rabies and its practical application to pre- and postexposure prophylaxis, louisiana, 1988 to 2007. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:283-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar applications of surveillance data are encouraged in other jurisdictions. ..
  34. Perelman P, Beklemisheva V, Yudkin D, Petrina T, Rozhnov V, Nie W, et al. Comparative chromosome painting in Carnivora and Pholidota. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2012;137:174-93 pubmed publisher
    ..least 3 families in which the ancestral carnivore karyotype has been severely rearranged - Canidae, Ursidae and Mephitidae. Here we report chromosome painting of yet another Carnivora species with a highly rearranged karyotype, Genetta ..
  35. Rupprecht C, Smith J, Fekadu M, Childs J. The ascension of wildlife rabies: a cause for public health concern or intervention?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1995;1:107-14 pubmed
  36. Hwang Y, Pitt J, Quirk T, Dubey J. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in mesocarnivores of the Canadian prairies. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1370-3 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii in skunks and raccoons. Results confirm that T. gondii is endemic in the skunk and raccoon populations in the Canadian prairies. ..
  37. Henderson H, Jackson F, Bean K, Panasuk B, Niezgoda M, Slate D, et al. Oral immunization of raccoons and skunks with a canine adenovirus recombinant rabies vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27:7194-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this preliminary study suggest that CAV2-RVG stimulates protective immunity against rabies in raccoons and skunks...
  38. Gómez Puerta L, Ticona D, López Urbina M, Gonzalez A. A new species of Atriotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in Peru. J Parasitol. 2012;98:806-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Anoplocephalidae) is described as a parasite of the Andean hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae), from Cusco, Perú...
  39. Pennick K, Latimer K, Brown C, Hayes J, Sarver C. Aleutian disease in two domestic striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Vet Pathol. 2007;44:687-90 pubmed
    ..Clinical, laboratory, and microscopic findings also support a clinical diagnosis of Aleutian disease in these mink. ..
  40. Kim S, Oh Y, Oh S, Han J. Primary diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J Vet Med Sci. 2016;78:485-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on those diagnostic features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma. This is the first case report of mesothelioma in the skunk. ..
  41. Orozco M, Enriquez G, Cardinal M, Piccinali R, Gürtler R. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco. Acta Trop. 2016;155:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. ..
  42. Appel M, Yates R, Foley G, Bernstein J, Santinelli S, Spelman L, et al. Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1994;6:277-88 pubmed
    ..There was a marked difference in neutralizing antibody titers when tests were done with different strains of CDV...
  43. Roemer G, Donlan C, Courchamp F. Golden eagles, feral pigs, and insular carnivores: how exotic species turn native predators into prey. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:791-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of exotic pigs led to major ecosystem shifts by indirectly causing predation to replace competition as the dominant force shaping these island communities...
  44. Eidson M, Matthews S, Willsey A, Cherry B, Rudd R, Trimarchi C. Rabies virus infection in a pet guinea pig and seven pet rabbits. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:932-5, 918 pubmed
    ..Bites and scratches to humans from rodents and lagomorphs should be evaluated for potential rabies exposure on an individual basis, with consideration of whether the animal was caged outside or permitted outdoors unsupervised. ..
  45. Dubey J, Sundar N, Nolden C, Samuel M, Velmurugan G, Bandini L, et al. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Wisconsin identified several atypical genotypes. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1524-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate the prevalence of T. gondii in wildlife mammals is high and that these animals may serve as an important reservoir for transmission of T. gondii...
  46. Wennig R, Schneider S, Meys F. GC/MS based identification of skunk spray maliciously deployed as "biological weapon" to harm civilians. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:1433-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No health sequels were observed for any of the persons implicated in this case. ..
  47. Britton A, Redford T, Bidulka J, Scouras A, Sojonky K, Zabek E, et al. Beyond Rabies: Are Free-Ranging Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in British Columbia Reservoirs of Emerging Infection?. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017;64:603-612 pubmed publisher
    ..was isolated from three of 43 skunks (7%), specifically S. Typhimurium, S. Muenchen and S. Enteritidis. These serotypes cause disease in humans, but the low prevalence of infection suggests there is a low risk for zoonotic transmission. ..
  48. Totton S, Tinline R, Rosatte R, Bigler L. Contact rates of raccoons (Procyon lotor) at a communal feeding site in rural eastern Ontario. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:313-9 pubmed
    ..The contact rates in this study are the first to be calculated for raccoons directly from field data and will be useful as a point of reference for modeling rabies spread in raccoons in areas with similar site characteristics...
  49. Vos A, Pommerening E, Neubert L, Kachel S, Neubert A. Safety studies of the oral rabies vaccine SAD B19 in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:428-31 pubmed
    ..Also no vaccine virus was isolated from the nasal and saliva swabs collected from any animal. Thus, SAD B19 was innocuous for skunks in our study after direct oral administration at field concentration. ..
  50. Jojola S, Robinson S, VerCauteren K. Oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait uptake by captive striped skunks. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:97-106 pubmed
    ..To make baits attractive to skunks and to ensure puncture of the VC, modifications to current baits should consider a smaller size, a meat-flavored matrix, a slightly pressurized VC, and a direct coating of matrix on the VC. ..
  51. Shwiff S, Sterner R, Hale R, Jay M, Sun B, Slate D. Benefit cost scenarios of potential oral rabies vaccination for skunks in California. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:227-33 pubmed
    ..16 and 2.91 and between 0.34 and 6.35 for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Economic issues relevant to potentially managing skunk-variant rabies with ORV are discussed. ..
  52. Gordon E, Curns A, Krebs J, Rupprecht C, Real L, Childs J. Temporal dynamics of rabies in a wildlife host and the risk of cross-species transmission. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:515-24 pubmed
    ..Forecasting of the public health and veterinary burden of rabies and assessing the economics of control programmes, requires linking outcomes to dynamic, but predictable, changes in the temporal evolution of rabies epizootics. ..
  53. Hill D, Samuel M, Nolden C, Sundar N, Zarlenga D, Dubey J. Trichinella murrelli in scavenging mammals from south-central Wisconsin, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:629-35 pubmed
    ..These findings extend the geographic range of T. murrelli into Wisconsin, USA...
  54. Victoria J, Kapoor A, Dupuis K, Schnurr D, Delwart E. Rapid identification of known and new RNA viruses from animal tissues. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000163 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that a simple, inexpensive, and rapid metagenomics approach is effective for identifying known and highly divergent new viruses in homogenized tissues of acutely infected mice. ..
    ..of the sinus roundworm (Skrjabingylus chitwoodorum) have been based largely on the inspection of skunk (Mephitidae) skulls showing damage from infections...
  56. Oertli E, Wilson P, Hunt P, Sidwa T, Rohde R. Epidemiology of rabies in skunks in Texas. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;234:616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Information on the epidemiology of rabies in skunks may be useful in planning and implementing local, state, and national rabies control and prevention campaigns. ..
  57. Schmit B, Primus T, Hurley J, Kohler D, Graves S. Response of captive skunks to microencapsulated tetracycline. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:1024-8 pubmed
    ..37). Results support the use of microencapsulated tetracycline hydrochloride as a biomarker in circumstances where the use of conventional powdered tetracycline hydrochloride is not feasible due to ORV bait design constraints. ..
  58. Elhensheri M, Linke R, Blankenburg A, Beineke A. Idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis in a skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:181-5 pubmed
    ..Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry revealed depositions of AA-amyloid in different organs. The lack of a predisposing disease is suggestive of idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis. ..
  59. Cheadle M, Yowell C, Sellon D, Hines M, Ginn P, Marsh A, et al. The striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) is an intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:843-9 pubmed
    ..neurona present in the lung, cerebrum, and cerebellum of mice were detected by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies to S. neurona. Based on the results of this study, the striped skunk is an intermediate host of S. neurona. ..
  60. Hanley C, Wilson G, Hernandez Divers S. Secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism associated with vitamin D deficiency in two domestic skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Vet Rec. 2004;155:233-7 pubmed
    ..They both responded to treatment, as well as to changes in their diet, and levels of exercise and exposure to sunlight. ..
  61. Borchering R, Liu H, Steinhaus M, Gardner C, Kuang Y. A simple spatiotemporal rabies model for skunk and bat interaction in northeast Texas. J Theor Biol. 2012;314:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of simulations using both our skunk-only model and our skunk and bat model demonstrate that the model with overlapping reservoir species more accurately reproduces the progression of rabies spread in northeast Texas. ..
  62. Chipman R, Cozzens T, Shwiff S, Biswas R, Plumley J, O Quin J, et al. Costs of raccoon rabies incidents in cattle herds in Hampshire County, West Virginia, and Guernsey County, Ohio. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;243:1561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results should provide a basis for better characterization of the economic impact of wildlife rabies in cattle in the United States. ..
  63. Berria M, DeSantis M, Mead R. Lesions to the anterior hypothalamus prevent the melatonin-induced lengthening of delayed implantation. Endocrinology. 1989;125:2897-904 pubmed
    ..The lesions may have given this result by ablating a neural pathway controlling PRL secretion and may or may not have involved a site of action for melatonin. ..
  64. Berrada Z, Goethert H, Telford S. Raccoons and skunks as sentinels for enzootic tularemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1019-21 pubmed
    ..Skunks and raccoons were frequently seroreactive, whereas white-footed mice, cottontail rabbits, deer, rats, and dogs were not. Tularemia surveillance may be facilitated by focusing on skunks and raccoons...
  65. Sterner R, Meltzer M, Shwiff S, Slate D. Tactics and economics of wildlife oral rabies vaccination, Canada and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Modeling studies, involving diverse assumptions, have shown that ORV programs can be cost-efficient and yield benefit:cost ratios >1.0...
  66. Carreno R, Reif K, Nadler S. A new species of Skrjabingylus Petrov, 1927 (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from the frontal sinuses of the hooded skunk, Mephitis macroura (Mustelidae). J Parasitol. 2005;91:102-7 pubmed
    ..sp. is much smaller than the only other valid species from Mephitis, Skrjabingylus chitwoodorum Hill, 1939. Likewise, morphometric comparisons also distinguish S. santaceciliae n. sp. from other described Skrjabingylus species...
  67. Sloan S, Hanlon C, Weldon W, Niezgoda M, Blanton J, Self J, et al. Identification and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody that potently neutralizes a broad panel of rabies virus isolates. Vaccine. 2007;25:2800-10 pubmed
    ..HuMAb 17C7 protected hamsters from a lethal dose of rabies virus in a well-established in vivo model of post-exposure prophylaxis...
  68. Das S, Wang J, Dey S, Mead R. Spatiotemporal expression of cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 during delayed implantation and the periimplantation period in the Western spotted skunk. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:893-9 pubmed
  69. Aranda M, López de Buen L. Rabies in skunks from Mexico. J Wildl Dis. 1999;35:574-7 pubmed
    ..This situation constitutes an important public health problem and requires further epidemiological research to make the human population aware of the problem and to establish measures to limit further human attacks by rabid skunks...
  70. Gibbons R. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39:528-36 pubmed
    ..The known pathogenesis of rabies and available data suggest that all or nearly all cases of human rabies attributable to bats were transmitted by bat bites that were minimized or unrecognized by the patients...
  71. Krebs J, Noll H, Rupprecht C, Childs J. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2001. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;221:1690-701 pubmed
    ..3% (15 to 13). One case of rabies in a human being reported by California during 2001 was the result of infection with a canine variant of the rabies virus acquired outside the United States...
  72. Hwang Y, Gentes M, Parker D, Larivière S, Messier F. Effects of surgical implantation of temperature dataloggers on reproduction of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2004;35:515-9 pubmed
    ..Neither implant nor surgery affected reproduction. We conclude that implanted dataloggers can safely be used in physiologic studies of striped skunks or possibly other small carnivores in captive or field studies...
  73. Grosenbaugh D, Maki J, Rupprecht C, Wall D. Rabies challenge of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) following oral administration of a live vaccinia-vectored rabies vaccine. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:124-8 pubmed
    ..However, although the fishmeal-coated sachets were readily consumed, subsequent challenge of these animals revealed poor vaccine delivery efficiency...
  74. Quirk T, Dubey J. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). J Parasitol. 2008;94:761-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies were not found in 1 skunk. Results indicate that skunks can develop IgG antibodies to T. gondii within 3 wk PI, and primary toxoplasmosis can be fatal in skunks...
  75. Rosatte R, Donovan D, Davies J, Allan M, Bachmann P, Stevenson B, et al. Aerial distribution of ONRAB baits as a tactic to control rabies in raccoons and striped skunks in Ontario, Canada. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:363-74 pubmed
    ..Because tetracycline marking was poor in skunks, an estimate of vaccine efficacy was not possible. Aerial distribution of ONRAB vaccine baits seems to be a feasible tactic for controlling rabies in skunks and raccoons...
  76. Lubelczyk C, Cahill B, Hanson T, Turmel J, LaCombe E, Rand P, et al. Tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation at two rural, seasonal camps in Maine and Vermont. J Parasitol. 2010;96:442-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent samples from the Vermont site were tested for the presence of Powassan encephalitis virus, though no viral activity was detected...
  77. Gehrt S, Kinsel M, Anchor C. Pathogen dynamics and morbidity of striped skunks in the absence of rabies. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:335-47 pubmed
    ..Severe infections occurred with multiple parasite species, and patterns of aggregation suggested some parasite species, or more likely the parasite community, act as a limiting mechanism in skunk populations...
  78. Feng Y, Lal A, Li N, Xiao L. Subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. in mice and other small mammals. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, seven subtype families were detected, including four new subtype families. These data should be useful in studies of the transmission and zoonotic potential of cryptosporidiosis in mice and small wild mammals...
  79. Scialfa E, Brihuega B, Venzano A, Morris W, Bolpe J, Schettino M. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:168-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae...
  80. Pepin K, Davis A, Streicker D, Fischer J, VerCauteren K, Gilbert A. Predicting spatial spread of rabies in skunk populations using surveillance data reported by the public. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005822 pubmed publisher
    ..Passive disease surveillance (i.e., case reports by public) is a common method of monitoring emergence of wildlife diseases, but can be challenging to interpret due to spatial biases and limitations in data quantity and quality...
  81. Doyon C, Drouin G, Trudeau V, Moon T. Molecular evolution of leptin. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2001;124:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of extant and ancestral leptin sequences suggests that convergent or parallel evolution is the most plausible hypothesis to explain the similarity between bird and rodent leptins...
  82. Dubey J, Hamir A, Topper M. Sarcocystis mephitisi n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae), Sarcocystis neurona-like and Toxoplasma-like infections in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). J Parasitol. 2002;88:113-7 pubmed
    ..These sarcocysts were structurally similar to S. neurona sarcocysts. A Toxoplasma gondii-like tissue cyst was found in a section of tongue of 1 of the 4 skunks...
  83. Hwang Y, Wobeser G, Lariviere S, Messier F. Streptococcus equisimilis infection in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Saskatchewan. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:641-3 pubmed
    ..These are apparently the first reported cases of S. equisimilis infection in striped skunks and suggest that this opportunistic pathogen may be a significant cause of mortality under some conditions...
  84. Crooks K, Garcelon D, Scott C, Wilcox J, Timm S, Van Vuren D. Hematology and serum chemistry of the island spotted skunk on Santa Cruz Island. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:460-6 pubmed
    ..Serum chemistry and hematologic profiles suggest that method of restraint (manual or chemical), as well as other methodologic details, may influence blood characteristics in the island spotted skunk...
  85. Engeman R, Christensen K, Pipas M, Bergman D. Population monitoring in support of a rabies vaccination program for skunks in Arizona. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:746-50 pubmed
    ..Mark-recapture population estimates could not be validly calculated from the data on captures and recaptures due to multiple violations of analytical assumptions...
  86. Krebs J, Wheeling J, Childs J. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2002. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;223:1736-48 pubmed
    ..California, Tennessee, and Iowa each reported a case of rabies in a human being during 2002. All cases of rabies in humans were the result of infection with bat variants of the rabies virus...
  87. Dragoo J, Matthes D, Aragon A, Hass C, Terry L. Identification of skunk species submitted for rabies testing in the desert southwest. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:371-6 pubmed
    ..Most were identified as striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), but hooded (Mephitis macroura) and hog-nosed (Conepatus leuconotus) skunks were also found...
  88. Chorazy M, Richardson D. A survey of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, Wallingford, Connecticut. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:33-9 pubmed
    ..Of particular concern is the high degree of contamination of playgrounds and the potential risk these areas pose to children's health...
  89. Cheadle M, Lindsay D, Greiner E. Lack of Sarcocystis neurona antibody response in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) fed Sarcocystis neurona-infected muscle tissue. J Parasitol. 2006;92:652-4 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in filter-paper-processed serum samples from 2 armadillos naturally infected with S. neurona...
  90. Mitchell S, Richardson D, Lindsay D. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut. J Parasitol. 2006;92:664-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut...
  91. Hwang Y, Larivière S, Messier F. Energetic consequences and ecological significance of heterothermy and social thermoregulation in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Physiol Biochem Zool. 2007;80:138-45 pubmed
  92. Allender M, Schumacher J, Thomas K, McCain S, Ramsay E, James E, et al. Infection with Aleutian disease virus-like virus in a captive striped skunk. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232:742-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A 5-month-old captive female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was evaluated because of lethargy, signs of depression, azotemia, and erythema of the skin around the eyes...