earless seals

Summary

Summary: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.

Top Publications

  1. Jensen T, van de Bildt M, Dietz H, Andersen T, Hammer A, Kuiken T, et al. Another phocine distemper outbreak in Europe. Science. 2002;297:209 pubmed
  2. Field I, Bradshaw C, McMahon C, Harrington J, Burton H. Effects of age, size and condition of elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on their intravenous anaesthesia with tiletamine and zolazepam. Vet Rec. 2002;151:235-40 pubmed
    ..There were no fatalities, and no periods of apnoea longer than five minutes were recorded. In individual seals there was a significant increase in weighted recovery time with successive captures...
  3. Field I, Bradshaw C, Burton H, Sumner M, Hindell M. Resource partitioning through oceanic segregation of foraging juvenile southern elephant seals ( Mirounga leonina). Oecologia. 2005;142:127-35 pubmed
    ..Such modifications of haul-out timing and behavior enable them to exploit a patchy and unpredictable environment...
  4. Hall B, Hoelzel A, Baroni C, Denton G, Le Boeuf B, Overturf B, et al. Holocene elephant seal distribution implies warmer-than-present climate in the Ross Sea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10213-10217 pubmed publisher
    ..If, as proposed in the literature, the ice shelf survived this period, it would have been exposed to environments substantially warmer than present...
  5. Kanatous S, Hawke T, Trumble S, Pearson L, Watson R, Garry D, et al. The ontogeny of aerobic and diving capacity in the skeletal muscles of Weddell seals. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..As these future elite divers mature, their skeletal muscles transform to a more sedentary state in order to maintain the low levels of aerobic metabolism associated with long-duration diving...
  6. Arslan G, Brunborg L, Frøyland L, Brun J, Valen M, Berstad A. Effects of duodenal seal oil administration in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Lipids. 2002;37:935-40 pubmed
    ..The results suggest positive effects of seal oil in patients with IBD, especially on IBD-associated joint pain. Further controlled studies are warranted...
  7. Fabiani A, Hoelzel A, Galimberti F, Muelbert M. Long-range paternal gene flow in the southern elephant seal. Science. 2003;299:676 pubmed
  8. McMahon C, Burton H. Climate change and seal survival: evidence for environmentally mediated changes in elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, pup survival. Proc Biol Sci. 2005;272:923-8 pubmed
    ..This functional link provides valuable insights that can be used to model the responses of the seal populations to climate change scenarios...
  9. Tremblay Y, Roberts A, Costa D. Fractal landscape method: an alternative approach to measuring area-restricted searching behavior. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:935-45 pubmed
    ..The method provides a significant new tool for studies of animals' foraging behavior and habitat selection, because it provides a method to precisely quantify each ARS separately, which is not possible with existing methods...

More Information

Publications144 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kennedy S, Kuiken T, Jepson P, Deaville R, Forsyth M, Barrett T, et al. Mass die-Off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:637-9 pubmed
    ..These results implicate canine distemper virus infection as the primary cause of death...
  2. Brox J, Olaussen K, Osterud B, Elvevoll E, Bjørnstad E, Brattebøg G, et al. A long-term seal- and cod-liver-oil supplementation in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids. 2001;36:7-13 pubmed
  3. Tryland M, Sørensen K, Godfroid J. Prevalence of Brucella pinnipediae in healthy hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) from the North Atlantic Ocean and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard. Vet Microbiol. 2005;105:103-11 pubmed
    ..pinnipediae is enzootic in this population. Since the hooded seal is commercially hunted and consumed in Norway, the pathological impact of such infections and their zoonotic potential should be further addressed. ..
  4. Jensen A, Halling S. Effect of polymyxin B and environmental conditions on isolation of Brucella species and the vaccine strain RB51. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations extend basic knowledge of the differential resistance of Brucella to polymyxins. ..
  5. Pala C. Climate science. Sea animals get tagged for double-duty research. Science. 2006;313:1383-4 pubmed
  6. Burns J, Lestyk K, Folkow L, Hammill M, Blix A. Size and distribution of oxygen stores in harp and hooded seals from birth to maturity. J Comp Physiol B. 2007;177:687-700 pubmed
    ..However, final maturation of TBO(2) stores does not take place until after foraging begins. ..
  7. Muller G, Kaim U, Haas L, Greiser Wilke I, Wohlsein P, Siebert U, et al. Phocine distemper virus: characterization of the morbillivirus causing the seal epizootic in northwestern Europe in 2002. Arch Virol. 2008;153:951-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Vetter W, Weichbrodt M, Stoll E. Indication of geographic variaritions of organochlorine concentrations in the blubber of Antarctic Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli). Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:840-4 pubmed
  9. Stockard T, Levenson D, Berg L, Fransioli J, Baranov E, Ponganis P. Blood oxygen depletion during rest-associated apneas of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). J Exp Biol. 2007;210:2607-17 pubmed
    ..Such hypoxemic tolerance is necessary in order to allow dissociation of O(2) from hemoglobin and provide effective utilization of the blood O(2) store. ..
  10. Fahlman A, Hooker S, Olszowka A, Bostrom B, Jones D. Estimating the effect of lung collapse and pulmonary shunt on gas exchange during breath-hold diving: the Scholander and Kooyman legacy. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009;165:28-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our work suggests the need for caution in interpretation of previous model results based on assumed collapse depths and all-or-nothing lung collapse models. ..
  11. Yassin A, Busse H. Psychrobacter lutiphocae sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of a seal. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:2049-53 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. is proposed. Strain IMMIB L-1110T (=DSM 21542T=CCUG 56590T) is the type strain. ..
  12. Martina B, Harder T, Osterhaus A. Genetic characterization of the unique short segment of phocid herpesvirus type 1 reveals close relationships among alphaherpesviruses of hosts of the order Carnivora. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1427-30 pubmed
    ..Comparative analysis of the ORF encoding the gD equivalent of PhHV-1 identified the corresponding proteins of the alphaherpesviruses canine herpesvirus and, to lesser degree, feline herpesvirus as the closest relatives. ..
  13. Pang D, Rondenay Y, Measures L, Lair S. The effects of two dosages of midazolam on short-duration anesthesia in the harp seal (Phoca groenlandica). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006;37:27-32 pubmed
    ..Premedication with i.m. midazolam at the dosages used did prolong recovery from anesthesia, although to a degree unlikely to be significant clinically. ..
  14. Norstrom K, Olsson A, Olsson M, Bergman A. Bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS) in Swedish marine and fresh water wildlife-a screening study. Environ Int. 2004;30:667-74 pubmed
    ..However, the guillemot has levels in the low ppm range indicating a considerable biomagnification of BCPS in this species. ..
  15. Lawson P, Foster G, Falsen E, Davison N, Collins M. Streptococcus halichoeri sp. nov., isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:1753-6 pubmed
    ..nov., the type strain of which is CCUG 48324T (= CIP 108195T). ..
  16. Beklemisheva V, Perelman P, Lemskaya N, Kulemzina A, Proskuryakova A, Burkanov V, et al. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora). PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147647 pubmed publisher
    ..The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular. ..
  17. Endo H, Sakata S, Arai T, Miyazaki N. The muscles of mastication in the caspian seal (Phoca caspica). Anat Histol Embryol. 2002;31:262-5 pubmed
  18. Lu Y, Aguirre A, Wang Y, Zeng L, Loh P, Yanagihara R. Viral susceptibility of newly established cell lines from the Hawaiian monk seal Monachus schauinslandi. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;57:183-91 pubmed
    ..The wide range of viral susceptibility of these monk seal cell lines suggests their potential value in studying viruses of monk seals and other marine mammals. ..
  19. Burns J, Skomp N, Bishop N, Lestyk K, Hammill M. Development of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in cardiac and skeletal muscles from harp and hooded seals. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These patterns are similar to those in terrestrial species, suggesting that seal hearts do not exhibit unique adaptations to the challenges of an aquatic existence. ..
  20. Shewmaker P, Whitney A, Humrighouse B. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. h. J Clin Microbiol. 2016;54:739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). ..
  21. McCurry J. Japan steps up SARS plans. Lancet. 2004;363:219 pubmed
  22. Thornton S, Hochachka P. Oxygen and the diving seal. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2004;31:81-95 pubmed
  23. Hadley G, Rotella J, Garrott R. Evaluation of reproductive costs for Weddell seals in Erebus Bay, Antarctica. J Anim Ecol. 2007;76:448-58 pubmed
  24. Tilley R, Kemp G, Hall A. Cryostorage of hepatic microsomes from two marine mammal species: effects on cytochrome P450-monooxygenase activities and content. Mar Pollut Bull. 2003;46:654-8 pubmed
  25. Hammond J, Bennett K, Walton M, Hall A. Molecular cloning and expression of leptin in gray and harbor seal blubber, bone marrow, and lung and its potential role in marine mammal respiratory physiology. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R545-R553 pubmed
    ..Finally, we report the substantial inadequacies of using heterologous antibodies to measure leptin in unextracted gray seal serum. ..
  26. Hall A, Thomas G. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organic pesticides in United Kingdom harbor seals (Phoca vitulina)--mixed exposures and thyroid homeostasis. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2007;26:851-61 pubmed
  27. Wheatley K, Bradshaw C, Harcourt R, Hindell M. Feast or famine: evidence for mixed capital-income breeding strategies in Weddell seals. Oecologia. 2008;155:11-20 pubmed
    ..Questions remain as to the amount of energy gain derived from the income strategy, and the consequences for pup condition and survival. ..
  28. Sloth J, Larsen E, Julshamn K. Report on three aliphatic dimethylarsinoyl compounds as common minor constituents in marine samples. An investigation using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionisation tandem mass sp. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19:227-35 pubmed
    ..Alternative proposals, which explain the presence of the compounds in marine samples, are addressed briefly in the paper. ..
  29. Stephenson R. Physiological control of diving behaviour in the Weddell seal Leptonychotes weddelli: a model based on cardiorespiratory control theory. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1971-91 pubmed
    ..It is likely that respiratory mechanisms are an important component of a hierarchical behavioural control system and further studies are required to test the qualitative and quantitative validity of the model. ..
  30. Ikonomou M, Addison R. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in seal populations from eastern and western Canada: an assessment of the processes and factors controlling PBDE distribution in seals. Mar Environ Res. 2008;66:225-30 pubmed publisher
  31. Trumble S, Noren S, Cornick L, Hawke T, Kanatous S. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle lipid profiles of Weddell seals: clues to developmental changes. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:1676-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that the observed change in lipids associated with the skeletal muscle of Weddell seals is related to ontogenetic differences in thermoregulation and locomotion. ..
  32. Sinisalo T, Kunnasranta M, Valtonen E. Intestinal helminths of a landlocked ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) population in eastern Finland. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:40-5 pubmed
    ..Variation in the number of worms in individual seals may indicate differences in feeding behaviour and in the diet of seals, and/or variation in the immune status of the seals. ..
  33. McDonald B, Crocker D. Physiology and behavior influence lactation efficiency in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006;79:484-96 pubmed
    ..In addition, prime females spent significantly more time resting. A combination of reduced activity and more rapid energy delivery likely explains the increase in lactation efficiency with age found in a previous study. ..
  34. van Bolhuis G, Philippa J, Gajadhar A, Osterhaus A, Kuiken T. Fatal enterocolitis in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caused by infection with Eimeria phocae. Vet Rec. 2007;160:297-300 pubmed
    ..A retrospective microscopical examination of intestinal tissues from 113 harbour seals that had died between 1999 and 2004 revealed one seal that was positive for E phocae. ..
  35. Ishibashi H, Iwata H, Kim E, Tao L, Kannan K, Tanabe S, et al. Contamination and effects of perfluorochemicals in Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica). 2. Molecular characterization, expression level, and transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:2302-8 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates that the PPARalpha-mediated response may be a useful biomarkerto evaluate potential biological effects of PFCs in wildlife. ..
  36. Kanatous S, Davis R, Watson R, Polasek L, Williams T, Mathieu Costello O. Aerobic capacities in the skeletal muscles of Weddell seals: key to longer dive durations?. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:3601-8 pubmed
    ..The lower aerobic capacity of Weddell seal muscle as compared with that of shorter-duration divers appears to reflect their energy-conserving modes of locomotion, which enable longer and deeper dives. ..
  37. Bourg G, O Callaghan D, Boschiroli M. The genomic structure of Brucella strains isolated from marine mammals gives clues to evolutionary history within the genus. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:375-80 pubmed
  38. Frouin H, Lebeuf M, Hammill M, Fournier M. Phagocytosis in pup and adult harbour, grey and harp seals. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;134:160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereafter, the phagocytic activity of seals appears to decrease throughout adulthood. ..
  39. Serrano A, Terhune J. Antimasking aspects of harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) underwater vocalizations. J Acoust Soc Am. 2002;112:3083-90 pubmed
    ..Harp seals use frequency and temporal separation in conjunction with a wide vocal repertoire to avoid masking each other. ..
  40. Khol Parisini A, van den Hoven R, Leinker S, Hulan H, Zentek J. Effects of feeding sunflower oil or seal blubber oil to horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Can J Vet Res. 2007;71:59-65 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a possible influence of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the pulmonary inflammation of horses with RAO. Further studies are warranted to address effects on inflammatory mediators and clinical outcome. ..
  41. Dailey M, Haulena M, Lawrence J. First report of a parasitic copepod (Pennella balaenopterae) infestation in a pinniped. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2002;33:62-5 pubmed
    ..and Proteus mirabilis. The lesions were drained and irrigated with chlorhexidine, and the seal was treated with a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin. The seal recovered and was released after 43 days. ..
  42. Harper C, Xu S, Rogers A, Feng Y, Shen Z, Taylor N, et al. Isolation and characterization of novel Helicobacter spp. from the gastric mucosa of harp seals Phoca groenlandica. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;57:1-9 pubmed
    ..may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in pinnipeds. To our knowledge, this represents the first isolation and characterization of a novel Helicobacter spp. from pinnipeds. ..
  43. Kim E, Hahn M, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Miyazaki N. cDNA cloning of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica). Mar Environ Res. 2002;54:285-9 pubmed
    ..This implies that Baikal seal may also be sensitive to dioxin effects. ..
  44. Trumble S, Barboza P, Castellini M. Digestive constraints on an aquatic carnivore: effects of feeding frequency and prey composition on harbor seals. J Comp Physiol B. 2003;173:501-9 pubmed
  45. Henden T, Aasum E, Folkow L, Mjøs O, Lathrop D, Larsen T. Endogenous glycogen prevents Ca2+ overload and hypercontracture in harp seal myocardial cells during simulated ischemia. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004;37:43-50 pubmed
    ..Seal cardiomyocytes thus tolerate low oxygen conditions better than rat cardiomyocytes. This finding is most likely due to a higher glycolysis rate in seals, fueled by larger myocardial glycogen stores. ..
  46. Moore L, Rathkopf M, Sanner C, Whisman B, Demain J. Seal and whale meat: two newly recognized food allergies. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;98:92-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first known reported case of specific IgE to these species. ..
  47. Strandberg U, Käkelä A, Lydersen C, Kovacs K, Grahl Nielsen O, Hyvärinen H, et al. Stratification, composition, and function of marine mammal blubber: the ecology of fatty acids in marine mammals. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2008;81:473-85 pubmed publisher
  48. Sparling C, Speakman J, Fedak M. Seasonal variation in the metabolic rate and body composition of female grey seals: fat conservation prior to high-cost reproduction in a capital breeder?. J Comp Physiol B. 2006;176:505-12 pubmed
    ..RMR of juveniles showed no clear seasonal patterns, but did increase with increasing mass. These data support the hypothesis that seasonal variation in RMR in female grey seals is related to the high costs of breeding. ..
  49. Hemilä S, Nummela S, Berta A, Reuter T. High-frequency hearing in phocid and otariid pinnipeds: an interpretation based on inertial and cochlear constraints (L). J Acoust Soc Am. 2006;120:3463-6 pubmed
    ..Phocids, however, have massive middle ear ossicles, and underwater hearing has radically shifted towards higher frequencies. This suggests that the high-frequency hearing of phocids in air is constrained by ossicle inertia. ..
  50. Calle P, Seagars D, McClave C, Senne D, House C, House J. Viral and bacterial serology of six free-ranging bearded seals Erignathus barbatus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;81:77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..One seal had a low titer of 100 to Leptospira interrogans serovar ..
  51. Hammond J, Guethlein L, Abi Rached L, Moesta A, Parham P. Evolution and survival of marine carnivores did not require a diversity of killer cell Ig-like receptors or Ly49 NK cell receptors. J Immunol. 2009;182:3618-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that long-term survival of placental mammal species need not require a diverse system of either Ly49 or KIR NK cell receptors...
  52. Papadopoulos E, Loukopoulos P, Komnenou A, Androukaki E, Karamanlidis A. First report of Acanthocheilonema spirocauda in the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:570-3 pubmed
    ..spirocauda, even though this is the most common heartworm found in most pinnipeds worldwide. This parasite should be considered in health care monitoring projects of this endangered species. ..
  53. Mattiucci S, Cianchi R, Nascetti G, Paggi L, Sardella N, Timi J, et al. Genetic evidence for two sibling species within Contracaecum ogmorhini Johnston & Mawson, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from otariid seals of boreal and austral regions. Syst Parasitol. 2003;54:13-23 pubmed
    ..miroungae; no hybrid genotypes were found, confirming the reproductive isolation of these three anisakid species. The hosts and geographical range so far recorded for C. margolisi n. sp. and C. ogmorhini (s.s.) are given. ..
  54. Kapel C, Measures L, Møller L, Forbes L, Gajadhar A. Experimental Trichinella infection in seals. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1463-70 pubmed
  55. Sørmo E, Jüssi I, Jüssi M, Braathen M, Skaare J, Jenssen B. Thyroid hormone status in gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) pups from the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean in relation to organochlorine pollutants. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:610-6 pubmed
  56. Holt M, Schusterman R. Spatial release from masking of aerial tones in pinnipeds. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;121:1219-25 pubmed
    ..Performance was consistent with some measurements collected on terrestrial animals but differences between subjects at the highest frequency likely reflect variations in pinna anatomy. ..
  57. Hindle A, Horning M, Mellish J, Lawler J. Diving into old age: muscular senescence in a large-bodied, long-lived mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii). J Exp Biol. 2009;212:790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We reject the classic tenet and null-hypothesis that Weddell seals do not survive to an age where muscular senescence becomes detectable. ..
  58. Mellish J, Tuomi P, Hindle A, Horning M. Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) by ketamine/midazolam combination. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2010;37:123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..No animals died. Reliable and effective field immobilization of Weddell seals was accomplished with a low dose of ketamine hydrochloride and midazolam hydrochloride, utilizing IM injection initially and IV maintenance methods. ..
  59. Piché C, Measures L, Bédard C, Lair S. Bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary histopathology in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) experimentally infected with Otostrongylus circumlitus. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:409-21 pubmed
    ..04). Our findings showed that harp seals are susceptible to infection with O. circumlitus. However, parasitic infections were transient and of low intensity, at least under our experimental conditions. ..
  60. Wiberg K, Bergman A, Olsson M, Roos A, Blomkvist G, Haglund P. Concentrations and enantiomer fractions of organochlorine compounds in Baltic species hit by reproductive impairment. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002;21:2542-51 pubmed
    ..High biotransformation rate (as indicated by fraction of chlordane metabolites in relation to total level of chlordanes) was also associated with large deviations from racemic values and high contaminant levels. ..
  61. Matishov G, Muraveiko V, Gladkikh A, Muraveiko A. Effect of stress and magnetic field on the heart activity of the Greenland seal Pagophilus groenlandicus. Dokl Biol Sci. 2004;397:277-80 pubmed
  62. Routti H, Nyman M, Bäckman C, Koistinen J, Helle E. Accumulation of dietary organochlorines and vitamins in Baltic seals. Mar Environ Res. 2005;60:267-87 pubmed
    ..These results further support our previous hypothesis that the toxic effects of environmental contaminants could be causing the observed divergence in vitamin levels between the Baltic seals and the reference seal populations. ..
  63. McMahon C, van den Hoff J, Burton H. Handling intensity and the short- and long-term survival of elephant seals: addressing and quantifying research effects on wild animals. Ambio. 2005;34:426-9 pubmed
    ..In support of this conclusion we were unable to detect any significant differences in the survival rates of the most intensively handled seals and the least intensively handled seals. ..
  64. Hadley G, Rotella J, Garrott R, Nichols J. Variation in probability of first reproduction of Weddell seals. J Anim Ecol. 2006;75:1058-70 pubmed
  65. Mehlhorn B, Mehlhorn H, Plötz J. Light and scanning electron microscopical study on Antarctophthirus ogmorhini lice from the Antarctic seal Leptonychotes weddellii. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:651-60 pubmed
  66. Noren D. Thermoregulation of weaned northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups in air and water. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2002;75:513-23 pubmed
    ..For all elephant seal pups, a consequence of high lipid content is that thermoregulatory costs are greatest on land and lowest in cold water, a pattern that contrasts markedly with terrestrial mammals. ..
  67. Ortiz R, Houser D, Wade C, Ortiz C. Hormonal changes associated with the transition between nursing and natural fasting in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;130:78-83 pubmed
  68. Timenko A, Borisova T. [Antigenic characteristics of morbillivirus isolates from Baikal seals]. Vopr Virusol. 2003;48:46-8 pubmed
    ..The assay data indicated three different antigen variants of morbillivirus. The four strains were found to circulate over the Baikal seal population during epizootic. ..
  69. Steiger K, Ellenberger C, Schüppel K, Richter E, Schmerbach K, Krautwald Junghanns M, et al. [Uncommon mycobacterial infections in domestic and zoo animals: four cases with special emphasis on pathology]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2003;110:382-8 pubmed
  70. Honnold S, Braun R, Scott D, Sreekumar C, Dubey J. Toxoplasmosis in a Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). J Parasitol. 2005;91:695-7 pubmed
    ..gondii DNA. The genotype was determined to be type III by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SAG2 gene. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in a Hawaiian monk seal. ..
  71. Tremblay Y, Robinson P, Costa D. A parsimonious approach to modeling animal movement data. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4711 pubmed publisher
    ..This reduced the number of invalid on-land location by almost an order of magnitude. The method is intuitive, flexible and efficient, promising extensive utilization in future research. ..
  72. Tilley R, Kemp G, Teramitsu I, Hall A. Isolation of two cytochrome P450 cDNAs, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, from harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002;132:181-91 pubmed
    ..The CYP1A sequence information presented in this study has provided the necessary data for the future production of species-specific probes for the use as biomarkers of environmental contaminant exposure. ..
  73. Tittlemier S, Borrell A, Duffe J, Duignan P, Fair P, Hall A, et al. Global distribution of halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles in marine mammal blubber. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;43:244-55 pubmed
    ..These results imply that HDBPs and anthropogenic organohalogens have different sources and support the natural production hypothesis. ..
  74. Vossen A, Abdulmawjood A, Lammler C, Weiss R, Siebert U. Identification and molecular characterization of beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) of the German North and Baltic Seas. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:469-73 pubmed
    ..The group L streptococci could be classified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. ..
  75. Weber D, Stewart B, Schienman J, Lehman N. Major histocompatibility complex variation at three class II loci in the northern elephant seal. Mol Ecol. 2004;13:711-8 pubmed
    ..Northern elephant seals are evidently inbred, although there is as yet no evidence of correlative reductions in fitness. ..
  76. Ikemoto T, Kunito T, Tanaka H, Baba N, Miyazaki N, Tanabe S. Detoxification mechanism of heavy metals in marine mammals and seabirds: interaction of selenium with mercury, silver, copper, zinc, and cadmium in liver. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;47:402-13 pubmed
  77. Ponganis P, Stockard T, Levenson D, Berg L, Baranov E. Cardiac output and muscle blood flow during rest-associated apneas of elephant seals. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006;144:105-11 pubmed
  78. Harcourt R, Turner E, Hall A, Waas J, Hindell M. Effects of capture stress on free-ranging, reproductively active male Weddell seals. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010;196:147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Male breeding success in years males were handled was no different to the years they were not, despite the acute capture response, suggesting no long-term impact of handling on male reproductive output. ..
  79. Cooper M, Iverson S, Heras H. Dynamics of blood chylomicron fatty acids in a marine carnivore: implications for lipid metabolism and quantitative estimation of predator diets. J Comp Physiol B. 2005;175:133-45 pubmed
    ..When these aspects of metabolism were accounted for, the quantitative predictions of diet composition generated using chylomicron signatures were extremely accurate, even when tested against 28 other prey items. ..
  80. Stenfors L, Bye H, Tikkakoski T. Shrapnell's membrane in a mammal exposed to extreme pressure variations: morphological and radiological observations in the hooded seal. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117:756-62 pubmed
    ..The main function of the lateral wall of the attic, including the minimal PF, appears to be to protect the middle-ear ossicles and allow movement of the malleus. ..
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    ..None of the gastric juice or saliva samples were positive for Helicobacter sp. However, Helicobacter sp. DNA was detected in dental plaque from two dolphins, suggesting the oral cavity might be a reservoir of this bacterium. ..
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    ..The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds. ..
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    ..We suggest that greater attention be paid to the radiology and pathology of bycatch mortality as a possible model to better understand gas bubble disease in marine mammals...
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    ..Transportation of beta-HCH by ocean currents through the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean or regional point sources might explain these elevated levels...
  87. Hoekstra P, O Hara T, Karlsson H, Solomon K, Muir D. Enantiomer-specific biomagnification of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and selected chiral chlordane-related compounds within an Arctic marine food web. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003;22:2482-91 pubmed
    ..However, the modification of EFs from bowhead liver to blubber suggests that this species has the ability to enantioselectively biotransform and accumulate several chiral OC compounds...
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    ..Higher levels of thyroid hormones in the winter indicate an adaptive mechanism to cope with the low temperatures of winter...
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    ..Sequence divergence between Phoca, Pusa, and Halichoerus is minimal, supporting a taxonomic reclassification of the three genera into an emended genus Phoca, without subgeneric distinctions...
  91. Kim E, Iwata H, Suda T, Tanabe S, Amano M, Miyazaki N, et al. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) expression in Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica) and association with 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents and CYP1 expression levels. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005;141:281-91 pubmed
    ..The present findings may render significant insight on the basic mechanisms underlying regulation of AHR and ARNT expressions associated with biological factors and PHAH exposure in wild mammalian populations...
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