foxes

Summary

Summary: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.

Top Publications

  1. Gabriel M, Brown R, Foley J, Higley J, Botzler R. Ecology of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in northwestern California. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:344-54 pubmed
    ..Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are relatively common, occasionally peri-urban mesocarnivores whose geographic ..
  2. Prestrud K, Asbakk K, Mørk T, Fuglei E, Tryland M, Su C. Direct high-resolution genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in the remote arctic Svalbard archipelago reveals widespread clonal Type II lineage. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report the results of direct genotyping of T. gondii in brain tissue of arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from the remote, virtually cat-free, high arctic islands of Svalbard...
  3. Teacher A, Thomas J, Barnes I. Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:214 pubmed publisher
  4. Killengreen S, Lecomte N, Ehrich D, Schott T, Yoccoz N, Ims R. The importance of marine vs. human-induced subsidies in the maintenance of an expanding mesocarnivore in the arctic tundra. J Anim Ecol. 2011;80:1049-60 pubmed publisher
    ..of a multi-annual rodent cycle, we investigated the seasonal dynamics and spatial pattern of resource use by red foxes across a coast to inland low arctic tundra gradient, Varanger Peninsula, Norway...
  5. Ito A, Chuluunbaatar G, Yanagida T, Davaasuren A, Sumiya B, Asakawa M, et al. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia. Parasitology. 2013;140:1648-54 pubmed publisher
    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus...
  6. Bilandžić N, Dežđek D, Sedak M, Dokić M, Solomun B, Varenina I, et al. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;85:486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats. ..
  7. Muller T, Batza H, Beckert A, Bunzenthal C, Cox J, Freuling C, et al. Analysis of vaccine-virus-associated rabies cases in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) after oral rabies vaccination campaigns in Germany and Austria. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1081-91 pubmed publisher
    To eradicate rabies in foxes, almost 97 million oral rabies vaccine baits have been distributed in Germany and Austria since 1983 and 1986, respectively. Since 2007, no terrestrial cases have been reported in either country...
  8. Staubach C, Hoffmann L, Schmid V, Ziller M, Tackmann K, Conraths F. Bayesian space-time analysis of Echinococcus multilocularis-infections in foxes. Vet Parasitol. 2011;179:77-83 pubmed publisher
    A total of 26,220 foxes that were hunted or found dead in Thuringia, Germany, between 1990 and 2009 were examined for infection with Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, and 6853 animals were ..
  9. Cerveny J, Begall S, Koubek P, Nováková P, Burda H. Directional preference may enhance hunting accuracy in foraging foxes. Biol Lett. 2011;7:355-7 pubmed publisher
    Red foxes hunting small animals show a specific behaviour known as 'mousing'. The fox jumps high, so that it surprises its prey from above...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Frey C, Schuppers M, Muller N, Ryser Degiorgis M, Gottstein B. Assessment of the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in red foxes and Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in Swiss pigs, horses, or wild boar for many decades, whereas the parasite was repeatedly isolated from red foxes and Eurasian lynxes. Whenever the isolated larvae could be subjected to genotyping, T...
  2. Malczewski A, Borecka A, Malczewska M, Gawor J. [An attempt to determine intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Poland]. Wiad Parazytol. 2008;54:137-41 pubmed
    Echinococcus multilocularis, a tiny tapeworm (2-3 mm in length) occurs in the small intestine of red foxes and raccoon dogs in Poland...
  3. Schaefer J, Moore G, Namekata M, Kasten R, Chomel B. Seroepidemiology of Bartonella infection in gray foxes from Texas. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:428-30 pubmed publisher
    Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were shown to be naturally infected with Bartonella rochalimae, a Bartonella species similar to Bartonella clarridgeiae (B.c.), and Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii (B.v...
  4. Scholz H, Hofer E, Vergnaud G, Le Fleche P, Whatmore A, Al Dahouk S, et al. Isolation of Brucella microti from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, in lower Austria. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:153-6 pubmed publisher
    From the mandibular lymph nodes of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) hunted in the region of Gmünd, Lower Austria, two gram-negative, oxidase- and urease-positive, coccoid rod-shaped bacteria (strains 257 and 284) were isolated...
  5. Carnieli P, Castilho J, Fahl W, Véras N, Carrieri M, Kotait I. Molecular characterization of Rabies Virus isolates from dogs and crab-eating foxes in Northeastern Brazil. Virus Res. 2009;141:81-9 pubmed publisher
    Thirty-eight samples of Rabies Virus isolated from dogs and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in Northeastern Brazil were characterized genetically by analyzing the G gene and the psi region...
  6. Schaefer J, Kasten R, Coonan T, Clifford D, Chomel B. Isolation or detection of Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii and Bartonella rochalimae in the endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis). Vet Microbiol. 2011;154:135-9 pubmed publisher
    Bartonella rochalimae (B.r.) and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (B.v.b.) have been isolated from gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in mainland California and high Bartonella seroprevalence was reported in island foxes (U...
  7. Learmount J, Zimmer I, Conyers C, Boughtflower V, Morgan C, Smith G. A diagnostic study of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Great Britain. Vet Parasitol. 2012;190:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance of red foxes is required to demonstrate disease freedom and maintain this regulation to prevent further geographical spread of ..
  8. Duchesne D, Gauthier G, Berteaux D. Habitat selection, reproduction and predation of wintering lemmings in the Arctic. Oecologia. 2011;167:967-80 pubmed publisher
    ..nests, as well as on their probabilities of reproduction and predation by stoats (Mustela erminea) and arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus)...
  9. Bork Mimm S, Rinder H. High prevalence of Capillaria plica infections in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Southern Germany. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1063-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Foxes serve as reservoir hosts and are considered to be a potential source of infection for companion and hunting dogs ..
  10. Enemark H, Al Sabi M, Knapp J, Staahl M, Chriel M. Detection of a high-endemic focus of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in southern Denmark, January 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20420 pubmed
    ..2012, one infected fox was detected in Højer near the Danish-German border, and in January 2013 three additional foxes from the same area were found infected...
  11. Casulli A, Széll Z, Pozio E, Sréter T. Spatial distribution and genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis in Hungary. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The intestinal mucosa from all the foxes was tested by sedimentation and counting technique. E...
  12. Hrckova G, Miterpakova M, O Connor A, Šnábel V, Olson P. Molecular and morphological circumscription of Mesocestoides tapeworms from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Europe. Parasitology. 2011;138:638-47 pubmed publisher
    Here we examine 3157 foxes from 6 districts of the Slovak Republic in order to determine for the first time the distribution, prevalence and identity of Mesocestodes spp. endemic to this part of central Europe...
  13. Bankovskiy D, Safonov G, Kurilchuk Y. Immunogenicity of the ERA G 333 rabies virus strain in foxes and raccoon dogs. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;131:461-6 pubmed
    The immunogenic properties of ERA G 333 attenuated rabies virus strain in foxes and raccoon dogs by the oral route of administration were examined. This strain is a proposed candidate for oral rabies vaccine in Russia...
  14. Casulli A, Bart J, Knapp J, La Rosa G, Dusher G, Gottstein B, et al. Multi-locus microsatellite analysis supports the hypothesis of an autochthonous focus of Echinococcus multilocularis in northern Italy. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, this parasite has been detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) circulating in an Alpine region of Italy, close to Austria...
  15. Talmi Frank D, Kedem Vaanunu N, King R, Bar Gal G, Edery N, Jaffe C, et al. Leishmania tropica infection in golden jackals and red foxes, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1973-5 pubmed publisher
    ..spacer 1 real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis identified Leishmania tropica in samples from jackals and foxes. Infection was most prevalent in ear and spleen samples...
  16. Ziadinov I, Deplazes P, Mathis A, Mutunova B, Abdykerimov K, Nurgaziev R, et al. Frequency distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis and other helminths of foxes in Kyrgyzstan. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:286-92 pubmed publisher
    Echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in central Asia. A study of the helminth fauna of foxes from Naryn Oblast in central Kyrgyzstan was undertaken to investigate the abundance of Echinococcus multilocularis in a district where a ..
  17. De Craeye S, Speybroeck N, Ajzenberg D, Darde M, Collinet F, Tavernier P, et al. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wildlife: common parasites in Belgian foxes and Cervidae?. Vet Parasitol. 2011;178:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..caninum. Brain samples from wild roe deer, red deer and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were tested for the presence of T. gondii and N. caninum DNA using multiplex real-time PCR...
  18. Henn J, Chomel B, Boulouis H, Kasten R, Murray W, Bar Gal G, et al. Bartonella rochalimae in raccoons, coyotes, and red foxes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1984-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated B. rochalimae from 1 red fox near Paris, France, and from 11 raccoons and 2 coyotes from California, USA. Co-infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was documented in 1 of the coyotes...
  19. Meyer Kayser E, Hoffmann L, Silaghi C, Pfister K, Mahling M, Passos L. Dynamics of tick infestations in foxes in Thuringia, Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:232-9 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to provide up-to-date information on the dynamics of tick infestations on foxes in Thuringia, as the most recent information available was published in 1997...
  20. Zhao J, Yan X, Chai X, Martella V, Luo G, Zhang H, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence of the H gene of 28 CDV strains detected from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks from different geographical areas of China during the years 2004-2008 was determined...
  21. Hansen B, Grøtan V, Aanes R, Sæther B, Stien A, Fuglei E, et al. Climate events synchronize the dynamics of a resident vertebrate community in the high Arctic. Science. 2013;339:313-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Icing is predicted to become more frequent in the circumpolar Arctic and may therefore strongly affect terrestrial ecosystem characteristics...
  22. De Benedictis P, Mancin M, Cattoli G, Capua I, Terrregino C. Serological methods used for rabies post vaccination surveys: an analysis. Vaccine. 2012;30:5611-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have evaluated (a) the effect of two different matrices commonly used for serology in red foxes on the results of the FAVN and (b) the performance of two commercially available ELISAs in comparison with the ..
  23. Verin R, Mugnaini L, Nardoni S, Papini R, Ariti G, Poli A, et al. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:545-51 pubmed publisher
    We tested 191 sera of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes; 78 females and 113 males) for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using an indirect immunofluorescent test...
  24. Blanton J, Palmer D, Christian K, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2007. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:884-97 pubmed publisher
    ..6%), 1,973 bats (27.2%), 1,478 skunks (20.4%), 489 foxes (6.7%), 274 cats (3.8%), 93 dogs (1.3%), and 57 cattle (0.8%)...
  25. Trut L, Oskina I, Kharlamova A. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model. Bioessays. 2009;31:349-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects...
  26. Davidson R, Oines O, Madslien K, Mathis A. Echinococcus multilocularis--adaptation of a worm egg isolation procedure coupled with a multiplex PCR assay to carry out large-scale screening of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Norway. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..multilocularis, E. granulosus and other cestodes were adapted to be carried out on pooled faecal samples from red foxes in Norway. None of the 483 fox faecal samples screened were PCR-positive for E...
  27. Sikó S, Deplazes P, Ceica C, Tivadar C, Bogolin I, Popescu S, et al. Echinococcus multilocularis in south-eastern Europe (Romania). Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1093-7 pubmed publisher
    ..8% of 561 red foxes originating from various regions of Romania...
  28. Hofer E, Revilla Fernández S, Al Dahouk S, Riehm J, Nockler K, Zygmunt M, et al. A potential novel Brucella species isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes in Austria. Vet Microbiol. 2012;155:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe phenotypic and molecular characteristics of two atypical Brucella strains isolated from two foxes hunted 2008 in Eastern Austria...
  29. Cliquet F, Robardet E, Must K, Laine M, Peik K, Picard Meyer E, et al. Eliminating rabies in Estonia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1535 pubmed publisher
    ..did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies...
  30. Levi T, Wilmers C. Wolves-coyotes-foxes: a cascade among carnivores. Ecology. 2012;93:921-9 pubmed
    ..and rodent abundance and diversity by suppressing populations of small carnivores such as domestic cats and foxes. The restoration of gray wolves to many parts of North America, however, could alter this interaction chain...
  31. Denzin N, Herwig V, van der Grinten E. Occurrence and geographical distribution of Canine Distemper Virus infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In Saxony-Anhalt, a federal state of Germany, 761 foxes were examined for CDV infection, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in the years 2010 and 2011...
  32. Gachot Neveu H, Lefevre P, Roeder J, Henry C, Poulle M. Genetic detection of sex-biased and age-biased dispersal in a population of wild carnivore, the red fox, Vulpes vulpes. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..the majority of females tend to be philopatric, that males disperse farther than females, and that most of the foxes disperse during their first year of life...
  33. Boretti F, Perreten A, Meli M, Cattori V, Willi B, Wengi N, et al. Molecular Investigations of Rickettsia helvetica infection in dogs, foxes, humans, and Ixodes ticks. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:3230-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood samples from 884 dogs, 58 foxes, and 214 human patients and 2,073 ticks (Ixodes spp.) collected from either vegetation or animals were analyzed...
  34. Al Sabi M, Deplazes P, Webster P, Willesen J, Davidson R, Kapel C. PCR detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in faecal samples of dogs and foxes. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, faecal samples from foxes and domestic dogs were tested by a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the second internal transcribed ..
  35. Sekulin K, Hafner Marx A, Kolodziejek J, Janik D, Schmidt P, Nowotny N. Emergence of canine distemper in Bavarian wildlife associated with a specific amino acid exchange in the haemagglutinin protein. Vet J. 2011;187:399-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The haemagglutinin (HA) genes of six representative canine distemper virus (CDV) samples originating from five red foxes and one badger during this outbreak had a Y549H amino acid substitution in the HA protein compared to sequences ..
  36. Sterner R, Meltzer M, Shwiff S, Slate D. Tactics and economics of wildlife oral rabies vaccination, Canada and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Modeling studies, involving diverse assumptions, have shown that ORV programs can be cost-efficient and yield benefit:cost ratios >1.0...
  37. Timm S, Munson L, Summers B, Terio K, Dubovi E, Rupprecht C, et al. A suspected canine distemper epidemic as the cause of a catastrophic decline in Santa Catalina Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae). J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:333-43 pubmed
    ..During this investigation, between October 1999 and April 2000, evidence of live foxes dramatically decreased...
  38. Herrmann D, Maksimov P, Maksimov A, Sutor A, Schwarz S, Jaschke W, et al. Toxoplasma gondii in foxes and rodents from the German Federal States of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt: seroprevalence and genotypes. Vet Parasitol. 2012;185:78-85 pubmed publisher
    Data on the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife are scarce. In the present study, foxes and rodents from two Federal States in Central or Eastern Germany were examined for T. gondii infections...
  39. Kaewmongkol G, Kaewmongkol S, Fleming P, Adams P, Ryan U, Irwin P, et al. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas and blood from red foxes in Australia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), an introduced pest animal species in Australia, and only B...
  40. Reperant L, van Amerongen G, van de Bildt M, Rimmelzwaan G, Dobson A, Osterhaus A, et al. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1835-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are susceptible to infection with HPAI virus (H5N1), we infected 3 foxes intratracheally...
  41. Bodewes R, van der Giessen J, Haagmans B, Osterhaus A, Smits S. Identification of multiple novel viruses, including a parvovirus and a hepevirus, in feces of red foxes. J Virol. 2013;87:7758-64 pubmed publisher
    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most widespread members of the order of Carnivora. Since they often live in (peri)urban areas, they are a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals...
  42. Hegglin D, Bontadina F, Gloor S, Romig T, Deplazes P, Kern P. Survey of public knowledge about Echinococcus multilocularis in four European countries: need for proactive information. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:247 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to plan information campaigns, public knowledge about this zoonotic tapeworm was assessed...
  43. Li L, Pesavento P, Woods L, Clifford D, Luff J, Wang C, et al. Novel amdovirus in gray foxes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1876-8 pubmed publisher
  44. Nagy A, Ziadinov I, Schweiger A, Schnyder M, Deplazes P. [Hair coat contamination with zoonotic helminth eggs of farm and pet dogs and foxes]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011;124:503-11 pubmed
    ..hair coat and faeces of 124 farm dogs, 118 household dogs, 49 kennel dogs, 15 puppies from two litters, and 46 red foxes. Microscopically identified eggs of Toxocara or taeniids were further investigated by species-specific PCRs...
  45. Combes B, Comte S, Raton V, Raoul F, Boue F, Umhang G, et al. Westward spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes, France, 2005-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:2059-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The parasite is much more widely distributed than hitherto thought, spreading west, with a much higher prevalence than previously reported. The parasite also is present in the large conurbation of Paris...
  46. Un H, Eskiizmirliler S, Unal N, Freuling C, Johnson N, Fooks A, et al. Oral vaccination of foxes against rabies in Turkey between 2008 and 2010. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:203-8 pubmed
    Following a sustained spill-over event from dogs to foxes, fox rabies spread rapidly in the Aegean region, Turkey. In order to control the outbreak a program of oral vaccination of foxes against rabies was introduced...
  47. Jiang W, Liu N, Zhang G, Renqing P, Xie F, Li T, et al. Specific detection of Echinococcus spp. from the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and the red fox (V. vulpes) using copro-DNA PCR analysis. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1531-9 pubmed
    ..shiquicus, which are distributed on the vast area of pastureland on the eastern Tibetan plateau in China. Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) have been determined to be the main wild definitive host of E. multilocularis and E...
  48. Singer A, Kauhala K, Holmala K, Smith G. Rabies in northeastern Europe--the threat from invasive raccoon dogs. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:1121-37 pubmed
    ..In this modeling study, we analyzed rabies epizootics in a community of foxes and raccoon dogs...
  49. Sonne C. Health effects from long-range transported contaminants in Arctic top predators: An integrated review based on studies of polar bears and relevant model species. Environ Int. 2010;36:461-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, information from controlled studies of farmed Norwegian Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and housed East and West Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) were included as supportive ..
  50. Schnyder M, Tanner I, Webster P, Barutzki D, Deplazes P. An ELISA for sensitive and specific detection of circulating antigen of Angiostrongylus vasorum in serum samples of naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2011;179:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..vasorum antigen by ELISA represents a valid alternative for reliable diagnosis and for follow-up investigations after anthelmintic treatment. Moreover, the test can be used for mass screening in large epidemiological investigations...
  51. Reperant L, Hegglin D, Tanner I, Fischer C, Deplazes P. Rodents as shared indicators for zoonotic parasites of carnivores in urban environments. Parasitology. 2009;136:329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the potential value of rodents as shared indicators for these pathogens...
  52. Blanton J, Palmer D, Rupprecht C. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2009. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2010;237:646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle...
  53. Nimmervoll H, Hoby S, Robert N, Lommano E, Welle M, Ryser Degiorgis M. Pathology of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes): macroscopic and histologic characterization of three disease stages. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a case-control study focused on macroscopic and histologic examination of the skin, using 279 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) found dead or shot in Switzerland between November 2004 and February 2006...
  54. Vos A, Freuling C, Eskiizmirliler S, Un H, Aylan O, Johnson N, et al. Rabies in foxes, Aegean region, Turkey. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1620-2 pubmed publisher
    At the end of the 1990s in the Aegean region of Turkey, rabies rapidly spread among foxes. This spread likely resulted from spillover infection from dogs and led to increased rabies cases among cattle...
  55. Karbowiak G, Vichova B, Majlathova V, Hapunik J, Petko B. Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2009;16:299-300 pubmed
    The investigation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection covered 111 red foxes from the Mazovian Province. Determination was based on PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene and the portion of msp4 gene coding MSP4 major surface protein...
  56. Knapp J, Bart J, Giraudoux P, Glowatzki M, Breyer I, Raoul F, et al. Genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes at a continental scale in Europe. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e452 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach may serve as a model to study the parasite at a worldwide level...
  57. Birkenheuer A, Horney B, Bailey M, Scott M, Sherbert B, Catto V, et al. Babesia microti-like infections are prevalent in North American foxes. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:179-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A genetically and morphologically similar B. microti-like parasite has been identified in two foxes from North America...
  58. Dalerum F, Perbro A, Magnusdottir R, Hersteinsson P, Angerbjörn A. The influence of coastal access on isotope variation in Icelandic arctic foxes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32071 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that foxes in coastal habitats exhibited a broader isotope niche breadth compared to foxes in inland habitats...
  59. Aubry K, Statham M, Sacks B, Perrine J, Wisely S. Phylogeography of the North American red fox: vicariance in Pleistocene forest refugia. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:2668-86 pubmed publisher
    Fossil, archaeological, and morphometric data suggest that indigenous red foxes in North America were derived from vicariance in two disjunct refugia during the last glaciation: one in Beringia and one in the contiguous USA...
  60. Gabriel M, Henn J, Foley J, Brown R, Kasten R, Foley P, et al. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas collected on gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2009;9:597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..In northern California, gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are infected with two zoonotic Bartonella species, B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp...
  61. Umhang G, Woronoff Rhen N, Combes B, Boue F. Segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT): an adaptable method for qualitative diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis in fox intestines. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:57-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our results and the time saved, we recommend using SSCT for routine examination of fox intestines for large epidemiological studies, particularly where the endemic prevalence of E. multilocularis is low or unknown...
  62. Bružinskaitė Schmidhalter R, Sarkūnas M, Malakauskas A, Mathis A, Torgerson P, Deplazes P. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania. Parasitology. 2012;139:120-7 pubmed publisher
    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east...
  63. Mulatti P, Ferrè N, Patregnani T, Bonfanti L, Marangon S. Geographical information systems in the management of the 2009-2010 emergency oral anti-rabies vaccination of foxes in north-eastern Italy. Geospat Health. 2011;5:217-26 pubmed
    Emergency oral fox vaccination campaigns, targeting a recent rabies epidemic in wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in north-eastern Italy, were implemented twice, first in the winter of 2009 and then in the spring of 2010...
  64. Grzes M, Szczerbal I, Fijak Nowak H, Szydlowski M, Switonski M. Two candidate genes (FTO and INSIG2) for fat accumulation in four canids: chromosome mapping, gene polymorphisms and association studies of body and skin weight of red foxes. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2011;135:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..the 5'-flanking region) and one in the INSIG2 (10175C>T in intron 2), were used for the association studies in red foxes (n = 390) and suggestive evidence was observed for their association with body weight (FTO, p < 0...
  65. Fuglei E, Ims R. Global warming and effects on the Arctic fox. Sci Prog. 2008;91:175-91 pubmed
    ..We emphasize the difference between coastal and inland arctic fox populations. Inland foxes rely on peak abundance of lemming prey to sustain viable populations...
  66. Nissen S, Thamsborg S, Kania P, Leifsson P, Dalsgaard A, Johansen M. Population dynamics and host reactions in young foxes following experimental infection with the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the infection dynamics and clinical symptoms in the final hosts which include a range of animal species and man. We aimed to generate such information using an experimental model with H. pumilio in foxes.
  67. Cardoso L, Cortes H, Reis A, Rodrigues P, Simoes M, Lopes A, et al. Prevalence of Babesia microti-like infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:90-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of piroplasm (order Piroplasmida) infection was assessed in blood and bone marrow samples from 91 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern, central and southern Portugal by means of molecular methods...
  68. Meijer T, Elmhagen B, Eide N, Angerbjorn A. Life history traits in a cyclic ecosystem: a field experiment on the arctic fox. Oecologia. 2013;173:439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, feeding had a positive effect on litter size, but it did not diminish the strong impact of the small rodent phase, supporting phase-dependent trade-offs in addition to food determining arctic fox reproduction. ..
  69. Henn J, Gabriel M, Kasten R, Brown R, Koehler J, MacDonald K, et al. Infective endocarditis in a dog and the phylogenetic relationship of the associated "Bartonella rochalimae" strain with isolates from dogs, gray foxes, and a human. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:787-90 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphism, sequence, and phylogenetic analyses, Bartonella isolates from a dog with endocarditis, 22 gray foxes, and three dogs, described as B. clarridgeiae like, were confirmed to belong to the new species "B...
  70. De Benedictis P, Gallo T, Iob A, Coassin R, Squecco G, Ferri G, et al. Emergence of fox rabies in north-eastern Italy. Euro Surveill. 2008;13:pii: 19033 pubmed
    Italy has been classified as rabies-free since 1997. In October 2008, two foxes have been diagnosed with rabies in the Province of Udine, north-east Italy...
  71. Hegglin D, Deplazes P. Control strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1626-8 pubmed publisher
    ..echinococcosis, can be controlled effectively by the experimental delivery of anthelminthic baits for urban foxes. Monthly baiting over a 45-month period was effective for long-lasting control...
  72. Kuzmin I, Shi M, Orciari L, Yager P, Velasco Villa A, Kuzmina N, et al. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002786 pubmed publisher
    ..Roles of the amino acid changes, detected in our study, require additional investigations, using reverse genetics and other approaches...
  73. Dezdek D, Vojta L, Curković S, Lipej Z, Mihaljević Z, Cvetnic Z, et al. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:333-6 pubmed publisher
    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia...
  74. Jakubek E, Mattsson R, Morner T, Mattsson J, Gavier Widen D. Potential application of serological tests on fluids from carcasses: detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcoptes scabiei in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Acta Vet Scand. 2012;54:13 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess if antibodies could be detected in two types of fluids collected from 56 carcasses of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes): pleural fluid and lung extract.
  75. Giroux M, Berteaux D, Lecomte N, Gauthier G, Szor G, Bêty J. Benefiting from a migratory prey: spatio-temporal patterns in allochthonous subsidization of an Arctic predator. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We worked on Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada), where arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus L...
  76. Eide N, Stien A, Prestrud P, Yoccoz N, Fuglei E. Reproductive responses to spatial and temporal prey availability in a coastal Arctic fox population. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:640-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4.?With regard to demography, juvenile Arctic foxes in Svalbard have lower survival rates and a high age of first reproduction compared with other populations...
  77. Kukekova A, Trut L, Chase K, Kharlamova A, Johnson J, Temnykh S, et al. Mapping Loci for fox domestication: deconstruction/reconstruction of a behavioral phenotype. Behav Genet. 2011;41:593-606 pubmed publisher
    During the second part of the twentieth century, Belyaev selected tame and aggressive foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in an effort known as the "farm-fox experiment", to recapitulate the process of animal domestication...
  78. Kalisińska E, Lisowski P, Kosik Bogacka D. Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) as a bioindicator of mercury contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of north-western Poland. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;145:172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..we determined the concentrations of total mercury (Hg) in samples of liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of 27 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (L...
  79. Lecomte N, Ahlstrøm O, Ehrich D, Fuglei E, Ims R, Yoccoz N. Intrapopulation variability shaping isotope discrimination and turnover: experimental evidence in arctic foxes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21357 pubmed publisher
    ..We fed 40 farmed foxes (equal numbers of adults and yearlings of both sexes) with diet capturing the range of resources used by their ..
  80. Whiteside H, Dawson D, Soulsbury C, Harris S. Mother knows best: dominant females determine offspring dispersal in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22145 pubmed publisher
    ..strategies between offspring with intra- and extra-group fathers and mothers of differing social status in red foxes. Relatedness to the dominant male had no effect on dispersal in offspring of either sex, whereas there was a ..
  81. Takumi K, Hegglin D, Deplazes P, Gottstein B, Teunis P, van der Giessen J. Mapping the increasing risk of human alveolar echinococcosis in Limburg, The Netherlands. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:867-71 pubmed publisher
    ..in 1996 and repeated studies have shown that the parasite subsequently spread in the local population of foxes in the province of Limburg...
  82. Ebani V, Verin R, Fratini F, Poli A, Cerri D. Molecular survey of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from central Italy. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:699-703 pubmed
    During the 2007-2008 hunting season, 150 spleen samples were collected from free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy...
  83. Mulatti P, Muller T, Bonfanti L, Marangon S. Emergency oral rabies vaccination of foxes in Italy in 2009-2010: identification of residual rabies foci at higher altitudes in the Alps. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..s.l. to eliminate residual foci. The observations made may help in the formulation of ORV strategies in countries sharing similar topographical features...