carnivora

Summary

Summary: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores CANIFORMIA.

Top Publications

  1. Teacher A, Thomas J, Barnes I. Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:214 pubmed publisher
  2. Figueirido B, Tseng Z, Martín Serra A. Skull shape evolution in durophagous carnivorans. Evolution. 2013;67:1975-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we find that the shapes of the cranium and the mandible are highly integrated for the whole order Carnivora. Published studies of teratological cats and dogs indicate that the role of internal constraints in shaping this ..
  3. Andersson K, Norman D, Werdelin L. Sabretoothed carnivores and the killing of large prey. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24971 pubmed publisher
  4. Ruf I, Maier W. Topography of the chorda tympani nerve and the tensor tympani muscle in carnivores provides a new synapomorphy for Herpestidae (Carnivora, Mammalia). J Morphol. 2010;271:612-20 pubmed publisher
  5. Trachsel D, Deplazes P, Mathis A. Identification of taeniid eggs in the faeces from carnivores based on multiplex PCR using targets in mitochondrial DNA. Parasitology. 2007;134:911-20 pubmed
  6. Fournier Chambrillon C, Aasted B, Perrot A, Pontier D, Sauvage F, Artois M, et al. Antibodies to Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in free-ranging European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores from southwestern France. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40:394-402 pubmed
    ..Although further investigations are necessary to evaluate the role of ADV in decline of European mink, evidence of the virus in the wild at the levels found in our study has implications for conservation of this species...
  7. Figueirido B, Serrano Alarcón F, Slater G, Palmqvist P. Shape at the cross-roads: homoplasy and history in the evolution of the carnivoran skull towards herbivory. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:2579-94 pubmed publisher
    Patterns of skull shape in Carnivora provide examples of parallel and convergent evolution for similar ecomorphological adaptations...
  8. Wroe S, Lowry M, Anton M. How to build a mammalian super-predator. Zoology (Jena). 2008;111:196-203 pubmed publisher
  9. Bush E, Allman J. The scaling of frontal cortex in primates and carnivores. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3962-6 pubmed
    ..94 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.07). This finding supports the idea that there are substantial differences in frontal cortex structure and development between the two groups...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Karanth K, Nichols J, Kumar N, Link W, Hines J. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4854-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science...
  2. Finarelli J. Does encephalization correlate with life history or metabolic rate in Carnivora?. Biol Lett. 2010;6:350-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of brain size evolution reconstructed the plesiomorphic brain-body size allometry for the mammalian order Carnivora, providing an important reference frame for comparative analyses of encephalization (brain volume scaled to body ..
  3. Thom M, Johnson D, Macdonald D. The evolution and maintenance of delayed implantation in the mustelidae (mammalia: carnivora). Evolution. 2004;58:175-83 pubmed
    ..We found no correlate for the highly variable duration of DI, which remains unexplained. Although ecological factors can predict the distribution of DI in modern mustelids, phylogenetic constraint is likely to play an important role...
  4. Goswami A, Polly P. The influence of modularity on cranial morphological disparity in Carnivora and Primates (Mammalia). PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9517 pubmed publisher
    ..the first morphometric analysis of modularity and disparity in two clades of placental mammals, Primates and Carnivora, and test if trait integration within modules constrains or facilitates morphological evolution...
  5. Van Valkenburgh B, Wang X, Damuth J. Cope's rule, hypercarnivory, and extinction in North American canids. Science. 2004;306:101-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, selection for attributes that promoted individual success resulted in progressive evolutionary failure of their clades...
  6. Slater G, Figueirido B, Louis L, Yang P, Van Valkenburgh B. Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13870 pubmed publisher
  7. Frölich K, Streich W, Fickel J, Jung S, Truyen U, Hentschke J, et al. Epizootiologic investigations of parvovirus infections in free-ranging carnivores from Germany. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:231-5 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, we believe that contact between domestic dogs and free-ranging red foxes probably plays a subordinate role in the epizootiology of CPV in Germany...
  8. Delisle I, Strobeck C. A phylogeny of the Caniformia (order Carnivora) based on 12 complete protein-coding mitochondrial genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;37:192-201 pubmed publisher
    Evolutionary relationships of the order Carnivora have been extensively studied. However, phylogenetic studies based on different types of data, species samples, and methods of analysis provide contradictory results...
  9. Samuels J, Meachen J, Sakai S. Postcranial morphology and the locomotor habits of living and extinct carnivorans. J Morphol. 2013;274:121-46 pubmed publisher
    Members of the order Carnivora display a broad range of locomotor habits, including cursorial, scansorial, arboreal, semiaquatic, aquatic, and semifossorial species from multiple families...
  10. Nikolin V, Osterrieder K, von Messling V, Hofer H, Anderson D, Dubovi E, et al. Antagonistic pleiotropy and fitness trade-offs reveal specialist and generalist traits in strains of canine distemper virus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50955 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend knowledge on CDV molecular epidemiology of particular relevance to wild carnivores...
  11. Gaubert P, Cordeiro Estrela P. Phylogenetic systematics and tempo of evolution of the Viverrinae (Mammalia, Carnivora, Viverridae) within feliformians: implications for faunal exchanges between Asia and Africa. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;41:266-78 pubmed
    We reconstructed the phylogeny of the subfamily Viverrinae (Mammalia, Carnivora, Viverridae) using a approximately 3kb data set in order to reassess timing and patterns of faunal exchanges between Asia and Africa...
  12. Webster A, Gittleman J, Purvis A. The life history legacy of evolutionary body size change in carnivores. J Evol Biol. 2004;17:396-407 pubmed
  13. Donadio E, Buskirk S. Diet, morphology, and interspecific killing in carnivora. Am Nat. 2006;167:524-36 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of interspecific killing for body size and the dynamics of geographic ranges...
  14. Nash W, Menninger J, Padilla Nash H, Stone G, Perelman P, O Brien S. The ancestral carnivore karyotype (2n = 38) lives today in ringtails. J Hered. 2008;99:241-53 pubmed publisher
    ..among Caniformia species are represented as 6 homologous acrocentric chromosomes among Feliformia species of Carnivora. However, reexamination of the most basal of Feliformia species, the African palm civet Nandinia, revealed the ..
  15. Santos N, Almendra C, Tavares L. Serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from Portugal. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:221-6 pubmed
    ..The extremely high CPV antibody prevalence in genets is unprecedented. Although based on a limited sample, these data suggest widespread exposure of free-ranging Iberian carnivores to CDV and CPV...
  16. Hüttner M, Siefert L, Mackenstedt U, Romig T. A survey of Echinococcus species in wild carnivores and livestock in East Africa. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we show that warthogs interact as intermediate hosts for E. felidis. We did not find evidence that E. felidis is present in eastern Africa outside conservation areas...
  17. Agnarsson I, Kuntner M, May Collado L. Dogs, cats, and kin: a molecular species-level phylogeny of Carnivora. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;54:726-45 pubmed publisher
    ..other than summary 'supertrees', are currently lacking for most mammalian orders, including the order Carnivora. Carnivora consists of about 270 extant species including most of the world's large terrestrial predators (e.g...
  18. Eizirik E, Murphy W, Koepfli K, Johnson W, Dragoo J, Wayne R, et al. Pattern and timing of diversification of the mammalian order Carnivora inferred from multiple nuclear gene sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;56:49-63 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian order Carnivora has attracted the attention of scientists of various disciplines for decades, leading to intense interest in defining its supra-familial relationships...
  19. Tseng Z, Wang X. Cranial functional morphology of fossil dogs and adaptation for durophagy in Borophagus and Epicyon (Carnivora, Mammalia). J Morphol. 2010;271:1386-98 pubmed publisher
  20. López Bao J, González Varo J. Frugivory and spatial patterns of seed deposition by carnivorous mammals in anthropogenic landscapes: a multi-scale approach. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14569 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be particularly important within anthropogenic areas, where either the patchy distribution of wild plants or the presence of cultivated fleshy-fruits may influence plant-disperser interactions...
  21. Osborne A, Brauning R, Schultz J, Kennedy M, Slate J, Gemmell N. Development of a predicted physical map of microsatellite locus positions for pinnipeds, with wider applicability to the Carnivora. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011;11:503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the demonstrable synteny between the genomes of closely related taxa within the Carnivora, we use these data to identify those microsatellites with the greatest chance of cross-species amplification ..
  22. Machac A, Zrzavý J, Storch D. Range size heritability in Carnivora is driven by geographic constraints. Am Nat. 2011;177:767-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a well-resolved phylogeny of Carnivora, we show that range sizes are indeed constrained by geographic domains and that the phylogenetic signal in range ..
  23. Nyakatura K, Bininda Emonds O. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biol. 2012;10:12 pubmed publisher
    ..for investigations of carnivoran ecology, biology and evolution, the complete species-level supertree for Carnivora of Bininda-Emonds et al. is showing its age...
  24. Finarelli J, Flynn J. Brain-size evolution and sociality in Carnivora. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present an extensive sampling of relative brain sizes in fossil and extant taxa in the mammalian order Carnivora (cats, dogs, bears, weasels, and their relatives)...
  25. Pérez Barbería F, Shultz S, Dunbar R. Evidence for coevolution of sociality and relative brain size in three orders of mammals. Evolution. 2007;61:2811-21 pubmed
    ..Carnivores seem to have been especially prone to this...
  26. Tomiya S. A new basal caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the middle Eocene of North America and remarks on the phylogeny of early carnivorans. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24146 pubmed publisher
    ..a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive...
  27. Yu L, Zhang Y. Phylogeny of the caniform carnivora: evidence from multiple genes. Genetica. 2006;127:65-79 pubmed publisher
    The monophyletic group Caniformia in the order Carnivora currently comprises seven families whose relationships remain contentious...
  28. Fulton T, Strobeck C. Molecular phylogeny of the Arctoidea (Carnivora): effect of missing data on supertree and supermatrix analyses of multiple gene data sets. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;41:165-81 pubmed
  29. Goswami A. Morphological integration in the carnivoran skull. Evolution. 2006;60:169-83 pubmed
    ..In this paper, I present analyses of cranial morphological integration in 30 species from the mammalian order Carnivora, spanning eight extant families and a wide range of ecological and morphological diversity...
  30. Finarelli J, Flynn J. Ancestral state reconstruction of body size in the Caniformia (Carnivora, Mammalia): the effects of incorporating data from the fossil record. Syst Biol. 2006;55:301-13 pubmed
    A recent molecular phylogeny of the mammalian order Carnivora implied large body size as the ancestral condition for the caniform subclade Arctoidea using the distribution of species mean body sizes among living taxa...
  31. Gaubert P, Wozencraft W, Cordeiro Estrela P, Veron G. Mosaics of convergences and noise in morphological phylogenies: what's in a viverrid-like carnivoran?. Syst Biol. 2005;54:865-94 pubmed
    ..Constrained analysis; convergence; evolutionary scenario; Feliformia; morphology; noise; phylogenetic signal; phylogeny; Viverridae.]...
  32. Yu L, Li Q, Ryder O, Zhang Y. Phylogenetic relationships within mammalian order Carnivora indicated by sequences of two nuclear DNA genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;33:694-705 pubmed
    Phylogenetic relationships among 37 living species of order Carnivora spanning a relatively broad range of divergence times and taxonomic levels were examined using nuclear sequence data from exon 1 of the IRBP gene (approximately 1...
  33. Jiang P, Josue J, Li X, Glaser D, Li W, Brand J, et al. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4956-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the generality of this finding, we sequenced the entire coding region of Tas1r2 from 12 species in the order Carnivora. Seven of these nonfeline species, all of which are exclusive meat eaters, also have independently pseudogenized ..
  34. Almberg E, Cross P, Smith D. Persistence of canine distemper virus in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem's carnivore community. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:2058-74 pubmed
  35. Cornelis G, Heidmann O, Bernard Stoecklin S, Reynaud K, V ron G, Mulot B, et al. Ancestral capture of syncytin-Car1, a fusogenic endogenous retroviral envelope gene involved in placentation and conserved in Carnivora. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the gene is conserved among a series of 26 Carnivora representatives, with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity...
  36. Li X, Glaser D, Li W, Johnson W, O Brien S, Beauchamp G, et al. Analyses of sweet receptor gene (Tas1r2) and preference for sweet stimuli in species of Carnivora. J Hered. 2009;100 Suppl 1:S90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..and preference for sugars and artificial sweeteners, we measured responses to 12 sweeteners in 6 species of Carnivora and sequenced the coding regions of Tas1r2 in these same or closely related species...
  37. Owen Smith N, Mills M. Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web. J Anim Ecol. 2008;77:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the large carnivore assemblage was dominated overwhelmingly by the largest predator, which contributed the major share of animals killed across a wide size range...
  38. Flynn J, Finarelli J, Zehr S, Hsu J, Nedbal M. Molecular phylogeny of the carnivora (mammalia): assessing the impact of increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships. Syst Biol. 2005;54:317-37 pubmed publisher
    This study analyzed 76 species of Carnivora using a concatenated sequence of 6243 bp from six genes (nuclear TR-i-I, TBG, and IRBP; mitochondrial ND2, CYTB, and 12S rRNA), representing the most comprehensive sampling yet undertaken for ..
  39. Sears K, Goswami A, Flynn J, Niswander L. The correlated evolution of Runx2 tandem repeats, transcriptional activity, and facial length in carnivora. Evol Dev. 2007;9:555-65 pubmed
    ..have played a role in facial evolution in 30 species from a naturally evolving group, the mammalian order Carnivora. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find significant correlations between changes in Runx2 glutamine-alanine ..
  40. Wroe S, Milne N. Convergence and remarkably consistent constraint in the evolution of carnivore skull shape. Evolution. 2007;61:1251-60 pubmed
    ..Here we compare skull shape in a wide range of carnivoran placentals (Carnivora) and nonherbivorous marsupials using a three-dimensional (3-D) geometric morphometric approach...
  41. Perelman P, Graphodatsky A, Serdukova N, Nie W, Alkalaeva E, Fu B, et al. Karyotypic conservatism in the suborder Feliformia (Order Carnivora). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2005;108:348-54 pubmed
    ..the karyotypic relationships among representative species from three Feliformia families of the order Carnivora (Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Felidae)...
  42. Nikolin V, Wibbelt G, Michler F, Wolf P, East M. Susceptibility of carnivore hosts to strains of canine distemper virus from distinct genetic lineages. Vet Microbiol. 2012;156:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant differences between the prevalence of 549Y and 549H in wild canid strains and non-canid strains suggests a degree of virus adaptation to these categories of host...
  43. Yu L, Luan P, Jin W, Ryder O, Chemnick L, Davis H, et al. Phylogenetic utility of nuclear introns in interfamilial relationships of Caniformia (order Carnivora). Syst Biol. 2011;60:175-87 pubmed publisher
    The monophyletic group Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) in the order Carnivora comprises 9 families...
  44. Figueirido B, Janis C. The predatory behaviour of the thylacine: Tasmanian tiger or marsupial wolf?. Biol Lett. 2011;7:937-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The 'niche overlap hypothesis' with dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) as a main cause of thylacine extinction in mainland Australia is discussed in the light of this new information...
  45. Packer C, Kosmala M, Cooley H, Brink H, Pintea L, Garshelis D, et al. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5941 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective conservation of these animals will require new harvest strategies and improved monitoring to counter demands for predator control by livestock producers and local communities...
  46. Nunn C, Gittleman J, Antonovics J. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores. Proc Biol Sci. 2003;270:347-56 pubmed
    ..We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. ..
  47. Steinel A, Parrish C, Bloom M, Truyen U. Parvovirus infections in wild carnivores. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37:594-607 pubmed
    ..Particular emphasis is placed on description of the evolution of canine parvovirus which apparently involved wild carnivore hosts. ..
  48. Inoue Murayama M, Matsuura N, Murayama Y, Tsubota T, Iwasaki T, Kitagawa H, et al. Sequence comparison of the dopamine receptor D4 exon III repetitive region in several species of the order Carnivora. J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:747-9 pubmed
    ..To examine whether or not the repetitive region is present in other species of the order Carnivora, the homologous region of DRD4 genes were sequenced in the gray wolf, raccoon dog, Asiatic black bear, common ..
  49. Biek R, Rodrigo A, Holley D, Drummond A, Anderson C, Ross H, et al. Epidemiology, genetic diversity, and evolution of endemic feline immunodeficiency virus in a population of wild cougars. J Virol. 2003;77:9578-89 pubmed
    ..These results support the premise that FIVpco is well adapted to its cougar host and provide a basis for comparing lentivirus evolution in endemic and epidemic infections in natural hosts. ..
  50. Hawkins C, Dallas J, Fowler P, Woodroffe R, Racey P. Transient masculinization in the fossa, Cryptoprocta ferox (Carnivora, Viverridae). Biol Reprod. 2002;66:610-5 pubmed
    ..None of the hypotheses so far proposed to explain the evolutionary basis of female masculinization in mammals are applicable to our findings. We present 2 new hypotheses for testing and development. ..
  51. Linnell J, Andersen R, Kvam T, Andren H, Liberg O, Odden J, et al. Home range size and choice of management strategy for lynx in Scandinavia. Environ Manage. 2001;27:869-79 pubmed
    ..Accordingly research must be aimed at understanding the ecology of these conflicts, and finding solutions. ..
  52. Tian Y, Nie W, Wang J, Yang Y, Yang F. [Comparative chromosome painting shows the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a highly conserved karyotype]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2002;29:124-7 pubmed
    ..The karyotype of red panda shows high degree of homology with that of domestic cat. ..
  53. Bininda Emonds O. Novel versus unsupported clades: assessing the qualitative support for clades in MRP supertrees. Syst Biol. 2003;52:839-48 pubmed
    ..2%. Unsupported clades were absent from both the Carnivora and Lagomorpha supertrees, reflecting the use of large numbers of source trees for both...
  54. Purvis A, Gittleman J, Cowlishaw G, Mace G. Predicting extinction risk in declining species. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1947-52 pubmed
    ..Much of the remaining variation can be accounted for by external anthropogenic factors that affect species irrespective of their biology. ..
  55. Vassetzky N, Kramerov D. CAN--a pan-carnivore SINE family. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:50-7 pubmed
    ..CAN structure is considered in the context of their function and evolution...
  56. Meehan T, Martin L. Extinction and re-evolution of similar adaptive types (ecomorphs) in Cenozoic North American ungulates and carnivores reflect van der Hammen's cycles. Naturwissenschaften. 2003;90:131-5 pubmed
    ..Iterative climatic cycles of various scales may form a predictive framework for understanding fundamental patterns in the geologic record, such as radiations, extinction, rates of change, convergence, and sedimentary cycles. ..
  57. Graphodatsky A, Yang F, O Brien P, Perelman P, Milne B, Serdukova N, et al. Phylogenetic implications of the 38 putative ancestral chromosome segments for four canid species. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;92:243-7 pubmed
    ..These segments could represent the ancestral chromosome arms in the karyotype of the most recent ancestor of the Canidae family, which we suggest could have had a low diploid number, based on comparisons with outgroup species. ..
  58. McQuiston J, Yager P, Smith J, Rupprecht C. Epidemiologic characteristics of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States, 1999. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218:1939-42 pubmed
    ..To evaluate epidemiologic features of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States during 1999 and assess the role of bat-associated variants...
  59. Clubb R, Mason G. Animal welfare: captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature. 2003;425:473-4 pubmed
  60. Graphodatsky A, Yang F, Perelman P, O Brien P, Serdukova N, Milne B, et al. Comparative molecular cytogenetic studies in the order Carnivora: mapping chromosomal rearrangements onto the phylogenetic tree. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2002;96:137-45 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm many of the evolutionary conclusions suggested by other data and strengthen the topology of the carnivore phylogenetic tree through the inclusion of genome-wide chromosome rearrangements. ..
  61. Carbone C, Gittleman J. A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science. 2002;295:2273-6 pubmed
    ..develop and test a general model for variation within and between species in population density across the order Carnivora. We find that 10,000 kilograms of prey supports about 90 kilograms of a given species of carnivore, irrespective ..
  62. Sukura A, Nareaho A, Mikkonen T, Niemi M, Oivanen L. Trichinella nativa and T. spiralis induce distinguishable histopathologic and humoral responses in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Vet Pathol. 2002;39:257-65 pubmed
    ..The same pattern was also seen in the ELISA. Immunoreactive epitopes were localized only in internal organs and cuticula of larvae in muscle...
  63. Nie W, Wang J, O Brien P, Fu B, Ying T, Ferguson Smith M, et al. The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding. Chromosome Res. 2002;10:209-22 pubmed
    ..Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between the red panda and mustelids. The homology data presented in these maps will allow us to transfer the cat gene mapping data to other unmapped carnivore species...
  64. Kyle C, Robitaille J, Strobeck C. Genetic variation and structure of fisher (Martes pennanti) populations across North America. Mol Ecol. 2001;10:2341-7 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is needed to determine if fishers are more philopatric than martens and wolverines or if barriers to dispersal explain the levels of structure identified in this study...
  65. Sabeta C, Bingham J, Nel L. Molecular epidemiology of canid rabies in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Virus Res. 2003;91:203-11 pubmed
  66. Badrane H, Tordo N. Host switching in Lyssavirus history from the Chiroptera to the Carnivora orders. J Virol. 2001;75:8096-104 pubmed
    Lyssaviruses are unsegmented RNA viruses causing rabies. Their vectors belong to the Carnivora and Chiroptera orders. We studied 36 carnivoran and 17 chiropteran lyssaviruses representing the main genotypes and variants...
  67. Stone K, Flynn R, Cook J. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae). Mol Ecol. 2002;11:2049-63 pubmed
    ..This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across broad taxonomic groups and suggests a shared biogeographical history...
  68. Popowics T. Postcanine dental form in the mustelidae and viverridae (Carnivora: Mammalia). J Morphol. 2003;256:322-41 pubmed
    ..A few species possess postcanine dentitions that do not correspond with diet; the absence of dental-dietary correlation in these species suggests that other factors, such as phylogeny, are important in determining dental form...
  69. Nareaho A, Sankari S, Mikkonen T, Oivanen L, Sukura A. Clinical features of experimental trichinellosis in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Vet Parasitol. 2000;91:79-91 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that because Trichinella spp. are very well adapted to the raccoon dog, it thus, could serve as the most crucial reservoir animal for sylvatic trichinellosis in Finland...