reindeer

Summary

Summary: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)

Top Publications

  1. Weladji R, Holand Ø, Gaillard J, Yoccoz N, Mysterud A, Nieminen M, et al. Age-specific changes in different components of reproductive output in female reindeer: terminal allocation or senescence?. Oecologia. 2010;162:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Using long-term (>30 years) individually based data of female reindeer, we first assessed age-specific variation in body mass and different components of reproductive output...
  2. Robertson L, Forberg T, Hermansen L, Hamnes I, Gjerde B. Giardia duodenalis cysts isolated from wild moose and reindeer in Norway: genetic characterization by PCR-rflp and sequence analysis at two genes. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:576-85 pubmed
    ..Giardia duodenalis isolates collected from wild moose (Alces alces) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Norway during 2002 and 2003 were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction ..
  3. Oksanen A, Norberg H, Nieminen M, Bernstad S. Influence of route of administration on the plasma concentrations of ivermectin in reindeer. Res Vet Sci. 1995;58:286-7 pubmed
    The concentration of ivermectin in the plasma of reindeer was measured after it was administered either topically as a pour-on preparation at 500 micrograms kg-1 bodyweight at different seasons to animals of different ages, or after ..
  4. Langton C, Gray J, Waters P, Holman P. Naturally acquired babesiosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) herd in Great Britain. Parasitol Res. 2003;89:194-8 pubmed
    A provisional diagnosis of babesiosis was made in a reindeer herd in Scotland when seven animals died during 1997 and 1998. Additional clinical cases occurred, but the animals recovered after treatment...
  5. Handeland K, Boye M, Bergsjø B, Bondal H, Isaksen K, Agerholm J. Digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). J Comp Pathol. 2010;143:29-38 pubmed publisher
    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described...
  6. Lorenzen E, Nogués Bravo D, Orlando L, Weinstock J, Binladen J, Marske K, et al. Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans. Nature. 2011;479:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, wild horse, reindeer, bison and musk ox. We show that climate has been a major driver of population change over the past 50,000 years...
  7. Irvine R, Stien A, Halvorsen O, Langvatn R, Albon S. Life-history strategies and population dynamics of abomasal nematodes in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Parasitology. 2000;120 ( Pt 3):297-311 pubmed
    The observation that the total abundance of adult nematodes in the abomasum of Svalbard reindeer increases between October and April suggests adaptation to cope with the Arctic winter...
  8. Kivinen S, Moen J, Berg A, Eriksson A. Effects of modern forest management on winter grazing resources for reindeer in Sweden. Ambio. 2010;39:269-78 pubmed
    Boreal forests in Sweden are exploited in a number of ways, including forestry and reindeer husbandry. In the winter, reindeer feed mainly on lichens, and lichen-rich forests are a key resource in the herding system...
  9. Siefker C, Rickard L, Pharr G, Simmons J, O Hara T. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium sp. isolated from northern Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus). J Parasitol. 2002;88:213-6 pubmed
    ..serpentis, C. muris, and C. andersoni. Giardia sp. was not detected in any of the caribou samples nor was Cryptosporidium sp. or Giardia sp. detected in any of the 42 moose (Alces alces) samples examined. ..

More Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wittmer H, Sinclair A, McLellan B. The role of predation in the decline and extirpation of woodland caribou. Oecologia. 2005;144:257-67 pubmed
    ..Recovery of these woodland caribou will thus require a multispecies perspective and an appreciation for the influence of inverse density dependence on population trajectories. ..
  2. Tikkanen M, McInnes C, Mercer A, Büttner M, Tuimala J, Hirvelä Koski V, et al. Recent isolates of parapoxvirus of Finnish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are closely related to bovine pseudocowpox virus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1413-8 pubmed
    Cases of papular stomatitis in Finnish reindeer have been reported for many years...
  3. Gaudzinski S, Roebroeks W. Adults only. Reindeer hunting at the middle palaeolithic site salzgitter lebenstedt, northern Germany. J Hum Evol. 2000;38:497-521 pubmed
    ..Germany), excavated in 1952, is well known because of its well-preserved faunal remains, dominated by adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)...
  4. Vikøren T, Tharaldsen J, Fredriksen B, Handeland K. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild red deer, roe deer, moose, and reindeer from Norway. Vet Parasitol. 2004;120:159-69 pubmed
    ..6% of 2142 moose (Alces alces); 7.7% of 571 red deer (Cervus elaphus); and 1.0% of 866 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). The seroprevalences were significantly different between the species...
  5. Pettorelli N, Weladji R, Holand O, Mysterud A, Breie H, Stenseth N. The relative role of winter and spring conditions: linking climate and landscape-scale plant phenology to alpine reindeer body mass. Biol Lett. 2005;1:24-6 pubmed
    ..onset (satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index data) determined individual performance in three reindeer populations (data on 27814 calves sampled over 11 years)...
  6. Serrouya R, Paetkau D, McLellan B, Boutin S, Campbell M, Jenkins D. Population size and major valleys explain microsatellite variation better than taxonomic units for caribou in western Canada. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:2588-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Such results may be broadly applicable to landscape genetic studies, because population size and corresponding rates of drift have the potential to confound interpretations of landscape effects on population structure. ..
  7. Weladji R, Holand Ø. Global climate change and reindeer: effects of winter weather on the autumn weight and growth of calves. Oecologia. 2003;136:317-23 pubmed
    b>Reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus), which constitute a biological resource of vital importance for the physical and cultural survival of Arctic residents, and inhabit extremely seasonal environments, have received little attention in ..
  8. Dahlgren S, Gjerde B. Genetic characterisation of six Sarcocystis species from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Norway based on the small subunit rRNA gene. Vet Parasitol. 2007;146:204-13 pubmed
    ..Sarcocystis hardangeri, Sarcocystis rangiferi and Sarcocystis tarandi have previously been described from reindeer based on sarcocyst morphology...
  9. Stokkan K, van Oort B, Tyler N, Loudon A. Adaptations for life in the Arctic: evidence that melatonin rhythms in reindeer are not driven by a circadian oscillator but remain acutely sensitive to environmental photoperiod. J Pineal Res. 2007;43:289-93 pubmed
    In reindeer Rangifer tarandus, a high latitude species, the rhythmic production of melatonin periodically dissipates under natural photoperiods when, in mid-winter, there is near permanent darkness and again, in summer, when there is ..
  10. Tveraa T, Fauchald P, Henaug C, Yoccoz N. An examination of a compensatory relationship between food limitation and predation in semi-domestic reindeer. Oecologia. 2003;137:370-6 pubmed
    ..how survival and reproductive success was related to the female's size in a population of semi-domesticated reindeer during 2 years where there was a large difference in snowfall during winter...
  11. Mitchell G, Sigurdson C, O Rourke K, Algire J, Harrington N, Walther I, et al. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39055 pubmed publisher
    ..A natural case of CWD in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) has not been reported despite potential habitat overlap with CWD-infected deer or ..
  12. Riihimäki L, Galkin A, Finel M, Heikura J, Valkonen K, Virtanen V, et al. Transport properties of bovine and reindeer beta-lactoglobulin in the Caco-2 cell model. Int J Pharm. 2008;347:1-8 pubmed
    ..Our purpose was to study bovine and reindeer betaLG as transporter molecules and compare their transport properties across Caco-2 cell membrane...
  13. Wang Z, Ma X, Na G, Lin Z, Ding Q, Yao Z. Correlations between physicochemical properties of PAHs and their distribution in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:3132-6 pubmed publisher
    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, moss and reindeer dung collected at Ny-Alesund of the Arctic were measured to investigate their accumulation trends and distribution in the three compartments...
  14. Lahti E, Hirvelä Koski V, Honkanen Buzalski T. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Vet Rec. 2001;148:633-4 pubmed
  15. Barboza P, Parker K. Body protein stores and isotopic indicators of N balance in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during winter. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2006;79:628-44 pubmed
    We studied bred and unbred female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) during 12 wk of winter when ambient temperatures were low and nitrogen (N) demand for fetal growth is highest in pregnant females...
  16. Rowell J, Shipka M. Variation in gestation length among captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Theriogenology. 2009;72:190-7 pubmed publisher
    An estimated 90% of reindeer females are mated in a 10- to 21-d interval and give birth in an equally synchronized manner...
  17. Boulet M, Couturier S, Côté S, Otto R, Bernatchez L. Integrative use of spatial, genetic, and demographic analyses for investigating genetic connectivity between migratory, montane, and sedentary caribou herds. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:4223-40 pubmed
    ..6. In conclusion, the weak genetic differentiation between herds cannot be obtained without some genetic exchanges among herds, as demonstrated by genetic and spatial data. ..
  18. Weladji R, Loison A, Gaillard J, Holand O, Mysterud A, Yoccoz N, et al. Heterogeneity in individual quality overrides costs of reproduction in female reindeer. Oecologia. 2008;156:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We used data from 35 years' monitoring of individually marked semi-domestic reindeer females to investigate fitness costs of reproduction...
  19. Riihimäki L, Vainio M, Heikura J, Valkonen K, Virtanen V, Vuorela P. Binding of phenolic compounds and their derivatives to bovine and reindeer beta-lactoglobulin. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding of the aglycones of phenolic compounds to bovine and reindeer beta-lactoglobulins (betaLG) using fluorescence quenching was studied...
  20. Skuterud L, Gaare E, Eikelmann I, Hove K, Steinnes E. Chernobyl radioactivity persists in reindeer. J Environ Radioact. 2005;83:231-52 pubmed
    Transfer of 137Cs in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain was studied in central (Østre Namdal) and southern Norway (Vågå) during 2000-2003...
  21. Sundset M, Praesteng K, Cann I, Mathiesen S, Mackie R. Novel rumen bacterial diversity in two geographically separated sub-species of reindeer. Microb Ecol. 2007;54:424-38 pubmed
    Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) live under austere nutritional conditions on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard, while semi-domesticated Norwegian reindeer (R...
  22. Leppänen A, Muikku M, Jaakkola T, Lehto J, Rahola T, Rissanen K, et al. Effective half-lives of 134Cs and 137Cs in reindeer meat and in reindeer herders in Finland after the Chernobyl accident and the ensuing effective radiation doses to humans. Health Phys. 2011;100:468-81 pubmed publisher
    Monitoring of 137Cs in reindeer herders and in reindeer meat in Finnish Lapland began in the early 1960s and has continued until today...
  23. Loe L, Bonenfant C, Mysterud A, Severinsen T, Oritsland N, Langvatn R, et al. Activity pattern of arctic reindeer in a predator-free environment: no need to keep a daily rhythm. Oecologia. 2007;152:617-24 pubmed
    ..impact on the seasonal and daily activity pattern of a food-limited, predator-free arctic deer, the Svalbard reindeer. We found that the reindeer indeed had season-dependent feeding-rumination intervals, with no distinct peaks in ..
  24. Deregt D, Gilbert S, Campbell I, Burton K, Reid H, van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S, et al. Phylogeny and antigenic relationships of three cervid herpesviruses. Virus Res. 2005;114:140-8 pubmed
    ..cervid herpesviruses: cervid herpesvirus-1 (CerHV-1) from red deer and rangiferine herpesvirus (RanHV) from reindeer. For phylogenetic analysis, genes for the gC and gD proteins of these viruses were sequenced...
  25. Wittmer H, McLellan B, Serrouya R, Apps C. Changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population. J Anim Ecol. 2007;76:568-79 pubmed
    ..We conclude that apparent competition can cause rapid population declines and even extinction where changes in species composition occur following large scale habitat change. ..
  26. Hogg C, Neveu M, Stokkan K, Folkow L, Cottrill P, Douglas R, et al. Arctic reindeer extend their visual range into the ultraviolet. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2014-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the cornea and lens in Arctic reindeer do not block all UV and that the retina responds electrophysiologically to these wavelengths...
  27. Decesare N, Hebblewhite M, Schmiegelow F, Hervieux D, McDermid G, Neufeld L, et al. Transcending scale dependence in identifying habitat with resource selection functions. Ecol Appl. 2012;22:1068-83 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that a single SRSF can be applied to predict relative habitat suitability at both local and landscape scales in support of critical habitat identification and species recovery. ..
  28. Falk E. Parapoxvirus infections of reindeer and musk ox associated with unusual human infections. Br J Dermatol. 1978;99:647-54 pubmed
    ..Parapoxvirus infection in reindeer was the probable source of infection in four cases. The fifth case involved musk ox...
  29. Gravlund P, Meldgaard M, Paabo S, Arctander P. Polyphyletic origin of the small-bodied, high-arctic subspecies of tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1998;10:151-9 pubmed
    In order to investigate the origin of the three small-bodied, high-arctic subspecies of reindeer, Rangifer tarandus pearyi (the Canadian Archipelago), R. t. eogroenlandicus (East Greenland, extinct since 1900 AD), and R. t...
  30. Flagstad O, Røed K. Refugial origins of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Evolution. 2003;57:658-70 pubmed
    ..of these large-scale climatic fluctuations to a large, migratory Arctic mammal, we assessed the phylogeography of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation in the control region...
  31. Klein J, Tryland M. Characterisation of parapoxviruses isolated from Norwegian semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Virol J. 2005;2:79 pubmed
    Two outbreaks of the disease contagious ecthyma were reported in 1999 and 2000 in Norwegian semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)...
  32. das Neves C, Roger M, Yoccoz N, Rimstad E, Tryland M. Evaluation of three commercial bovine ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against Alphaherpesviruses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:9 pubmed publisher
    ..related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) among which cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2) can be of importance in reindeer. These viruses are known to be responsible for different diseases in both wild and domestic animals...
  33. Witter L, Johnson C, Croft B, Gunn A, Gillingham M. Behavioural trade-offs in response to external stimuli: time allocation of an Arctic ungulate during varying intensities of harassment by parasitic flies. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:284-95 pubmed publisher
    1. Macroparasites may be a major factor shaping animal behaviour. Tundra ecosystems inhabited by caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are known for large concentrations of ectoparasites including mosquitoes (Culicidae) and black flies ..
  34. Tryland M, Josefsen T, Oksanen A, Aschfalk A. Parapoxvirus infection in Norwegian semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Vet Rec. 2001;149:394-5 pubmed
  35. das Neves C, Rimstad E, Tryland M. Cervid herpesvirus 2 causes respiratory and fetal infections in semidomesticated reindeer. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Serological evidence of alphaherpesvirus infection has been reported for wild and semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Norway...
  36. das Neves C, Thiry J, Skjerve E, Yoccoz N, Rimstad E, Thiry E, et al. Alphaherpesvirus infections in semidomesticated reindeer: a cross-sectional serological study. Vet Microbiol. 2009;139:262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2) was originally isolated from reindeer in Finland but the impact of CvHV-2 infections on reindeer remains unclear...
  37. Aastrup P, Riget F, Dietz R, Asmund G. Lead, zinc, cadmium, mercury, selenium and copper in Greenland caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Sci Total Environ. 2000;245:149-59 pubmed
    Samples of caribou and reindeer muscle (127 samples) and liver (126 samples) were collected from four locations during two seasons plus 3 years in Greenland...
  38. Happ G, Huson H, Beckmen K, Kennedy L. Prion protein genes in caribou from Alaska. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:224-8 pubmed
    ..Genetics seems to permit the spread of chronic wasting disease from middle-latitude deer to high-latitude caribou in North America. ..
  39. Dahlgren S, Gjerde B, Skirnisson K, Gudmundsdottir B. Morphological and molecular identification of three species of Sarcocystis in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Iceland. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:191-8 pubmed
    Six Sarcocystis species have previously been described from reindeer in Norway based on sarcocyst morphology and DNA sequencing...
  40. Tyler N, Forchhammer M, Øritsland N. Nonlinear effects of climate and density in the dynamics of a fluctuating population of reindeer. Ecology. 2008;89:1675-86 pubmed
    ..Here we explore effects of climate and density in the dynamics of a highly fluctuating population of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) on Svalbard observed over a period of 29 years...
  41. Stien A, Loe L, Mysterud A, Severinsen T, Kohler J, Langvatn R. Icing events trigger range displacement in a high-arctic ungulate. Ecology. 2010;91:915-20 pubmed
    ..This is in turn expected to be critical for the winter survival of arctic herbivores. Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus plathyrynchus) have small home ranges and may therefore be vulnerable to local "locked ..
  42. Kennedy L, Modrell A, Groves P, Wei Z, Single R, Happ G. Genetic diversity of the major histocompatibility complex class II in Alaskan caribou herds. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also clear that although some of the herds have overlapping ranges, they are still different for their MHC class II alleles. ..
  43. Bårdsen B, Tveraa T. Density-dependence vs. density-independence - linking reproductive allocation to population abundance and vegetation greenness. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:364-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this hypothesis using six years of demographic data from eight reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations coupled with data on population abundance and vegetation greenness [measured ..
  44. Soveri T, Lindberg L. Histochemistry of the forestomach epithelium of the reindeer calf. Acta Histochem. 1993;95:117-24 pubmed
    Samples from the rumen, reticulum and omasum of 26 reindeer calves were taken during the winter season...
  45. Oksanen A, Norberg H, Nieminen M. Ivermectin treatment did not increase slaughter weight of first-year reindeer calves. Prev Vet Med. 1998;35:209-17 pubmed
    To investigate if antiparasitic treatment of reindeer calves during the summer could increase their carcass weight during the slaughter period in autumn and winter, 529 reindeer calves were allocated to three groups, weighed, and marked ..
  46. Lapointe J, Leclair D, Mesher C, Balachandran A. Screening for chronic wasting disease in caribou in northern Quebec. Can Vet J. 2002;43:886-7 pubmed
  47. Post E, Forchhammer M. Climate change reduces reproductive success of an Arctic herbivore through trophic mismatch. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008;363:2369-75 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, offspring mortality has risen and offspring production has dropped fourfold. ..
  48. Hobbs N, Andrén H, Persson J, Aronsson M, Chapron G. Native predators reduce harvest of reindeer by Sámi pastoralists. Ecol Appl. 2012;22:1640-54 pubmed
    ..impacts of lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) on harvest of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by Sami pastoralists in Sweden...
  49. Post E, Forchhammer M. Synchronization of animal population dynamics by large-scale climate. Nature. 2002;420:168-71 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that animal populations of different species may respond synchronously to global climate change over large regions. ..
  50. Hansen B, Aanes R, Herfindal I, Kohler J, Saether B. Climate, icing, and wild arctic reindeer: past relationships and future prospects. Ecology. 2011;92:1917-23 pubmed
    ..We monitored late winter snowpack properties to examine the causes and consequences of ground-icing in a Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) metapopulation...
  51. Pape R, Löffler J. Climate change, land use conflicts, predation and ecological degradation as challenges for reindeer husbandry in northern Europe: what do we really know after half a century of research?. Ambio. 2012;41:421-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Reindeer grazing has been entitled as ecological keystone in arctic-alpine landscapes. In addition, reindeer husbandry is tightly connected to the identity of the indigenous Sámi people in northern Europe...
  52. Kummeneje K. Isolation of Neisseria ovis and a Colesiota conjunctivae-like organism from cases of kerato-conjunctivitis in reindeer in northern Norway. Acta Vet Scand. 1976;17:107-8 pubmed
  53. Bubenik G, Schams D, White R, Rowell J, Blake J, Bartos L. Seasonal levels of metabolic hormones and substrates in male and female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1998;120:307-15 pubmed
    ..measured every 3 weeks for 54 weeks in the plasma of five adult bulls, and four barren and five pregnant Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) cows. Three consecutive samples were taken from each animal...
  54. Irvine R, Stien A, Dallas J, Halvorsen -, Langvatn R, Albon S. Contrasting regulation of fecundity in two abomasal nematodes of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Parasitology. 2001;122:673-81 pubmed
    ..density-dependent effects in 1 of 2, dominant, abomasal nematodes species (Ostertagia gruehneri) of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). We found evidence in O...
  55. Moen J, Danell O. Reindeer in the Swedish mountains: an assessment of grazing impacts. Ambio. 2003;32:397-402 pubmed
    ..have helped to form an official opinion of overutilization of some mountain areas and a concern that Swedish reindeer husbandry may not be ecologically sustainable...
  56. Waters W, Palmer M, Bannantine J, Greenwald R, Esfandiari J, Andersen P, et al. Antibody responses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:727-35 pubmed
    Despite having a very low incidence of disease, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are subject to tuberculosis (TB) testing requirements for interstate shipment and herd accreditation in the United States...
  57. van Oort B, Tyler N, Gerkema M, Folkow L, Stokkan K. Where clocks are redundant: weak circadian mechanisms in reindeer living under polar photic conditions. Naturwissenschaften. 2007;94:183-94 pubmed
    ..We measured locomotor activity in reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus (SR, n = 5 and 6) and R...
  58. Hassan A, Sandanger T, Brustad M. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.). Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:17997 pubmed publisher
    To acquire new knowledge on the nutritional composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.) and their nutritional value for humans...
  59. Tveraa T, Stien A, BÃ¥rdsen B, Fauchald P. Population densities, vegetation green-up, and plant productivity: impacts on reproductive success and juvenile body mass in reindeer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56450 pubmed publisher
    ..measures of vegetation green-up, population densities, calf body masses and female reproductive success in 19 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations in Northern Norway...
  60. Soppela P, Nieminen M. The effect of wintertime undernutrition on the fatty acid composition of leg bone marrow fats in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;128:63-72 pubmed
    ..undernutrition on the fatty acid composition of bone marrow triacylglycerols (TAGs) of legs in freely-ranging reindeer calves (<1 year) and adult hinds by comparing reindeer in poor condition slaughtered in February with reindeer ..
  61. Kelly B, Gobas F. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in lichen-caribou-wolf food chains of Canada's Central and Western Arctic. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:325-34 pubmed
  62. Aschfalk A, Kemper N, Holler C. Bacteria of pathogenic importance in faeces from cadavers of free-ranging or corralled semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Norway. Vet Res Commun. 2003;27:93-100 pubmed
    There is little information on bacteria that have the potential to cause disease in reindeer husbandry...
  63. Sunde M. Class I integron with a group II intron detected in an Escherichia coli strain from a free-range reindeer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:2512-4 pubmed
    An Escherichia coli strain, isolated from wild reindeer in a remote mountain area, contained a class 1 integron with two unusual features: a group II intron and a cassette with homology to a superintegron cassette...
  64. Dahlgren S, Gouveia Oliveira R, Gjerde B. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:27-35 pubmed
    Six Sarcocystis species from reindeer (S. grueneri, S. rangi, S. tarandivulpes, S. hardangeri, S. rangiferi and S. tarandi) have previously been genetically characterised...
  65. Klein D, Shulski M. Lichen recovery following heavy grazing by reindeer delayed by climate warming. Ambio. 2009;38:11-6 pubmed
    Introduced reindeer, Rangifer tarandus, overexploited lichen-rich plant communities on St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea...
  66. Bartlett S, Abou Madi N, Messick J, Birkenheuer A, Kollias G. Diagnosis and treatment of Babesia odocoilei in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and recognition of three novel host species. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:152-9 pubmed
    Two captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) at a New York zoological institution were diagnosed with Babesia odocoilei. Clinical signs consistent with acute babesiosis included fever, hemoglobinuria, and hemolytic anemia...
  67. Bårdsen B, Tveraa T, Fauchald P, Langeland K. Observational evidence of risk-sensitive reproductive allocation in a long-lived mammal. Oecologia. 2010;162:627-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this hypothesis on female reindeer in a population that has experienced a time period of dramatic increase in abundance...
  68. Hautaniemi M, Vaccari F, Scagliarini A, Scacliarini A, Laaksonen S, Huovilainen A, et al. Analysis of deletion within the reindeer pseudocowpoxvirus genome. Virus Res. 2011;160:326-32 pubmed publisher
    Cases of contagious pustular stomatitis have been reported in Finnish reindeer for many years...
  69. Kivinen S, Berg A, Moen J, Ostlund L, Olofsson J. Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden. Environ Manage. 2012;49:295-304 pubmed publisher
    b>Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden...
  70. Evans A, das Neves C, Finstad G, Beckmen K, Skjerve E, Nymo I, et al. Evidence of alphaherpesvirus infections in Alaskan caribou and reindeer. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:5 pubmed publisher
    The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) industry in Alaska began with animals imported from Siberia (Russia) in the 1890's. Cervid herpes virus 2 (CvHV2) is endemic in reindeer in Scandinavia...
  71. Røed K, Holand Ø, Smith M, Gjøstein H, Kumpula J, Nieminen M. Reproductive success in reindeer males in a herd with varying sex ratio. Mol Ecol. 2002;11:1239-43 pubmed
    ..b>Reindeer, Rangifer tarandus, is a polygynous species, and here we compared the variation in male reproductive success and ..
  72. Côté S, Dallas J, Marshall F, Irvine R, Langvatn R, Albon S. Microsatellite DNA evidence for genetic drift and philopatry in Svalbard reindeer. Mol Ecol. 2002;11:1923-30 pubmed
    Mainland populations of Arctic reindeer and caribou Rangifer tarandus often undergo extensive movements, whereas populations on islands tend to be isolated and sedentary...
  73. Mackie R, Aminov R, Hu W, Klieve A, Ouwerkerk D, Sundset M, et al. Ecology of uncultivated Oscillospira species in the rumen of cattle, sheep, and reindeer as assessed by microscopy and molecular approaches. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:6808-15 pubmed
    ..gene sequences were detected in North American domestic cattle, sheep from Australia and Japan, and Norwegian reindeer. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained allowed definition of three operational taxonomic units within ..
  74. Kemper N, Aschfalk A, Holler C. Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., and Cryptosporidium oocysts in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Northern Finland and Norway. Acta Vet Scand. 2006;48:7 pubmed
    The specific aim of this study was to assess the faecal shedding of zoonotic enteropathogens by semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) to deduce the potential risk to human health through modern reindeer herding...
  75. Asbakk K, Hrabok J, Oksanen A, Nieminen M, Waller P. Prolonged persistence of fecally excreted ivermectin from reindeer in a sub-arctic environment. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:9112-8 pubmed
    In December 2001 and 2002, feces from reindeer calves treated with ivermectin were distributed on plots established on two types of forested reindeer pasture in northern Finland...
  76. Soppela P, Saarela S, Heiskari U, Nieminen M. The effects of wintertime undernutrition on plasma leptin and insulin levels in an arctic ruminant, the reindeer. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;149:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of prolonged undernutrition on plasma leptin and insulin levels and some serum protein metabolites in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) during winter and spring...
  77. Laaksonen S, Solismaa M, Orro T, Kuusela J, Saari S, Kortet R, et al. Setaria tundra microfilariae in reindeer and other cervids in Finland. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2003-2006, a peritonitis outbreak caused by the filarioid nematode, Setaria tundra, emerged in Finland's reindeer population...
  78. Laaksonen S, Oksanen A, Orro T, Norberg H, Nieminen M, Sukura A. Efficacy of different treatment regimes against setariosis (Setaria tundra, Nematoda: Filarioidea) and associated peritonitis in reindeer. Acta Vet Scand. 2008;50:49 pubmed publisher
    When a severe peritonitis outbreak in semi-domesticated reindeer was noticed in 2003 in Finland, the concerned industry urged immediate preventive actions in order to avoid detrimental effects of S. tundra and further economical losses...
  79. Hughes J, Albon S, Irvine R, Woodin S. Is there a cost of parasites to caribou?. Parasitology. 2009;136:253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Parasites may have been a contributory factor in a previous winter range-shift of the caribou herd and this may reflect a form of apparent competition between the two ungulate species...
  80. Rødven R, Männikkö I, Ims R, Yoccoz N, Folstad I. Parasite intensity and fur coloration in reindeer calves - contrasting artificial and natural selection. J Anim Ecol. 2009;78:600-7 pubmed publisher
    1. In reindeer, the variation in fur coloration is higher in semi-domesticated than in wild populations...
  81. Sundset M, Edwards J, Cheng Y, Senosiain R, Fraile M, Northwood K, et al. Rumen microbial diversity in Svalbard reindeer, with particular emphasis on methanogenic archaea. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2009;70:553-62 pubmed publisher
    Ruminal methanogens, bacteria and ciliate protozoa of Svalbard reindeer grazing natural pastures in October (late fall) and April (late winter) were investigated using molecular-based approaches...
  82. das Neves C, Mørk T, Godfroid J, Sørensen K, Breines E, Hareide E, et al. Experimental infection of reindeer with cervid herpesvirus 2. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1758-65 pubmed publisher
    Cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) has been isolated from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), and serological data indicate that in reindeer this virus is endemic in Fennoscandia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland...
  83. Kuhn T, McFarlane K, Groves P, Mooers A, Shapiro B. Modern and ancient DNA reveal recent partial replacement of caribou in the southwest Yukon. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:1312-23 pubmed publisher
  84. Suutari A, Ruokojärvi P, Kiviranta H, Verta M, Korhonen M, Nieminen M, et al. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.). Environ Int. 2011;37:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L...
  85. Hansen B, Grøtan V, Aanes R, Sæther B, Stien A, Fuglei E, et al. Climate events synchronize the dynamics of a resident vertebrate community in the high Arctic. Science. 2013;339:313-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Icing is predicted to become more frequent in the circumpolar Arctic and may therefore strongly affect terrestrial ecosystem characteristics...
  86. Hassle S, Sjölander P, Barnekow Bergkvist M, Kadesjö A. Cancer risk in the reindeer breeding Saami population of Sweden, 1961-1997. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17:969-76 pubmed
    The Saami people are the natives of northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula. In a cohort of 2033 Swedish reindeer breeding Saamis, the cancer risks between 1961 and 1997 were studied...
  87. Jordan L, Rettie W, Tessaro S. Evidence of herpesvirus infection in Woodland Caribou in Saskatchewan. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:216-20 pubmed
    ..No antibodies were detected against the other pathogens. This is the first reported evidence of herpesvirus infection in isolated populations of woodland caribou in western Canada...
  88. Palmer M, Waters W, Thacker T, Stoffregen W, Thomsen B. Experimentally induced infection of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) with Mycobacterium bovis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:52-60 pubmed
    ..In reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), infection with Mycobacterium bovis is exceedingly rare and the response of reindeer to ..
  89. Nikander S, Laaksonen S, Saari S, Oksanen A. The morphology of the filaroid nematode Setaria tundra, the cause of peritonitis in reindeer Rangifer tarandus. J Helminthol. 2007;81:49-55 pubmed
    ..were observed in the peritoneal cavity of reindeer Rangifer tarandus during a peritonitis outbreak associated with poor body condition...
  90. Bårdsen B, Fauchald P, Tveraa T, Langeland K, Yoccoz N, Ims R. Experimental evidence of a risk-sensitive reproductive allocation in a long-lived mammal. Ecology. 2008;89:829-37 pubmed
    ..We tested this hypothesis on female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), which face a trade-off between reproduction and acquisition of body reserves during spring ..
  91. Arnemo J, Aanes R. Reversible immobilization of free-ranging Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) with medetomidine-ketamine and atipamezole. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:877-80 pubmed
    Twenty adult, free-ranging, female Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine from 30 September through 9 October 1999 at Svalbard, Norway (78 degrees 55'N, 11 degrees 56'E)...
  92. das Neves C, Roth S, Rimstad E, Thiry E, Tryland M. Cervid herpesvirus 2 infection in reindeer: a review. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:70-80 pubmed publisher
    ..to infect and cause disease in a variety of ruminant species, but the impact of cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV2) in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is mostly unknown...