deer

Summary

Summary: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)

Top Publications

  1. Pays O, Fortin D, Gassani J, Duchesne J. Group dynamics and landscape features constrain the exploration of herds in fusion-fission societies: the case of European roe deer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34678 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the winter movements (speed and diffusion coefficient) of groups of free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in an agricultural landscape characterised by a mosaic of food and foodless patches...
  2. Bonnot N, Gaillard J, Coulon A, Galan M, Cosson J, Delorme D, et al. No difference between the sexes in fine-scale spatial genetic structure of roe deer. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14436 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the fine-scale spatial genetic structure of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population in Trois-Fontaines (France) using 12 microsatellite loci...
  3. Wyman M, Charlton B, Locatelli Y, Reby D. Variability of female responses to conspecific vs. heterospecific male mating calls in polygynous deer: an open door to hybridization?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23296 pubmed publisher
    Males of all polygynous deer species (Cervinae) give conspicuous calls during the reproductive season...
  4. Haley N, Van de Motter A, Carver S, Henderson D, Davenport K, Seelig D, et al. Prion-seeding activity in cerebrospinal fluid of deer with chronic wasting disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81488 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CWD-exposed (n=44) and naïve (n=4) deer (n=48 total) for CWD prions (PrP(d)) using two amplification assays: serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification ..
  5. Matosiuk M, Borkowska A, Swisłocka M, Mirski P, Borowski Z, Krysiuk K, et al. Unexpected population genetic structure of European roe deer in Poland: an invasion of the mtDNA genome from Siberian roe deer. Mol Ecol. 2014;23:2559-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We inferred the population genetic structure of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Poland from mitochondrial (CR and cyt b) and sex-linked markers (ZFX, SRY, DBY4 and DBY8)...
  6. Denkers N, Hayes Klug J, Anderson K, Seelig D, Haley N, Dahmes S, et al. Aerosol transmission of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer. J Virol. 2013;87:1890-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate aerosol transmission of CWD to deer with a prion dose >20-fold lower than that used in previous oral inoculations...
  7. Mathiason C, Nalls A, Seelig D, Kraft S, Carnes K, Anderson K, et al. Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease. J Virol. 2013;87:1947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c...
  8. Pruvot M, Forde T, Steele J, Kutz S, De Buck J, van der Meer F, et al. The modification and evaluation of an ELISA test for the surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:5 pubmed publisher
  9. Abendaño N, Sevilla I, Prieto J, Garrido J, Juste R, Alonso Hearn M. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates from sheep and goats show reduced persistence in bovine macrophages than cattle, bison, deer and wild boar strains regardless of genotype. Vet Microbiol. 2013;163:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..distinct genotypes and isolated from domestic (cattle, sheep, and goat), and wildlife animal species (fallow deer, deer, wild boar, and bison) to enter and grow in bovine macrophages...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Monello R, Powers J, Hobbs N, Spraker T, O Rourke K, Wild M. Efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cow elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevalence estimates from this population are the highest reported to date in elk and indicate that under appropriate conditions, CWD may be able to affect the dynamics of high-density elk populations...
  2. Overzier E, Pfister K, Herb I, Mahling M, Böck G, Silaghi C. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp...
  3. O Brien R, Hughes A, Liggett S, Griffin F. Composite testing for ante-mortem diagnosis of Johne's disease in farmed New Zealand deer: correlations between bacteriological culture, histopathology, serological reactivity and faecal shedding as determined by quantitative PCR. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:72 pubmed publisher
    ..paratuberculosis (MAP) in New Zealand farmed deer to quantify the bacterial load in cervine faecal samples as an adjunct to an existing serodiagnostic test (Paralisa..
  4. Gupta H, Krauss S, Kerschnitzki M, Karunaratne A, Dunlop J, Barber A, et al. Intrafibrillar plasticity through mineral/collagen sliding is the dominant mechanism for the extreme toughness of antler bone. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013;28:366-82 pubmed publisher
  5. Wadhwa A, Johnson R, Mackintosh C, Griffin J, Waters W, Bannantine J, et al. Use of ethanol extract of Mycobacterium bovis for detection of specific antibodies in sera of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) with bovine tuberculosis. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:256 pubmed publisher
    ..bovis) antibodies in the serum of M. bovis-infected farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus)...
  6. Bouchard C, Leighton P, Beauchamp G, Nguon S, Trudel L, Milord F, et al. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:384-93 pubmed
    ..Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer ..
  7. Hunnam J, Wilson P, Heuer C, Stringer L, Clark R, Mackintosh C. Association between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and lymph node size in New Zealand farmed deer (Cervus elaphus). N Z Vet J. 2013;61:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..purpose of national surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in New Zealand farmed deer. This included estimation of the predictive value of abnormal LN for Map infection; a standard circumference cut-..
  8. Nichols T, Spraker T, Rigg T, Meyerett Reid C, Hoover C, Michel B, et al. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62455 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging ..
  9. Dobson B, Liggett S, O Brien R, Griffin J. Innate immune markers that distinguish red deer (Cervus elaphus) selected for resistant or susceptible genotypes for Johne's disease. Vet Res. 2013;44:5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously identified red deer breeds (Cervus elaphus) that are resistant; have a low rate of MAP infection and do not progress to develop Johne's ..
  10. Li Z, Liu H, Jin C, Cui X, Jing Y, Yang F, et al. Differences in the methanogen population exist in sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed different diets in China. Microb Ecol. 2013;66:879-88 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the methanogen structure from sika deer (Cervus nippon) in China may be beneficial to methane mitigation...
  11. Vickery C, Lockey R, Holder T, Thorne L, Beck K, Wilson C, et al. Assessing the susceptibility of transgenic mice overexpressing deer prion protein to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Virol. 2014;88:1830-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Tg(CerPrP)1536(+/-) mice challenged with red deer-adapted BSE resulted in 90% to 100% attack rates, and BSE from cattle failed to transmit, indicating agent ..
  12. Gilot Fromont E, Jégo M, Bonenfant C, Gibert P, Rannou B, Klein F, et al. Immune phenotype and body condition in roe deer: individuals with high body condition have different, not stronger immunity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45576 pubmed publisher
    ..immune phenotype depends on body condition in large mammals, using data from two contrasted populations of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in France...
  13. Plard F, Gaillard J, Bonenfant C, Hewison A, Delorme D, Cargnelutti B, et al. Parturition date for a given female is highly repeatable within five roe deer populations. Biol Lett. 2013;9:20120841 pubmed publisher
    ..We quantified the repeatability of parturition date for individual females in five populations of roe deer, which we found to vary between 0.54 and 0.93...
  14. Bériot M, Tchimbou A, Barbato O, Beckers J, de Sousa N. Identification of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins and alpha-fetoprotein in fallow deer (Dama dama) placenta. Acta Vet Scand. 2014;56:4 pubmed publisher
    ..glycoproteins (PAG) from fetal cotyledonary tissue (FCT) and maternal caruncular tissue (MCT) collected from fallow deer (Dama dama) pregnant females...
  15. Pato F, Vazquez L, Diez Baños N, Lopez C, Sánchez Andrade R, Fernandez G, et al. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula: assessment of some risk factors. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:136-42 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal contents of 218 roe deer hunted in the northwest (NW) of the Iberian Peninsula during the 2008-2009 hunting seasons were examined in order to provide information on the gastrointestinal (GI) nematode prevalence and intensity of ..
  16. Magle S, Samuel M, Van Deelen T, Robinson S, Mathews N. Evaluating spatial overlap and relatedness of white-tailed deer in a chronic wasting disease management zone. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56568 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the degree of spatial overlap and rate of contact among deer is likely to impact both direct and indirect transmission of infectious diseases such chronic wasting disease (CWD) ..
  17. Stuen S, Pettersen K, Granquist E, Bergstrom K, Bown K, Birtles R. Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in sympatric red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep in southern Norway. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous experimental work has shown that A. phagocytophilum strains recovered from red deer (Cervus elaphus) are infective in lambs, but epidemiological links between infections in red deer and sheep have ..
  18. Silveira J, Rabelo E, Lacerda A, Borges P, Tomás W, Pellegrin A, et al. Molecular detection and identification of hemoparasites in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) from the Pantanal Brazil. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:341-5 pubmed publisher
    Hemoparasites were surveyed in 60 free-living pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the central area of the Pantanal, known as Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, through the analysis of nested PCR assays and nucleotide ..
  19. Lyashchenko K, Greenwald R, Esfandiari J, O Brien D, Schmitt S, Palmer M, et al. Rapid detection of serum antibody by dual-path platform VetTB assay in white-tailed deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:907-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of this test by using serum samples collected from groups of white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, or M. bovis BCG Pasteur...
  20. Casaubon J, Vogt H, Stalder H, Hug C, Ryser Degiorgis M. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in free-ranging wild ruminants in Switzerland: low prevalence of infection despite regular interactions with domestic livestock. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:204 pubmed publisher
    ..and virological investigations on BVD virus (BVDV) infections in the four indigenous wild ruminant species (roe deer, red deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex) from 2009 to 2011, and gathered information on interactions between wild ..
  21. Blackburn J, Goodin D. Differentiation of springtime vegetation indices associated with summer anthrax epizootics in west Texas, USA, deer. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:699-703 pubmed publisher
    Anthrax outbreaks in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are frequent in west Texas, USA, particularly across the Edwards Plateau. However, the outbreak severity varies among years...
  22. Rosvold J, Røed K, Hufthammer A, Andersen R, Stenøien H. Reconstructing the history of a fragmented and heavily exploited red deer population using ancient and contemporary DNA. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:191 pubmed publisher
    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been an important human resource for millennia, experiencing intensive human influence through habitat alterations, hunting and translocation of animals...
  23. Zanella G, Bar Hen A, Boschiroli M, Hars J, Moutou F, Garin Bastuji B, et al. Modelling transmission of bovine tuberculosis in red deer and wild boar in Normandy, France. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59 Suppl 2:170-8 pubmed publisher
    In early 2001, Mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed in red deer (RD) (Cervus elaphus) shot in Normandy region, France...
  24. Li H, Cunha C, Abbitt B, Demaar T, Lenz S, Hayes J, et al. Goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (MCFV-WTD), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013;44:484-6 pubmed
    In the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) from a Texas zoo, the viral DNA from the herpesvirus termed MCFV-WTD, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), ..
  25. Meiri M, Lister A, Higham T, Stewart J, Straus L, Obermaier H, et al. Late-glacial recolonization and phylogeography of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.). Mol Ecol. 2013;22:4711-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we test this model on the red deer (Cervus elaphus) a large and highly mobile herbivore, using both modern and ancient mitochondrial DNA from the ..
  26. Pérez Creo A, Panadero R, Lopez C, Diaz P, Vazquez L, Díez Baños P, et al. Prevalence and identity of Sarcocystis spp. in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Spain: a morphological study. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:1036-40 pubmed publisher
    Muscular samples from the oesophagus, diaphragm and heart of 101 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunted in Galicia (Northwestern Spain) were examined, by the compression method, for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. infection...
  27. Zhang J, Yang R, Sun S, Sun L, Liu Y, Zhang Y, et al. Cloning and characterization of new transcript variants of insulin-like growth factor-I in Sika deer (Cervus elaphus). Growth Horm IGF Res. 2013;23:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, 5' and 3' RACE techniques were used to clone full-length cDNA of the IGF-I gene from the deer liver for the first time...
  28. Pound J, Lohmeyer K, Davey R, Miller J, George J. Efficacy of amitraz-impregnated collars on white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in reducing free-living populations of lone star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). J Econ Entomol. 2012;105:2207-12 pubmed
    ..when manually fitted around necks of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Study animals in treatment and control groups were confined in 38...
  29. Gaillard J, Hewison A, Klein F, Plard F, Douhard M, Davison R, et al. How does climate change influence demographic processes of widespread species? Lessons from the comparative analysis of contrasted populations of roe deer. Ecol Lett. 2013;16 Suppl 1:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Roe deer are income breeders, with high levels of allocation to reproduction, and are hence strongly constrained by the ..
  30. Rosen M, Hamer S, Gerhardt R, Jones C, Muller L, Scott M, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:1473-80 pubmed
    ..prevalence of I. scapularis, we collected ticks from 1,018 hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman)) from 71 of 95 Tennessee counties in fall 2007 and 2008. In total, 160 deer (15...
  31. Henderson D, Manca M, Haley N, Denkers N, Nalls A, Mathiason C, et al. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74377 pubmed publisher
    ..One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the ..
  32. Kropatsch R, Dekomien G, Akkad D, Gerding W, Petrasch Parwez E, Young N, et al. SOX9 duplication linked to intersex in deer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73734 pubmed publisher
    A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination...
  33. Maggi R, Chitwood M, Kennedy Stoskopf S, DePerno C. Novel hemotropic Mycoplasma species in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;36:607-11 pubmed publisher
    ..in a white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) population in eastern North Carolina...
  34. Anel Lopez L, Alvarez Rodriguez M, García Alvarez O, Alvarez M, Maroto Morales A, Anel L, et al. Reduced glutathione and Trolox (vitamin E) as extender supplements in cryopreservation of red deer epididymal spermatozoa. Anim Reprod Sci. 2012;135:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We have tested the suitability of the antioxidants Trolox and reduced glutathione (GSH) for freezing red deer epididymal spermatozoa, aiming at improving post-thawing quality...
  35. Fuehrer H, Biró N, Harl J, Worliczek H, Beiglböck C, Farkas R, et al. Molecular detection of Theileria sp. ZS TO4 in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and questing Haemaphysalis concinna ticks in Eastern Austria. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:653-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Burgenland), piroplasms were detected with molecular analysis in blood samples of all 80 examined asymptomatic red deer (Cervus elaphus). Furthermore, piroplasms were detected in four out of 12 questing nymphs of Haemaphysalis concinna...
  36. Samelius G, Andrén H, Kjellander P, Liberg O. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75469 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia...
  37. Wang L, Zhou G, Shi W, Shi J, Tian X, Gao C, et al. First live offspring born in superovulated sika deer (Cervus nippon) after embryo vitrification. Theriogenology. 2012;78:1627-32 pubmed publisher
    The rapid growth in sika deer (Cervus nippon) farming and interest in their conservation is an impetus for development of embryo transfer (ET) procedures...
  38. Li C. Histogenetic aspects of deer antler development. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2013;5:479-89 pubmed
    b>Deer antlers are the only mammalian organs that, once lost, can fully grow back; therefore, they offer a unique opportunity for investigating the mechanism underlying mammalian organ regeneration...
  39. Choi J, Lee J, Jo Y, Min H, Kim H, Jung W, et al. Genotype-4 hepatitis E in a human after ingesting roe deer meat in South Korea. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2013;19:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Presented herein is the first case of acute HEV infection after ingesting wild roe deer meat in South Korea. A 43-year-old male presented with abdominal discomfort and jaundice...
  40. Jaworski D, Bowen C, Wasala N. A white-tailed deer/lone star tick model for studying transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013;13:193-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed an animal model for tick feeding and transmission using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus), the intracellular bacterium (Ehrlichia chaffeensis), and the lone star tick vector (..
  41. Marfell B, O Brien R, Griffin J. Global gene expression profiling of monocyte-derived macrophages from red deer (Cervus elaphus) genotypically resistant or susceptible to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2013;40:210-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has explored the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to this disease in red deer breeds previously confirmed to express polarised phenotypes by experimental infection trials and following natural ..
  42. Stringer L, Wilson P, Heuer C, Hunnam J, Verdugo C, Mackintosh C. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) with grossly normal mesenteric lymph nodes. N Z Vet J. 2013;61:147-52 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in farmed deer with no gross post-mortem evidence of Map infection slaughtered in New Zealand, and to assess predictors of infection.
  43. Stringer L, Wilson P, Heuer C, Mackintosh C. A randomised controlled trial of Silirum vaccine for control of paratuberculosis in farmed red deer. Vet Rec. 2013;173:551 pubmed publisher
    ..controlled trial to assess the efficacy of Silirum vaccine in control of paratuberculosis in young farmed deer was carried out in 2008-2009 in six New Zealand herds with a history of clinical disease...
  44. Trifonov V, Dementyeva P, Larkin D, O Brien P, Perelman P, Yang F, et al. Transcription of a protein-coding gene on B chromosomes of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus). BMC Biol. 2013;11:90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the transcriptional activity of these genes remained elusive. We studied karyotypes of the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) that possess up to 14 B chromosomes to investigate the presence and expression of genes on ..
  45. Krepschi V, Polegato B, Zanetti E, Duarte J. Fecal progestins during pregnancy and postpartum periods of captive red brocket deer (Mazama americana). Anim Reprod Sci. 2013;137:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the quantification of fecal progestins by EIA proved to be an important tool for noninvasive endocrine monitoring and to obtain reproductive data on the species M. americana in captivity. ..
  46. Corbière F, Nussbaum S, Alzieu J, Lemaire M, Meyer G, Foucras G, et al. Bluetongue virus serotype 1 in wild ruminants, France, 2008-10. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:1047-51 pubmed publisher
    The persistence of Bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) circulation was evaluated in red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), mouflons (Ovis ammon), and Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) sampled during two ..
  47. Jaenson T, Hjertqvist M, Bergstrom T, Lundkvist A. Why is tick-borne encephalitis increasing? A review of the key factors causing the increasing incidence of human TBE in Sweden. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:184 pubmed publisher
    ..In most locations the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus is the main host for the reproducing adult I. ricinus ticks...
  48. Yamazaki S, Motoi Y, Nagai K, Ishinazaka T, Asano M, Suzuki M. Sex determination of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) using nested PCR from feces collected in the field. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:1611-6 pubmed
    We describe a method for determining the sex of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) from feces collected in the field...
  49. Ruder M, Allison A, Stallknecht D, Mead D, McGraw S, Carter D, et al. Susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to experimental infection with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:676-85 pubmed
    ..Our primary objective was to determine whether white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) are susceptible to infection with EHDV-7...
  50. Ceacero F, Landete Castillejos T, Garcia A, Estevez J, Gallego L. Physiological variables explain mineral intake in Iberian red deer. Physiol Behav. 2010;100:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested this prediction in Iberian red deer. During two lactation periods a series of containers with different minerals, most of them diluted in salt, were ..
  51. Found R, Boyce M. Predicting deer-vehicle collisions in an urban area. J Environ Manage. 2011;92:2486-93 pubmed publisher
    Collisions with deer and other large animals are increasing, and the resulting economic costs and risks to public safety have made mitigation measures a priority for both city and wildlife managers...
  52. Farrell M, Briefer E, Hayden T, McElligott A. Assortative mating in fallow deer reduces the strength of sexual selection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18533 pubmed publisher
    ..study examining how female and male ages, as well as male social dominance, affect assortative mating in fallow deer (Dama dama) over 10 years...
  53. Blanchong J, Grear D, Weckworth B, Keane D, Scribner K, Samuel M. Effects of chronic wasting disease on reproduction and fawn harvest vulnerability in Wisconsin white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:361-70 pubmed
    ..We used genetic methods and harvest data (2002-04) to reconstruct parentage for a cohort of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns born in spring 2002 and evaluate the effects of CWD infection on reproduction and ..
  54. Bardiau M, Gregoire F, Muylaert A, Nahayo A, Duprez J, Mainil J, et al. Enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterohaemorragic (EHEC) and verotoxigenic (VTEC) Escherichia coli in wild cervids. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:2214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, many serogroups other than O157 EHEC have also been shown to be responsible for outbreaks in humans in several countries, and studies focusing solely on O157:H7 EHEC tend to underestimate this risk of transmission. ..
  55. Yao B, Zhao Y, Zhang H, Zhang M, Liu M, Liu H, et al. Sequencing and de novo analysis of the Chinese Sika deer antler-tip transcriptome during the ossification stage using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:813-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of repeated rounds of regeneration. Every year, deer antlers are shed and regrown from blastema into large branched structures of cartilage and bone...
  56. Allison A, Goekjian V, Potgieter A, Wilson W, Johnson D, Mertens P, et al. Detection of a novel reassortant epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in the USA containing RNA segments derived from both exotic (EHDV-6) and endemic (EHDV-2) serotypes. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:430-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2006, EHDV isolates were recovered from moribund or dead white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Indiana and Illinois that could not be identified as either EHDV-1 or EHDV-2 by virus ..
  57. Bett C, Fernandez Borges N, Kurt T, Lucero M, Nilsson K, Castilla J, et al. Structure of the ?2-?2 loop and interspecies prion transmission. FASEB J. 2012;26:2868-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings support a model in which efficient interspecies prion conversion is determined by small stretches of the primary sequence rather than the secondary structure of PrP. ..
  58. Triumf E, Purchas R, Mielnik M, Maehre H, Elvevoll E, Slinde E, et al. Composition and some quality characteristics of the longissimus muscle of reindeer in Norway compared to farmed New Zealand red deer. Meat Sci. 2012;90:122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..weights of the adult reindeer were lower than the weights reported for Swedish reindeer and New Zealand farmed red deer. Reindeer muscles had higher antioxidant capacity, shorter sarcomeres, smaller muscle fibre diameters, higher n-6/n-..
  59. Wilham J, Orru C, Bessen R, Atarashi R, Sano K, Race B, et al. Rapid end-point quantitation of prion seeding activity with sensitivity comparable to bioassays. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001217 pubmed publisher
    ..0)-10(2.9)/ml. RT-QuIC assay also discriminated deer chronic wasting disease and sheep scrapie brain samples from normal control samples...
  60. Balachandran A, Harrington N, Algire J, Soutyrine A, Spraker T, Jeffrey M, et al. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein. Can Vet J. 2010;51:169-78 pubmed
    ..an important emerging prion disease of cervids, is readily transmitted by intracerebral or oral inoculation from deer-to-deer and elk-to-elk, suggesting the latter is a natural route of exposure...
  61. Gilbert L, Maffey G, Ramsay S, Hester A. The effect of deer management on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus in Scotland. Ecol Appl. 2012;22:658-67 pubmed
    The management of wildlife hosts for controlling parasites and disease has a history of mixed success. Deer can be important hosts for ticks, such as Ixodes ricinus, which is the primary vector of disease-causing zoonotic pathogens in ..
  62. Rosef O, Paulauskas A, Radzijevskaja J. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the density of wild cervids. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:47 pubmed publisher
  63. Forgách P, Nowotny N, Erdélyi K, Boncz A, Zentai J, Szucs G, et al. Detection of hepatitis E virus in samples of animal origin collected in Hungary. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..HEV RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in liver samples of wild boars, roe deer, and deer. The investigations of domestic swine samples detected HEV in 39% of the investigated Hungarian pig farms...
  64. Pound J, George J, Kammlah D, Lohmeyer K, Davey R. Evidence for role of white-tailed deer (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in epizootiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in reinfestations along the Texas/Mexico border in south Texas: a review and update. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:211-8 pubmed
    ..Regarding the failures in Florida, the consensus was that populations of white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)] infested with southern cattle ticks were responsible...
  65. Bauer B, Pomroy W, Gueydon J, Gannac S, Scott I, Pfister K. Comparison of the FLOTAC technique with the McMaster method and the Baermann technique to determine counts of Dictyocaulus eckerti L1 and strongylid eggs in faeces of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Samples from naturally infected young deer were used for counting Dictyocaulus larvae and strongylid eggs...
  66. Ernest H, Hoar B, Well J, O Rourke K. Molecular genealogy tools for white-tailed deer with chronic wasting disease. Can J Vet Res. 2010;74:153-6 pubmed
    ..White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) congregate in matriarchal groups; kin-related close social spacing may be a factor in the ..
  67. Pita Thomas W, Nieto Sampedro M, Maza R, Nieto Diaz M. Factors promoting neurite outgrowth during deer antler regeneration. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:3034-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results point to the existence in the deep velvet of an environment that promotes oriented axon growth, in agreement with the distribution of the antler innervation...
  68. Carstensen M, O Brien D, Schmitt S. Public acceptance as a determinant of management strategies for bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging U.S. wildlife. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:200-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Separate outbreaks of bTB in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in two midwestern states provide a case study...
  69. Alberti E, Gioia G, Sironi G, Zanzani S, Riccaboni P, Magrini M, et al. Elaphostrongylus cervi in a population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and evidence of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in small ruminants in the province of Varese, Italy. J Helminthol. 2011;85:313-8 pubmed publisher
    Thirty-one faecal samples were collected from red deer in the northern area of Varese, in the Italian region of Lombardy, between August and October 2008. The animals had either been hunted or accidently killed...
  70. Zintl A, Finnerty E, Murphy T, de Waal T, Gray J. Babesias of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Ireland. Vet Res. 2011;42:7 pubmed publisher
    Blood samples were obtained from 38 wild red deer (Cervus elaphus) at two sites in Ireland and subjected to PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing...
  71. Sacchi A, Duarte J, André M, Machado R. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasmataceae agents in free-ranging Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus). Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;35:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the presence of Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neorickettsia species in blood samples from Brazilian marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), using both molecular and serologic techniques...
  72. O Brien D, Schmitt S, Fitzgerald S, Berry D. Management of bovine tuberculosis in Michigan wildlife: current status and near term prospects. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:179-87 pubmed publisher
    Surveillance and control activities for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in free-ranging Michigan white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have now been underway for over a decade...
  73. Gilch S, Chitoor N, Taguchi Y, Stuart M, Jewell J, Schatzl H. Chronic wasting disease. Top Curr Chem. 2011;305:51-77 pubmed publisher
    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease of free-ranging and farmed ungulates (deer, elk, and moose) in North America and South Korea. First described by the late E.S...
  74. Yao B, Zhao Y, Wang Q, Zhang M, Liu M, Liu H, et al. De novo characterization of the antler tip of Chinese Sika deer transcriptome and analysis of gene expression related to rapid growth. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;364:93-100 pubmed publisher
    b>Deer antlers are well known for their regeneration and rapid growth. However, little is known about the genes that are involved in their development, especially the molecular mechanisms responsible for rapid growth...
  75. Grazziotin A, Duarte J, Szabó M, Santos A, Guimaraes A, Mohamed A, et al. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma ovis in selected free-ranging Brazilian deer populations. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:1005-11 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to determine whether M. ovis infects populations of free-ranging deer in Brazil...
  76. Nieminen P, Paakkonen T, Eerilä H, Puukka K, Riikonen J, Lehto V, et al. Freezing tolerance and low molecular weight cryoprotectants in an invasive parasitic fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2012;317:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..northern insects must cope with extended periods of freezing ambient temperatures (Ta), the ectoparasitic deer ked Lipoptena cervi imago can encounter subfreezing Ta only during a short autumnal period between hatching and ..
  77. Rubenstein R, Chang B, Gray P, Piltch M, Bulgin M, Sorensen Melson S, et al. Prion disease detection, PMCA kinetics, and IgG in urine from sheep naturally/experimentally infected with scrapie and deer with preclinical/clinical chronic wasting disease. J Virol. 2011;85:9031-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and orally infected sheep with clinical scrapie agent and orally infected preclinical and infected white-tailed deer with clinical chronic wasting disease (CWD)...
  78. Kirby L, Agarwal S, Graham J, Goldmann W, Gill A. Inverse correlation of thermal lability and conversion efficiency for five prion protein polymorphic variants. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1448-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with modulation of disease susceptibility through differential protein stability leading to enhanced generic misfolding of TSE resistance-associated protein variants...
  79. Malmsten J, Jakubek E, Björkman C. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in moose (Alces alces) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii, and N. caninum in moose (Alces alces), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Sweden...