Summary: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.

Top Publications

  1. Herder V, Hansmann F, Wohlsein P, Peters M, Varela M, Palmarini M, et al. Immunophenotyping of inflammatory cells associated with Schmallenberg virus infection of the central nervous system of ruminants. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62939 pubmed publisher
    ..mainly with abortions, stillbirths and malformations of the skeletal and central nervous system (CNS) in newborn ruminants. In this study, a detailed immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells of the CNS of affected animals was ..
  2. Arzt J, Baxt B, Grubman M, Jackson T, Juleff N, Rhyan J, et al. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease II: viral pathways in swine, small ruminants, and wildlife; myotropism, chronic syndromes, and molecular virus-host interactions. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:305-26 pubmed publisher
    ..foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has focused on the study of the disease in cattle with less emphasis on pigs, small ruminants and wildlife...
  3. Conraths F, Peters M, Beer M. Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus infection in ruminants in Europe: potential global impact and preventive measures. N Z Vet J. 2013;61:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ruminants and new-world camelids (alpacas) are susceptible to infection. Adult animals may develop mild disease, if any...
  4. Novobilský A, Engström A, Sollenberg S, Gustafsson K, Morrison D, Hoglund J. Transmission patterns of Fasciola hepatica to ruminants in Sweden. Vet Parasitol. 2014;203:276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence and frequency of 'winter infection' were dependent on local environmental factors such as snail habitat availability or grazing behaviour of animals, rather than on climatic factors...
  5. Bessell P, Rotariu O, Innocent G, Smith Palmer A, Strachan N, Forbes K, et al. Using sequence data to identify alternative routes and risk of infection: a case-study of campylobacter in Scotland. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper MLST typing was used to distinguish the routes and risks of infection of humans with Campylobacter jejuni from poultry and ruminant sources..
  6. Pays O, Blanchard P, Valeix M, Chamaillé Jammes S, Duncan P, Périquet S, et al. Detecting predators and locating competitors while foraging: an experimental study of a medium-sized herbivore in an African savanna. Oecologia. 2012;169:419-30 pubmed publisher
  7. Riet Correa F, Medeiros R, Schild A. A review of poisonous plants that cause reproductive failure and malformations in the ruminants of Brazil. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:245-54 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this review is to provide a report on toxic plants causing reproductive problems in ruminants in Brazil...
  8. Williams R, Ellis C, Smith S, Potgieter C, Wallace D, Mareledwane V, et al. Validation of an IgM antibody capture ELISA based on a recombinant nucleoprotein for identification of domestic ruminants infected with Rift Valley fever virus. J Virol Methods. 2011;177:140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..reliable and highly accurate diagnostic tool which can be used on its own or in parallel with other methods for the early diagnosis of RVF virus infection and also for monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated domestic ruminants.
  9. Brasil B, Nunes R, Bastianetto E, Drummond M, Carvalho D, Leite R, et al. Genetic diversity patterns of Haemonchus placei and Haemonchus contortus populations isolated from domestic ruminants in Brazil. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:469-79 pubmed

More Information


  1. Lopez Saucedo J, Paramio Nieto M, Fierro R, Piña Aguilar R. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in small ruminants. Anim Reprod Sci. 2012;133:129-38 pubmed publisher
    Small ruminants are an important component of the global production systems of meat and wool, and their reproductive biology is well known...
  2. Romano V, Albanese F, Dumontet S, Krovacek K, Petrini O, Pasquale V. Prevalence and genotypic characterization of Clostridium difficile from ruminants in Switzerland. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59:545-8 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile was detected in 21% (7/30) of these samples. These isolates belonged to ribotypes 033, 066, 014 and 137. Several isolates pertained to ribotypes known to cause Clostridium difficile infections in humans...
  3. Jeanmaire E, Rabenarivahiny R, Biarmann M, Rabibisoa L, Ravaomanana F, Randriamparany T, et al. Prevalence of Rift Valley fever infection in ruminants in Madagascar after the 2008 outbreak. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of a country-wide serosurvey conducted in August 2008 on small and large ruminants are reported here...
  4. Suttle N. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground. Adv Nutr. 2012;3:666-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs...
  5. Beer M, Conraths F, van der Poel W. 'Schmallenberg virus'--a novel orthobunyavirus emerging in Europe. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SBV caused a large epidemic in Europe in ruminants. As with related viruses such as Akabane virus, it appears to be transmitted by biting midges...
  6. Eriksson J, Espinosa Gongora C, Stamphøj I, Larsen A, Guardabassi L. Carriage frequency, diversity and methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish small ruminants. Vet Microbiol. 2013;163:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides novel data about the occurrence of S. aureus in small ruminants, revealing high carriage frequency and diversity in these animals...
  7. Akkari H, Jebali J, Gharbi M, Mhadhbi M, Awadi S, Darghouth M. Epidemiological study of sympatric Haemonchus species and genetic characterization of Haemonchus contortus in domestic ruminants in Tunisia. Vet Parasitol. 2013;193:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..abattoir from January to June 2010 and also to analyse the genetic differences of Haemonchus contortus in these ruminants. During the study period 364, 271 and 152 abomasa of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, were examined showing ..
  8. Cornelis G, Heidmann O, Degrelle S, Vernochet C, Lavialle C, Letzelter C, et al. Captured retroviral envelope syncytin gene associated with the unique placental structure of higher ruminants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that this gene, which we named "Syncytin-Rum1," is conserved among 16 representatives of higher ruminants, with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of its fusogenic properties, over 30 millions years of ..
  9. Roest H, Ruuls R, Tilburg J, Nabuurs Franssen M, Klaassen C, Vellema P, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:668-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C...
  10. Gebrekidan H, Hailu A, Kassahun A, Rohousova I, Maia C, Talmi Frank D, et al. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia. Vet Parasitol. 2014;200:31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia...
  11. Fernandez J, Billecocq A, Durand J, Cêtre Sossah C, Cardinale E, Marianneau P, et al. The nonstructural protein NSs induces a variable antibody response in domestic ruminants naturally infected with Rift Valley fever virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ruminants are severely affected by the disease, which leads to a high rate of mortality in young animals and to abortions ..
  12. Fischer A, Shapiro B, Muriuki C, Heller M, Schnee C, Bongcam Rudloff E, et al. The origin of the 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster' coincides with domestication of ruminants. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36150 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we show that hybridization and recombination may be important factors in the evolutionary history of the cluster...
  13. Gutiérrez Expósito D, Ortega Mora L, Marco I, Boadella M, Gortazar C, San Miguel Ayanz J, et al. First serosurvey of Besnoitia spp. infection in wild European ruminants in Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:557-64 pubmed publisher
    Besnoitia besnoiti has been reported to affect cattle, wildebeest, kudu and impala, and B. tarandi other wild ruminants (caribou, reindeer, mule deer and musk ox), causing similar characteristic clinical signs and lesions...
  14. Deckardt K, Khol Parisini A, Zebeli Q. Peculiarities of enhancing resistant starch in ruminants using chemical methods: opportunities and challenges. Nutrients. 2013;5:1970-88 pubmed publisher
    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands...
  15. Innes E, Bartley P, Rocchi M, Benavidas Silvan J, Burrells A, Hotchkiss E, et al. Developing vaccines to control protozoan parasites in ruminants: dead or alive?. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:155-63 pubmed publisher
  16. Gressley T, Hall M, Armentano L. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:1120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the relationship of this disorder to other animal health disorders is needed...
  17. Reusken C, van den Wijngaard C, van Beek P, Beer M, Bouwstra R, Godeke G, et al. Lack of evidence for zoonotic transmission of Schmallenberg virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1746-54 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, in ruminants in Europe triggered a joint veterinary and public health response to address the possible consequences to human health...
  18. Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Servan de Almeida R, Libeau G. Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?. Vet Microbiol. 2013;165:38-44 pubmed publisher
    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages...
  19. Scaramuzzi R, Baird D, Campbell B, Driancourt M, Dupont J, Fortune J, et al. Regulation of folliculogenesis and the determination of ovulation rate in ruminants. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2011;23:444-67 pubmed publisher
    The paper presents an update of our 1993 model of ovarian follicular development in ruminants, based on knowledge gained from the past 15 years of research...
  20. Gardner I, Nielsen S, Whittington R, Collins M, Bakker D, Harris B, et al. Consensus-based reporting standards for diagnostic test accuracy studies for paratuberculosis in ruminants. Prev Vet Med. 2011;101:18-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study was to develop a modified version of STARD relevant to paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants. Examples and elaborations for each of the 25 items were developed by a panel of experts using a consensus-based ..
  21. Falconi C, Lopez Olvera J, Gortazar C. BTV infection in wild ruminants, with emphasis on red deer: a review. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:209-19 pubmed publisher
    The distribution of bluetongue virus has changed, possibly related to climate change. Vaccination of domestic ruminants is taking place throughout Europe to control BT expansion...
  22. Molento M, Fortes F, Pondelek D, Borges F, Chagas A, Torres Acosta J, et al. Challenges of nematode control in ruminants: focus on Latin America. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:126-32 pubmed publisher
    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) are ubiquitous and can cause severe injuries to infected animals and significant losses in farming revenues...
  23. Hoste H, Torres Acosta J. Non chemical control of helminths in ruminants: adapting solutions for changing worms in a changing world. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This new era of GIN management requires a new paradigm: to achieve enough control to reduce the negative impact of GIN infections enabling an optimum level of production, health and welfare...
  24. Lombard J. Epidemiology and economics of paratuberculosis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2011;27:525-35, v pubmed publisher
    ..The economic losses from the disease are primarily due to decreased milk production, decreased weaning weights in nursing young stock, increased replacement costs, and decreased slaughter value...
  25. Akanbi B, Mbah I, Kerry P. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on hides and faeces of ruminants at slaughter in two major abattoirs in Nigeria. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011;53:336-40 pubmed publisher
    To determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in hides and faeces of slaughtered ruminants in Nigeria.
  26. Snedeker K, Campbell M, Sargeant J. A systematic review of vaccinations to reduce the shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in the faeces of domestic ruminants. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59:126-38 pubmed publisher
    ..literature to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines in reducing faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 in ruminants. A systematic search of eight databases and land-grant university research reports using an algorithm adapted ..
  27. Mondal D, Sarma K, Saravanan M. Upcoming of the integrated tick control program of ruminants with special emphasis on livestock farming system in India. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative integrated approaches involve the use of eco-friendly cost effective sustainable methods in a strategic integrated manner...
  28. Herder V, Wohlsein P, Peters M, Hansmann F, Baumgartner W. Salient lesions in domestic ruminants infected with the emerging so-called Schmallenberg virus in Germany. Vet Pathol. 2012;49:588-91 pubmed publisher October 2011, is a novel emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe causing malformations and severe economic loss in ruminants. This report describes lesions in 40 sheep, 2 goats, and 16 cattle naturally infected with SBV as determined by ..
  29. Kingston Smith A, Davies T, Edwards J, Gay A, Mur L. Evidence of a role for foliar salicylic acid in regulating the rate of post-ingestive protein breakdown in ruminants and contributing to landscape pollution. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:3243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..6 kDa cysteine protease. These data suggest that proteolysis in leaves ingested by ruminants is modulated by SA...
  30. Bao J, Wang Q, Parida S, Liu C, Zhang L, Zhao W, et al. Complete genome sequence of a Peste des petits ruminants virus recovered from wild bharal in Tibet, China. J Virol. 2012;86:10885-6 pubmed publisher
    For the first time, here we announce the complete genome sequence of a field isolate of Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) derived from macerated rectal tissue of a free living bharal (Pseudois nayaur) that displayed clinical ..
  31. Fraser D, Theodor J. Comparing ungulate dietary proxies using discriminant function analysis. J Morphol. 2011;272:1513-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The success rates of the cranial dietary proxies are not increased substantially when ruminants and bovids are analyzed separately, and significance among the three dietary guilds is reduced when controlling ..
  32. Garcia H, Rodrigues A, Martinkovic F, Minervino A, Campaner M, Nunes V, et al. Multilocus phylogeographical analysis of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) genotypes from sympatric cattle and water buffalo populations supports evolutionary host constraint and close phylogenetic relationships with genotypes found in other ruminants. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:1385-96 pubmed publisher
    Species of the subgenus Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) have been reported in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants worldwide...
  33. Ceciliani F, Ceron J, Eckersall P, Sauerwein H. Acute phase proteins in ruminants. J Proteomics. 2012;75:4207-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Highlight points will include: - The structure and the functions of the main APPs in ruminants, as well as the regulatory mechanisms that trigger their systemic and local expression in both physiological and ..
  34. Blacklaws B. Small ruminant lentiviruses: immunopathogenesis of visna-maedi and caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;35:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines replication, immunity to and pathogenesis of these viruses and highlights major differences from and similarities to some of the other lentiviruses...
  35. Balandyté L, Brodard I, Frey J, Oevermann A, Abril C. Ruminant rhombencephalitis-associated Listeria monocytogenes alleles linked to a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis complex. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:8325-35 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes. The overall absence of inlG in clinical complex A and its presence in complex C isolates suggests that the InlG protein is more relevant for the survival of L. monocytogenes in the environment...
  36. Hansen P. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: maternal immunological adjustments to pregnancy and parturition in ruminants and possible implications for postpartum uterine health: is there a prepartum-postpartum nexus?. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:1639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..It is hypothesized that individual variation in immune adjustments to pregnancy and parturition and the reversal of these changes in the postpartum period are important determinants of susceptibility of the uterus to infection...
  37. Reischer G, Kollanur D, Vierheilig J, Wehrspaun C, Mach R, Sommer R, et al. Hypothesis-driven approach for the identification of fecal pollution sources in water resources. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:4038-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed approach provides a tool for careful decision-making in MST study design and might be applied on various types of catchments and pollution situations...
  38. Ricard G, McEwan N, Dutilh B, Jouany J, Macheboeuf D, Mitsumori M, et al. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:22 pubmed
    ..genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)...
  39. Bro Jørgensen J. The intensity of sexual selection predicts weapon size in male bovids. Evolution. 2007;61:1316-26 pubmed
    ..There was no correlation found between horn length and latitude, thus providing no support for the hypothesis that horns have a thermoregulatory function...
  40. O Handley R, Olson M. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2006;22:623-43 pubmed
    ..considerably with respect to their biology, both Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are common in ruminants, whereas Cryptosporidium andersoni is not. G...
  41. Post E, Pedersen C. Opposing plant community responses to warming with and without herbivores. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12353-8 pubmed publisher
  42. Bao J, Wang Z, Li L, Wu X, Sang P, Wu G, et al. Detection and genetic characterization of peste des petits ruminants virus in free-living bharals (Pseudois nayaur) in Tibet, China. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:238-40 pubmed publisher
    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an important viral disease of sheep and goats. The wildlife hosts of PPR, which may play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease, are not well characterized...
  43. Clauss M, Hofmann R, Streich W, Fickel J, Hummel J. Higher masseter muscle mass in grazing than in browsing ruminants. Oecologia. 2008;157:377-85 pubmed publisher
    Using cranioskeletal measurements, several studies have generated evidence that grazing ruminants have a more pronounced mastication apparatus, in terms of muscle insertion areas and protuberances, than browsing ruminants, with the ..
  44. Ruiz Fons F, Reyes García A, Alcaide V, Gortazar C. Spatial and temporal evolution of bluetongue virus in wild ruminants, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:951-3 pubmed publisher
    ..BTV seroprevalence was high and dispersed with time, with a south-to-north gradient. Our results suggest a complex epidemiology of BTV and underline the need for additional research on wildlife in Europe. ..
  45. Baron T, Bencsik A, Morignat E. Prions of ruminants show distinct splenotropisms in an ovine transgenic mouse model. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10310 pubmed publisher intra-cerebral route with a variety of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) from cattle and small ruminants. Splenic PrP(res) was consistently detected in classical BSE and in most natural scrapie sources, the ..
  46. Antunes N, Tavio M, Assunção P, Rosales R, Aquili V, de la Fe C, et al. In vitro susceptibilities of field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large colony type to 15 antimicrobials. Vet Microbiol. 2007;119:72-5 pubmed
    ..The most effective antimicrobials were fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and macrolides, with MIC values under 2 microg/ml. Resistance to nalidixic acid, gentamicin, streptomycin and spectinomycin was observed. ..
  47. Shanks O, Nietch C, Simonich M, Younger M, Reynolds D, Field K. Basin-wide analysis of the dynamics of fecal contamination and fecal source identification in Tillamook Bay, Oregon. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5537-46 pubmed
    ..Fecal sources were statistically linked more closely to ruminants than to humans; there was a 40% greater probability of detecting a ruminant source marker than a human source ..
  48. Adega F, Chaves R, Guedes Pinto H, Heslop Harrison J. Physical organization of the 1.709 satellite IV DNA family in Bovini and Tragelaphini tribes of the Bovidae: sequence and chromosomal evolution. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2006;114:140-6 pubmed
  49. Nabian S, Rahbari S, Changizi A, Shayan P. The distribution of Hyalomma spp. ticks from domestic ruminants in Iran. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:281-3 pubmed publisher
    ..dromedari was presented in Zones III and IV whereas H. schulzei was present in Zones II and III. During this study, the tick species collected are candidates for investigation as vectors of pathogenic organisms in Iran. ..
  50. Ealy A, Yang Q. Control of interferon-tau expression during early pregnancy in ruminants. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;61:95-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Although understanding the regulation of IFNT expression is far from complete, considerable progress has been made in uncovering how uterine-derived factors and key placental-specific transcriptional regulators control IFNT expression. ..
  51. Berger J. Fear, human shields and the redistribution of prey and predators in protected areas. Biol Lett. 2007;3:620-3 pubmed
    ..To interpret ecologically functioning systems within parks, we must now also account for indirect anthropogenic effects on species distributions and behaviour. ..
  52. Lans C, Turner N, Khan T, Brauer G, Boepple W. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2007;3:11 pubmed
    ..Treatments with high validity against endoparasites included those with Juniperus communis and Pinus ponderosa. Anxiety and pain are well treated with Melissa officinalis and Nepeta caesarea. ..
  53. Abdo Salem S, Waret Szkuta A, Roger F, Olive M, Saeed K, Chevalier V. Risk assessment of the introduction of Rift Valley fever from the Horn of Africa to Yemen via legal trade of small ruminants. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43:471-80 pubmed publisher
    ..assessed the likelihood of "re-introduction" of RVF into Yemen through the legal importation of small ruminants from the Horn of Africa...
  54. Clegg S, Turnbull P, Foggin C, Lindeque P. Massive outbreak of anthrax in wildlife in the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, Zimbabwe. Vet Rec. 2007;160:113-8 pubmed
    ..To the authors' knowledge, this is the first record of anthrax in wildlife in Zimbabwe. ..
  55. Hansen P. Regulation of immune cells in the uterus during pregnancy in ruminants. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:E30-1 pubmed
    ..The relevance of changes in uterine immune function to the reproductive and immune status of ruminants has not been fully established...
  56. Clauss M, Hofmann R, Fickel J, Streich W, Hummel J. The intraruminal papillation gradient in wild ruminants of different feeding types: Implications for rumen physiology. J Morphol. 2009;270:929-42 pubmed publisher
    Browsing and grazing ruminants are thought to differ in the degree their rumen contents are stratified-which may be due to different characteristics of their respective forages, to particular adaptations of the animals, or both...
  57. Králová Hromadová I, Bazsalovicsová E, Stefka J, Spakulová M, Vavrova S, Szemes T, et al. Multiple origins of European populations of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), a liver parasite of ruminants. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:373-83 pubmed publisher
    The giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, a liver parasite of free-living and domestic ruminants of Europe and North America, was analysed in order to determine the origin of European populations and to reveal the biogeography of this ..
  58. Gauss C, Dubey J, Vidal D, Cabezón O, Ruiz Fons F, Vicente J, et al. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and other wild ruminants from Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:193-200 pubmed
    ..Seroprevalence of T.gondii infection in other ruminants species was 24% of 79 fallow deer (Dama dama), 21.8% of 33 in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 33...
  59. Välimäki P, Madslien K, Malmsten J, Härkönen L, Härkönen S, Kaitala A, et al. Fennoscandian distribution of an important parasite of cervids, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), revisited. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..International multidisciplinary collaboration is needed to achieve a synthesis on the factors affecting expansion rates and to understand the effects of L. cervi on wildlife, human health, and the rural societies of Fennoscandia...
  60. Sanchez S, Garcia Sanchez A, Martinez R, Blanco J, Blanco J, Blanco M, et al. Detection and characterisation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wild ruminants. Vet J. 2009;180:384-8 pubmed publisher
    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important group of emerging pathogens, with ruminants recognised as their main natural reservoir...
  61. Alves M, Xiao L, Antunes F, Matos O. Distribution of Cryptosporidium subtypes in humans and domestic and wild ruminants in Portugal. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:287-92 pubmed Portugal, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum from HIV-infected patients, cattle, and wild ruminants were characterized by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene...
  62. Bartova E, Sedlak K, Pavlik I, Literak I. Prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild ruminants from the countryside or captivity in the Czech Republic. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1216-8 pubmed publisher
    In the Czech Republic, sera from 720 wild ruminants were examined for antibodies to Neospora caninum by screening competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT); the ..
  63. Gu Z, Zhao X, Li N, Wu C. Complete sequence of the yak (Bos grunniens) mitochondrial genome and its evolutionary relationship with other ruminants. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;42:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..54-13.85 million years before present, respectively. This is consistent with the paleontologyical data. Yak and sheep/goat divergent dating predicts that their divergence occurred at 13.14-27.99 million years before the present day...
  64. Crater A, Barboza P, Forster R. Regulation of rumen fermentation during seasonal fluctuations in food intake of muskoxen. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;146:233-41 pubmed
    ..4+/-5.8x10(9) mL(-1)). Allostatic set points probably alter the homeostatic range of conditions and the microbial diversity of fermentations in herbivores from highly seasonal environments. ..
  65. Das D, Saini M, Dhara A, Swarup D, Kumar S, Gupta P. Molecular characterization of toll-like receptor 2 of ruminants and comparative expression in nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) vs. buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Int J Immunogenet. 2008;35:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..exceeding synonymous substitutions indicated evolution of this receptor through positive selection among ruminants. Furthermore, basal TLR2 messenger RNA expression in different immune cells and tissues quantified by real-time ..
  66. Race B, Meade White K, Race R, Chesebro B. Prion infectivity in fat of deer with chronic wasting disease. J Virol. 2009;83:9608-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In ruminants, prion infectivity is found in central nervous system and lymphoid tissues, with smaller amounts in intestine ..
  67. Reischer G, Haider J, Sommer R, Stadler H, Keiblinger K, Hornek R, et al. Quantitative microbial faecal source tracking with sampling guided by hydrological catchment dynamics. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:2598-608 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the applicability of quantitative microbial source tracking methods and highlights the prerequisite of considering hydrological catchment dynamics in source tracking study design. ..
  68. Brown R, Yang Z. Bayesian dating of shallow phylogenies with a relaxed clock. Syst Biol. 2010;59:119-31 pubmed publisher
  69. Troell K, Engström A, Morrison D, Mattsson J, Hoglund J. Global patterns reveal strong population structure in Haemonchus contortus, a nematode parasite of domesticated ruminants. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1305-16 pubmed
    ..contortus, a parasitic nematode of small ruminants. A total of 150 individual adult worms representing 14 countries from all inhabited continents were analysed...
  70. Guha S, Goyal S, Kashyap V. Molecular phylogeny of musk deer: a genomic view with mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome b gene. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;42:585-97 pubmed
    ..Molecular dating based on sequence analysis shows that the radiation of Pecora occurred during the early Oligocene and that the majority of the pecoran families radiated and dispersed rapidly during the Oligocene/Miocene transition. ..
  71. Nightingale K, Fortes E, Ho A, Schukken Y, Grohn Y, Wiedmann M. Evaluation of farm management practices as risk factors for clinical listeriosis and fecal shedding of Listeria monocytogenes in ruminants. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:1808-14 pubmed
    ..To assess seasonal variation in prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes on ruminant farms and identify management practices associated with ruminant listeriosis and fecal shedding of L. monocytogenes...
  72. Stevenson K, Alvarez J, Bakker D, Biet F, de Juan L, Denham S, et al. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis across host species and European countries with evidence for transmission between wildlife and domestic ruminants. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:212 pubmed publisher
    ..Map) causes an infectious chronic enteritis (paratuberculosis or Johne's disease) principally of ruminants. The epidemiology of Map is poorly understood, particularly with respect to the role of wildlife reservoirs and ..
  73. Desnoyers M, Giger Reverdin S, Bertin G, Duvaux Ponter C, Sauvant D. Meta-analysis of the influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on ruminal parameters and milk production of ruminants. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:1620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..was applied to 110 papers, 157 experiments, and 376 treatments dealing with yeast supplementation in ruminants. The objective was first to highlight the major quantitative effects of live yeast supplementation on intake, ..
  74. Spencer T, Johnson G, Bazer F, Burghardt R, Palmarini M. Pregnancy recognition and conceptus implantation in domestic ruminants: roles of progesterone, interferons and endogenous retroviruses. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2007;19:65-78 pubmed
    ..reproductive efficiency by preventing embryonic losses that occur during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy in domestic ruminants provides the challenge to increase our knowledge of endometrial function and conceptus development.
  75. Hue I, Degrelle S, Campion E, Renard J. Gene expression in elongating and gastrulating embryos from ruminants. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2007;64:365-77 pubmed
    In ruminants, more than 30% of the embryonic losses observed after artificial insemination (AI) have an early origin, coincident with a marked elongation of the trophoblast which occurs before implantation...
  76. Castro Hermida J, Almeida A, González Warleta M, Correia da Costa J, Rumbo Lorenzo C, Mezo M. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis in healthy adult domestic ruminants. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:1443-8 pubmed
    ..and Giardia duodenalis in healthy adult domestic ruminants, faecal samples were collected from 379 cattle of between 3 and 13 years old, 446 sheep and 116 goats selected ..
  77. Murata K, Wakabayashi Y, Kitago M, Ohara H, Watanabe H, Tamogami S, et al. Modulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity by the pheromone in small ruminants. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:346-50 pubmed publisher
    In small ruminants, such as goats and sheep, a primer pheromone produced by males induces an out-of-seasonal ovulation in anoestrous females, a phenomenon known as the male effect...
  78. Bolger D, Newmark W, Morrison T, Doak D. The need for integrative approaches to understand and conserve migratory ungulates. Ecol Lett. 2008;11:63-77 pubmed
    ..We provide suggestions for avenues of future research and highlight areas where we believe rapid progress can be made by applying recent advances in theory, technology and analytical approaches...
  79. Jakobsen M, Overvad K, Dyerberg J, Heitmann B. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:173-82 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to describe the association between R-TFA intake and risk of CHD evaluating both the absolute and the energy-adjusted intake...
  80. Shanthalingam S, Srikumaran S. Intact signal peptide of CD18, the beta-subunit of beta2-integrins, renders ruminants susceptible to Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15448-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the signal sequence of CD18 of eight ruminants and five nonruminants revealed that the signal sequence of CD18 of ruminants contains "cleavage-inhibiting&..
  81. Woldehiwet Z. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ruminants in Europe. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:446-60 pubmed be used by workers in the UK until the recent reclassification of the granulocytic ehrlichiae affecting ruminants, horses, and humans as variants of the same species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum...
  82. Spencer T, Sandra O, Wolf E. Genes involved in conceptus-endometrial interactions in ruminants: insights from reductionism and thoughts on holistic approaches. Reproduction. 2008;135:165-79 pubmed publisher
    ..on expression of genes and provides insights into approaches for study of conceptus-endometrial interactions in ruminants with emphasis on the peri-implantation stage of pregnancy...
  83. Reischer G, Kasper D, Steinborn R, Mach R, Farnleitner A. Quantitative PCR method for sensitive detection of ruminant fecal pollution in freshwater and evaluation of this method in alpine karstic regions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5610-4 pubmed
    ..The marker was detected in water samples from a karstic catchment area at levels matching a gradient from negligible to considerable ruminant fecal influence (from not detectable to 10(5) marker equivalents per liter)...
  84. Ketzis J, Vercruysse J, Stromberg B, Larsen M, Athanasiadou S, Houdijk J. Evaluation of efficacy expectations for novel and non-chemical helminth control strategies in ruminants. Vet Parasitol. 2006;139:321-35 pubmed
    The interest in novel methods of controlling helminth infections in ruminants is driven primarily by the development of parasite resistance to currently available anthelmintics...
  85. Alekseev K, Vlasova A, Jung K, Hasoksuz M, Zhang X, Halpin R, et al. Bovine-like coronaviruses isolated from four species of captive wild ruminants are homologous to bovine coronaviruses, based on complete genomic sequences. J Virol. 2008;82:12422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative genetic analysis of CoVs of captive wild ruminants with BCoV strains suggests that no specific genomic markers are present that allow discrimination between the ..
  86. Singh B, Gautam S, Verma V, Kumar M, Singh B. Metagenomics in animal gastrointestinal ecosystem: Potential biotechnological prospects. Anaerobe. 2008;14:138-44 pubmed publisher