new world camelids

Summary

Summary: Camelidae of the Americas. The extant species are those originating from South America and include alpacas, llamas, guanicos, and vicunas.

Top Publications

  1. Coppieters K, Dreier T, Silence K, de Haard H, Lauwereys M, Casteels P, et al. Formatted anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha VHH proteins derived from camelids show superior potency and targeting to inflamed joints in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:1856-66 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to explore preclinically the application of camelid anti-TNF VHH proteins, which are single-domain antigen binding (VHH) proteins homologous to human immunoglobulin V(H) domains, as TNF antagonists in a mouse model of RA...
  2. Goldman E, Anderson G, Liu J, Delehanty J, Sherwood L, Osborn L, et al. Facile generation of heat-stable antiviral and antitoxin single domain antibodies from a semisynthetic llama library. Anal Chem. 2006;78:8245-55 pubmed
    ..The ability to rapidly select such rugged antibodies will enhance the reliability of immunoassays by extending shelf life and the capacity to function in hostile environments...
  3. Thomassen Y, Verkleij A, Boonstra J, Verrips C. Specific production rate of VHH antibody fragments by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is correlated with growth rate, independent of nutrient limitation. J Biotechnol. 2005;118:270-7 pubmed
    ..From our results we conclude that to obtain a maximal amount of VHH per kilogram biomass per hour, VHH production should be done in carbon limited continuous cultures at high specific growth rates. ..
  4. Harmsen M, van Solt C, Fijten H, van Keulen L, Rosalia R, Weerdmeester K, et al. Passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease. Vet Microbiol. 2007;120:193-206 pubmed
    ..This lack of correlation between in vitro neutralization and in vivo protection lends further credence to the notion that opsonophagocytosis of FMDV is important for protection in vivo...
  5. Chartier A, Raz V, Sterrenburg E, Verrips C, van der Maarel S, Simonelig M. Prevention of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy by muscular expression of Llama single-chain intrabodies in vivo. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach promotes the identification of intrabodies with high therapeutic value and highlights the potential of natural single-chain intrabodies in treating protein aggregation diseases...
  6. Ratto M, Huanca W, Singh J, Adams G. Comparison of the effect of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas, alpacas, and bulls. Theriogenology. 2006;66:1102-6 pubmed
    ..taurus. The interspecies effects of seminal plasma on ovulation and luteal development provide rationale for the hypothesis that OIF is conserved among both spontaneous and induced ovulating species...
  7. Alvarez Rueda N, Behar G, Ferre V, Pugniere M, Roquet F, Gastinel L, et al. Generation of llama single-domain antibodies against methotrexate, a prototypical hapten. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:1680-90 pubmed
    ..This type of single-domain antibodies offers advantages compared to murine recombinant antibodies in terms of production rate and sequence similarity to the human IGHV3 subgroup genes...
  8. Muyldermans S, Baral T, Retamozzo V, De Baetselier P, De Genst E, Kinne J, et al. Camelid immunoglobulins and nanobody technology. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;128:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We have successfully developed recombinant Nbs for research purposes, as probe in biosensors, to diagnose infections, and to treat diseases like cancer or trypanosomosis...
  9. Goldman E, Anderson G, Conway J, Sherwood L, Fech M, Vo B, et al. Thermostable llama single domain antibodies for detection of botulinum A neurotoxin complex. Anal Chem. 2008;80:8583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique properties of these sdAb may provide advantages for many diagnostic applications where long-term storage and in-line monitoring require very rugged yet highly specific recognition elements...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Garaicoechea L, Olichon A, Marcoppido G, Wigdorovitz A, Mozgovoj M, Saif L, et al. Llama-derived single-chain antibody fragments directed to rotavirus VP6 protein possess broad neutralizing activity in vitro and confer protection against diarrhea in mice. J Virol. 2008;82:9753-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Neutralizing VHH directed to VP6 promise to become an essential tool for the prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea...
  2. Pant N, Hultberg A, Zhao Y, Svensson L, Pan Hammarstrom Q, Johansen K, et al. Lactobacilli expressing variable domain of llama heavy-chain antibody fragments (lactobodies) confer protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:1580-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore developed a system for passive immunotherapy in which recombinant lactobacilli constitutively express neutralizing variable domain of llama heavy-chain (VHH) antibody fragments against rotavirus...
  3. Wesolowski J, Alzogaray V, Reyelt J, Unger M, Juarez K, Urrutia M, et al. Single domain antibodies: promising experimental and therapeutic tools in infection and immunity. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2009;198:157-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the results of several recent proof-of-principle studies that open the exciting perspective of using sdAbs for modulating immune functions and for targeting toxins and microbes...
  4. Tremblay D, Tegoni M, Spinelli S, Campanacci V, Blangy S, Huyghe C, et al. Receptor-binding protein of Lactococcus lactis phages: identification and characterization of the saccharide receptor-binding site. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2400-10 pubmed
    ..Other saccharides bind RBP with comparable high affinity. These data prove the saccharidic nature of the bacterial receptor recognized by phage p2 and identify the position of its binding site in the RBP head domain...
  5. Hulstein J, de Groot P, Silence K, Veyradier A, Fijnheer R, Lenting P. A novel nanobody that detects the gain-of-function phenotype of von Willebrand factor in ADAMTS13 deficiency and von Willebrand disease type 2B. Blood. 2005;106:3035-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it could provide a tool to investigate the role of VWF in the development of thrombocytopenia in various diseases...
  6. Behar G, Siberil S, Groulet A, Chames P, Pugniere M, Boix C, et al. Isolation and characterization of anti-FcgammaRIII (CD16) llama single-domain antibodies that activate natural killer cells. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2008;21:1-10 pubmed
    ..These anti-FcgammaRIII sdAbs represent versatile tools for generating bsAbs under various formats, able to recruit FcgammaRIII killer cells to target and destroy tumor cells...
  7. Groot A, El Khattabi M, Sachs N, van der Groep P, van der Wall E, van Diest P, et al. Reverse proteomic antibody screening identifies anti adhesive VHH targeting VLA-3. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2022-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach provides a fast and efficient method to screen for novel cell surface markers on normal and tumor cells that may find diagnostic or therapeutic application in disease management or treatment...
  8. Koch Nolte F, Reyelt J, Schössow B, Schwarz N, Scheuplein F, Rothenburg S, et al. Single domain antibodies from llama effectively and specifically block T cell ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.2 in vivo. FASEB J. 2007;21:3490-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings constitute a proof of principle that opens up a new avenue for targeting leukocyte ecto-enzymes in vivo and that can serve as a model also for developing new antidotes against ADP-ribosylating toxins...
  9. Olichon A, Schweizer D, Muyldermans S, de Marco A. Heating as a rapid purification method for recovering correctly-folded thermotolerant VH and VHH domains. BMC Biotechnol. 2007;7:7 pubmed
    ..Their heat tolerance is a particularly interesting feature because it has been recently related to both high yields during recombinant expression and selective purification of folded protein...
  10. Riek A, Gerken M, Moors E. Measurement of milk intake in suckling llamas (Lama glama) using deuterium oxide dilution. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:867-75 pubmed
    ..83). Combined with milk composition data, the present milk intake estimations at different stages of the lactation can be used to establish recommendations for nutrient and energy requirements of suckling llamas...
  11. Hultberg A, Tremblay D, de Haard H, Verrips T, Moineau S, Hammarstrom L, et al. Lactobacillli expressing llama VHH fragments neutralise Lactococcus phages. BMC Biotechnol. 2007;7:58 pubmed
  12. Olichon A, Surrey T. Selection of genetically encoded fluorescent single domain antibodies engineered for efficient expression in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36314-20 pubmed
    ..coli and furthermore suggests that fusions of recombinant VHH with other cytosolic proteins are now possible, creating new opportunities for biotechnology and biomedical research...
  13. Oevermann A, Pfyffer G, Zanolari P, Meylan M, Robert N. Generalized tuberculosis in llamas (Lama glama) due to Mycobacterium microti. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1818-21 pubmed
    ..The AFB were identified by spoligotyping as Mycobacterium microti, vole type. Infection caused by M. microti should be considered in the differential diagnosis of debilitating diseases in New World camelids.
  14. Zhang J, Tanha J, Hirama T, Khieu N, To R, Tong Sevinc H, et al. Pentamerization of single-domain antibodies from phage libraries: a novel strategy for the rapid generation of high-avidity antibody reagents. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:49-56 pubmed
    ..It is expected that pentavalent sdAbs will have general applicability in proteomics, immunochemical staining, cancer diagnosis and other applications in which antigens are presented multivalently...
  15. Tibary A, Anouassi A, Khatir H. Update on reproductive biotechnologies in small ruminants and camelids. Theriogenology. 2005;64:618-38 pubmed
    ..This paper discusses factors affecting in vitro embryo production in small ruminants and camelids, as well as preliminary results with the technique of spermatogonial stem cell transplantation...
  16. Joosten V, Roelofs M, van den Dries N, Goosen T, Verrips C, van den Hondel C, et al. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (V(HH)) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP). J Biotechnol. 2005;120:347-59 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in contrast to R9-ARP, ARP-R9 bound to RR6 did not show peroxidase activity anymore. These results indicate that fusion of ARP to the C-terminus of the antibody fragment V(HH) R9 (R9-ARP) is the preferred orientation...
  17. Daley L, Gagliardo L, Duffy M, Smith M, Appleton J. Application of monoclonal antibodies in functional and comparative investigations of heavy-chain immunoglobulins in new world camelids. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:380-6 pubmed
    ..Our data document the utility of these MAbs in functional and physiologic investigations of the immune systems of New World camelids.
  18. Stewart C, Mackenzie C, Hall J. Isolation, characterization and pentamerization of alpha-cobrotoxin specific single-domain antibodies from a naïve phage display library: preliminary findings for antivenom development. Toxicon. 2007;49:699-709 pubmed
  19. Anderson G, Goldman E. TNT detection using llama antibodies and a two-step competitive fluid array immunoassay. J Immunol Methods. 2008;339:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This method was demonstrated on TNT contaminated soil extracts using both the llama IgG1 and the mouse monoclonal validating the utility of method for analysis of field samples...
  20. Gainkam L, Huang L, Caveliers V, Keyaerts M, Hernot S, Vaneycken I, et al. Comparison of the biodistribution and tumor targeting of two 99mTc-labeled anti-EGFR nanobodies in mice, using pinhole SPECT/micro-CT. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:788-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the in vivo tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) Nanobodies, (99m)Tc-7C12 and (99m)Tc-7D12...
  21. Krüger C, Hultberg A, Marcotte H, Hermans P, Bezemer S, Frenken L, et al. Therapeutic effect of llama derived VHH fragments against Streptococcus mutans on the development of dental caries. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:732-7 pubmed
    ..No additional therapeutic effect of GOx was observed. Our results suggest that llama VHH antibodies may be a potential benefit as prophylaxis against dental caries...
  22. Lafaye P, Achour I, England P, Duyckaerts C, Rougeon F. Single-domain antibodies recognize selectively small oligomeric forms of amyloid beta, prevent Abeta-induced neurotoxicity and inhibit fibril formation. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:695-704 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirms that VHHs may recognize non-conventional epitopes and illustrates their potential for the immunodiagnostic of diseases due to protein accumulation...
  23. Lyashchenko K, Greenwald R, Esfandiari J, Meylan M, Burri I, Zanolari P. Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti. Vet Microbiol. 2007;125:265-73 pubmed
    Antibody responses in New World camelids (NWC) infected with Mycobacterium microti were studied by two serological methods, multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow-based rapid test (RT)...
  24. Harmsen M, van Solt C, Hoogendoorn A, van Zijderveld F, Niewold T, Van der Meulen J. Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae specific llama single-domain antibody fragments effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion in vitro but poorly protect against diarrhoea. Vet Microbiol. 2005;111:89-98 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have shown that an antibody fragment that effectively inhibited in vitro ETEC adhesion to intestinal brush borders poorly protected piglets against experimental ETEC infection...
  25. Wolfson W. Ablynx makes nanobodies from llama bodies. Chem Biol. 2006;13:1243-4 pubmed
  26. Groot A, Verheesen P, Westerlaken E, Gort E, van der Groep P, Bovenschen N, et al. Identification by phage display of single-domain antibody fragments specific for the ODD domain in hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. Lab Invest. 2006;86:345-56 pubmed
    ..These are the first single-domain antibody fragments that may be used in exploration of HIF-1alpha as a possible therapeutic target through molecular applications...
  27. Kapil S, Yeary T, Evermann J. Viral diseases of new world camelids. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2009;25:323-37 pubmed publisher
    The increased popularity and population of New World camelids in the United States requires the development of a broader base of knowledge of the health and disease parameters for these animals by the veterinary livestock practitioner...
  28. Serruys B, Van Houtte F, Verbrugghe P, Leroux Roels G, Vanlandschoot P. Llama-derived single-domain intrabodies inhibit secretion of hepatitis B virions in mice. Hepatology. 2009;49:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In a hydrodynamics-based HBV mouse model, these intrabodies caused a marked reduction in HBsAg concentrations and a 10- to >100-fold reduction in the concentration of HBV virions in plasma...
  29. Harmsen M, Van Solt C, Fijten H, Van Setten M. Prolonged in vivo residence times of llama single-domain antibody fragments in pigs by binding to porcine immunoglobulins. Vaccine. 2005;23:4926-34 pubmed
    ..Four pIgG-binding VHH2s were administered to pigs and showed a 100-fold extended in vivo residence times as compared to a control VHH2 that does not bind to pIgG. This could provide the basis for therapeutic application of VHHs in pigs...
  30. Groot A, Gort E, van der Wall E, van Diest P, Vooijs M. Conditional inactivation of HIF-1 using intrabodies. Cell Oncol. 2008;30:397-409 pubmed
    ..Inducible intrabody targeting is a highly specific strategy for temporal protein inactivation and may have applications for disease treatment...
  31. Winichayakul S, Pernthaner A, Scott R, Vlaming R, Roberts N. Head-to-tail fusions of camelid antibodies can be expressed in planta and bind in rumen fluid. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2009;53:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The plant-produced VHH did not appear to be any more stable in rumen fluid than other soluble plant proteins; however, it was able to bind equally well to the antigen in the presence or absence of rumen fluid...
  32. Szynol A, de Soet J, Sieben van Tuyl E, Bos J, Frenken L. Bactericidal effects of a fusion protein of llama heavy-chain antibodies coupled to glucose oxidase on oral bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3390-5 pubmed
    ..mutans within 20 min in the presence of lactoperoxidase and potassium iodide. These findings demonstrate that the fusion protein GOx-V(HH) is potentially valuable in the selective killing of target bacteria such as S. mutans...
  33. Verheesen P, Roussis A, de Haard H, Groot A, Stam J, den Dunnen J, et al. Reliable and controllable antibody fragment selections from Camelid non-immune libraries for target validation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1307-19 pubmed
  34. Habicht G, Haupt C, Friedrich R, Hortschansky P, Sachse C, Meinhardt J, et al. Directed selection of a conformational antibody domain that prevents mature amyloid fibril formation by stabilizing Abeta protofibrils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19232-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest possible applications of B10 in the detection of amyloid fibrils or in the modulation of their formation...
  35. Sherwood L, Osborn L, Carrion R, Patterson J, Hayhurst A. Rapid assembly of sensitive antigen-capture assays for Marburg virus, using in vitro selection of llama single-domain antibodies, at biosafety level 4. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 2:S213-9 pubmed
    ..Our strategy highlights the potential of direct antibody selection on filoviruses as a guide for effective and fast diagnostic development...
  36. El Khattabi M, Adams H, Heezius E, Hermans P, Detmers F, Maassen B, et al. Llama single-chain antibody that blocks lipopolysaccharide binding and signaling: prospects for therapeutic applications. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:1079-86 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it was found to remove LPS efficiently from aqueous solutions, including serum. The selected anti-LPS VHH is a leading candidate for therapies against LPS-mediated sepsis...
  37. van der Vaart J, Pant N, Wolvers D, Bezemer S, Hermans P, Bellamy K, et al. Reduction in morbidity of rotavirus induced diarrhoea in mice by yeast produced monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments. Vaccine. 2006;24:4130-7 pubmed
    ..They could provide a treatment modality for the moderation of human rotavirus infections having a significant impact on the course of an often fatal childhood disease...
  38. Klooster R, Maassen B, Stam J, Hermans P, Ten Haaft M, Detmers F, et al. Improved anti-IgG and HSA affinity ligands: clinical application of VHH antibody technology. J Immunol Methods. 2007;324:1-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, as VHHs are single protein chains, they can be coupled relatively easily to solid matrices. These three factors are important for developing affinity purification medication...
  39. Ratier L, Urrutia M, Paris G, Zarebski L, Frasch A, Goldbaum F. Relevance of the diversity among members of the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase family analyzed with camelids single-domain antibodies. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3524 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi to evade the host immune system...
  40. Danuser R, Vogt H, Kaufmann T, Peterhans E, Zanoni R. Seroprevalence and characterization of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2009;151:109-17 pubmed publisher
    The seroprevalence of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland was determined...
  41. Dolk E, van der Vaart M, Lutje Hulsik D, Vriend G, de Haard H, Spinelli S, et al. Isolation of llama antibody fragments for prevention of dandruff by phage display in shampoo. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:442-50 pubmed
    ..The combination of the unique properties of VHHs together with applied phage display and protein engineering is a powerful method for obtaining highly stable VHHs that can be used in a wide range of applications...
  42. Forsman A, Beirnaert E, Aasa Chapman M, Hoorelbeke B, Hijazi K, Koh W, et al. Llama antibody fragments with cross-subtype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-neutralizing properties and high affinity for HIV-1 gp120. J Virol. 2008;82:12069-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Antienvelope VHH might also prove useful in defining neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 envelope proteins, with implications for HIV-1 vaccine design...
  43. de Haard H, Bezemer S, Ledeboer A, Müller W, Boender P, Moineau S, et al. Llama antibodies against a lactococcal protein located at the tip of the phage tail prevent phage infection. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4531-41 pubmed
    ..This result and the inhibition of cell lysis by anti-ORF18 protein antibodies support the conclusion that the ORF18 protein plays a crucial role in the interaction of bacteriophage p2 with the surface receptors of Lactococcus lactis...
  44. Lam A, Pardon E, Korotkov K, Hol W, Steyaert J. Nanobody-aided structure determination of the EpsI:EpsJ pseudopilin heterodimer from Vibrio vulnificus. J Struct Biol. 2009;166:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearly, nanobodies accelerate dramatically the crystallization of recalcitrant protein complexes and can reveal conformational flexibility not observed before...
  45. Harmsen M, Fijten H, Dekker A, Eble P. Passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin. Vet Microbiol. 2008;132:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that immunotherapy using bispecific VHH2s binding to FMDV and pIg is possible in principle, but should be improved by increasing VHH2 dosage or using more potent VHH2s...
  46. Maass D, Sepulveda J, Pernthaner A, Shoemaker C. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs). J Immunol Methods. 2007;324:13-25 pubmed
  47. Harrison R, Hasson S, Harmsen M, Laing G, Conrath K, Theakston R. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera. Toxicon. 2006;47:364-8 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, we report for the first time that camelid serum contains a non-IgG, highly potent inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage...
  48. Harmsen M, van Solt C, van Zijderveld van Bemmel A, Niewold T, van Zijderveld F. Selection and optimization of proteolytically stable llama single-domain antibody fragments for oral immunotherapy. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;72:544-51 pubmed
    ..K922 is thus a promising candidate for prevention of piglet diarrhoea. Furthermore, our findings could guide selection and improvement by genetic engineering of other recombinant antibody fragments for oral use...
  49. Janssens R, Dekker S, Hendriks R, Panayotou G, van Remoortere A, San J, et al. Generation of heavy-chain-only antibodies in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15130-5 pubmed
    ..Such cells are not subject to negative selection. The mice produce a full antibody repertoire and provide a previously undescribed avenue to produce specific human HCAb in the future...
  50. Roovers R, Laeremans T, Huang L, De Taeye S, Verkleij A, Revets H, et al. Efficient inhibition of EGFR signaling and of tumour growth by antagonistic anti-EFGR Nanobodies. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2007;56:303-317 pubmed
    ..The results show that functional phage antibody selection, coupled to the rational design of Nanobodies, permits the rapid development of novel anti-cancer antibody-based therapeutics...
  51. Zarebski L, Urrutia M, Goldbaum F. Llama single domain antibodies as a tool for molecular mimicry. J Mol Biol. 2005;349:814-24 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that llama anti-Id single domain antibodies would be an excellent tool for molecular mimicry studies...
  52. Harmsen M, de Haard H. Properties, production, and applications of camelid single-domain antibody fragments. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;77:13-22 pubmed
    ..This minireview offers an overview of (1) their properties as compared to conventional antibodies, (2) their production in microorganisms, with a focus on yeasts, and (3) their therapeutic applications...
  53. Adams G, Ratto M, Huanca W, Singh J. Ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:452-7 pubmed
    ..01). Results document the existence of a potent factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas that elicited a surge in circulating concentrations of LH and induced an ovulatory and luteotropic response...
  54. van de Laar T, Visser C, Holster M, López C, Kreuning D, Sierkstra L, et al. Increased heterologous protein production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on ethanol as sole carbon source. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007;96:483-94 pubmed
    ..This leads to the suggestion that the ethanol effect on improved heterologous protein production is linked to a stress response and folding and secretion efficiency...
  55. Bianchi C, Meikle A, Sartore I, Gonzalez F, Aba M. Uterine estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor during the follicular and luteal phase in llamas. Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;99:117-26 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that in llamas, like in other ruminants, estradiol has a stimulatory effect while progesterone downregulates the ERalpha and PR and that the receptor is cell type specific...