Summary: An order of mammals which consists of the even-toed ungulates and includes both RUMINANTS and SWINE.

Top Publications

  1. Lin C, Sun Y, Liu C, Yang P, Chang L, Cheng I, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome and dating evolutionary divergence within Artiodactyla. Gene. 1999;236:107-14 pubmed
    ..For evaluating the possible evolutionary relationships between Artiodactyla and Cetacea, the nucleotide substitutions and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes were aligned by ..
  2. Arctander P, Johansen C, Coutellec Vreto M. Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini). Mol Biol Evol. 1999;16:1724-39 pubmed
    ..The southern refugium furthermore seems to have been the only place where the wildebeest has survived...
  3. Kostia S, Ruohonen Lehto M, Väinölä R, Varvio S. Phylogenetic information in inter-SINE and inter-SSR fingerprints of the artiodactyla and evolution of the bov-tA SINE. Heredity (Edinb). 2000;84 ( Pt 1):37-45 pubmed
    ..Most individual elements probably date back to the cervid-bovid ancestor >25 Myr ago, which is in line with the observed fingerprint distributions...
  4. Reza Shariflou M, Moran C. Conservation within artiodactyls of an AATA interrupt in the IGF-I microsatellite for 19-35 million years. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:665-9 pubmed
    ..Apart from this deletion, the 5' flank of the microsatellite is highly conserved in Artiodactyl species...
  5. Boisserie J, Lihoreau F, Brunet M. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1537-41 pubmed
    The origin of late Neogene Hippopotamidae (Artiodactyla) involves one of the most serious conflicts between comparative anatomy and molecular biology: is Artiodactyla paraphyletic? Molecular comparisons indicate that Cetacea should be the ..
  6. Hoberg E. Coevolution and biogeography among Nematodirinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) Lagomorpha and Artiodactyla (Mammalia): exploring determinants of history and structure for the northern fauna across the holarctic. J Parasitol. 2005;91:358-69 pubmed Lagomorpha, with evidence for a minimum of 1 host-switching-event and subsequent radiation in the Artiodactyla. Diversification may reflect vicariance of respective faunas along with episodic or cyclical range expansion ..
  7. Price S, Bininda Emonds O, Gittleman J. A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla). Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2005;80:445-73 pubmed
    ..we present the first phylogeny to include all 290 extant species of the Cetacea (whales and dolphins) and Artiodactyla (even-toed hoofed mammals). At the family-level, the supertree is fully resolved...
  8. Mayor P, Le Pendu Y, Guimaraes D, da Silva J, Tavares H, Tello M, et al. A health evaluation in a colony of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in the Eastern Amazon. Res Vet Sci. 2006;81:246-53 pubmed
    ..and 9.8% (4/41) animals had antibodies to two different Leptospira spp. serovars, butembo and autumnalis. This is the first survey of morbidity and mortality in captive collared peccaries in the Amazon region...
  9. Bercovitch F, Bashaw M, del Castillo S. Sociosexual behavior, male mating tactics, and the reproductive cycle of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. Horm Behav. 2006;50:314-21 pubmed
    ..We propose that male giraffe adopt a roaming reproductive strategy with their large size, enabling them to search for and mate guard fertile females while minimizing metabolic costs...

More Information

Publications170 found, 100 shown here

  1. Perelygin A, Zharkikh A, Scherbik S, Brinton M. The mammalian 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase gene family: evidence for concerted evolution of paralogous Oas1 genes in Rodentia and Artiodactyla. J Mol Evol. 2006;63:562-76 pubmed
    ..paralogous 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase 1 genes was obtained in rodents (Rodentia) and even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)...
  2. Bashaw M, Bloomsmith M, Maple T, Bercovitch F. The structure of social relationships among captive female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). J Comp Psychol. 2007;121:46-53 pubmed
    ..The social structure of this captive herd is influenced by social relationships between individual adult females, and the social behavior of individual females should be examined more closely in the wild...
  3. Iso Touru T, Kantanen J, Li M, Gizejewski Z, Vilkki J. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:172 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR...
  4. Jackowiak H, Frackowiak H, Yoshimura K, Kumakura M, Kobayashi K. Comparative morphological study on the tongue and lingual papillae of horses (Perissodactyla) and selected ruminantia (Artiodactyla). Ital J Anat Embryol. 2005;110:55-63 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the fine structure of horse tongues may display a more primitive pattern than that present in goats and cattle...
  5. Jónsson S, Haché G, Stenglein M, Fahrenkrug S, Andresdottir V, Harris R. Evolutionarily conserved and non-conserved retrovirus restriction activities of artiodactyl APOBEC3F proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:5683-94 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies indicate that some properties of the mammal-specific, APOBEC3-dependent retroelement restriction system are necessary and conserved, but others are simultaneously modular and highly adaptable...
  6. Vicente Fiel S, Palacin I, Santolaria P, Yaniz J. A comparative study of sperm morphometric subpopulations in cattle, goat, sheep and pigs using a computer-assisted fluorescence method (CASMA-F). Anim Reprod Sci. 2013;139:182-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Graham L, Reid K, Webster T, Richards M, Joseph S. Endocrine patterns associated with reproduction in the Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) as assessed by fecal progestagen analysis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2002;128:74-81 pubmed
    ..The majority of births (63.6%) occurring during the summer rainy season and the inconsistency of lactational anovulation suggested the possibility of environmental influences on reproduction. ..
  8. Noon T, Heffelfinger J, Olding R, Wesche S, Reggiardo C. Serologic survey for antibodies to canine distemper virus in collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) populations in Arizona. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:221-3 pubmed
    ..Neutralizing antibody to CDV was detected in 58% of the serum samples suggesting that CDV infection is probably enzootic in the collared peccary populations of southern Arizona. ..
  9. Williams D, Murison P, Hill C. Dystocia in a Rothschild giraffe leading to a caesarean section. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2007;54:199-202 pubmed
    ..This paper details the surgical and anaesthetic procedures carried out performing a caesarean section to remove a dead male calf and the successful recovery of the giraffe. ..
  10. Lynch H, Zeigler S, Wells L, Ballou J, Fagan W. Survivorship patterns in captive mammalian populations: implications for estimating population growth rates. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:2334-45 pubmed
    ..These differences likely reflect a convolution of true differences in captive vs. wild survivorship and the difficulty of observing juvenile mortality in field studies. ..
  11. Badlangana N, Adams J, Manger P. A comparative assessment of the size of the frontal air sinus in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2011;294:931-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the volume of the frontal sinus in the giraffe is likely to be unique among artiodactyls, and the potential function and evolution we consider in light of several previously articulated hypotheses. ..
  12. Bayliss P, Choquenot D. The numerical response: rate of increase and food limitation in herbivores and predators. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2002;357:1233-48 pubmed
  13. Yappert M, Rujoi M, Borchman D, Vorobyov I, Estrada R. Glycero- versus sphingo-phospholipids: correlations with human and non-human mammalian lens growth. Exp Eye Res. 2003;76:725-34 pubmed
    ..This compositional difference is proposed to contribute to the slow multiplication and elongation of human lens cells. ..
  14. Pérez Barbería F, Gordon I. Gregariousness increases brain size in ungulates. Oecologia. 2005;145:41-52 pubmed
    ..The ultimate cause that could have triggered the co-evolution between gestation length and brain size remains unclear. ..
  15. Szafranska B, Panasiewicz G, Majewska M. Biodiversity of multiple Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) family: gene cloning and chorionic protein purification in domestic and wild eutherians (Placentalia)--a review. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2006;46:481-502 pubmed
    ..The complex and large PAG family is restricted to the Artiodactyla order, although single PAG-like genes have also been identified in species outside the Artiodactyla...
  16. Van Tuinen M, Hadly E. Calibration and error in placental molecular clocks: a conservative approach using the cetartiodactyl fossil record. J Hered. 2004;95:200-8 pubmed
    ..Our conclusions need corroboration across other frequently used fossil anchor points, but also with more genetic partitions on the linear relationship between molecular substitutions and geologic time. ..
  17. Garijo M, Ortiz J, Ruiz de Ibáñez M. Helminths in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis xgiraffa) from a zoo in Spain. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2004;71:153-6 pubmed
    ..Although its occurrence is unusual in this host, C. mentulatus was the most abundant nematode in our giraffe. This parasite has been related to disease, and even death, in several wild ruminants. ..
  18. Shultz S, Dunbar R. Both social and ecological factors predict ungulate brain size. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273:207-15 pubmed
  19. Rossi Júnior J, Guião Leite F, Gioso M, Falqueiro L, Fecchio R. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus. J Vet Dent. 2009;26:168-70 pubmed
    ..This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth. ..
  20. Jang K, Hwang U. Mitochondrial genome of the Korean musk deer Moschus moschiferus (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia, Moschidae). Mitochondrial DNA. 2010;21:65-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The CR was located between the tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe) genes and is 923 bp in length. The typical conserved domains such as ETAS1 and 2, CSB1 and 2, and TAS were identified in the CR of M. moschiferus. ..
  21. Sayler K, Loftis A, Beatty S, Boyce C, Garrison E, Clemons B, et al. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Host-Seeking Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) and Odocoileus virginianus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Florida. J Med Entomol. 2016;53:949-956 pubmed
    ..The molecular and serological evidence of these microbes underscore their zoonotic potential in this region. ..
  22. Konow N, Herrel A, Ross C, Williams S, German R, Sanford C, et al. Evolution of muscle activity patterns driving motions of the jaw and hyoid during chewing in Gnathostomes. Integr Comp Biol. 2011;51:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement. ..
  23. Gatesy J, Hayashi C, Cronin M, Arctander P. Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:954-63 pubmed
    ..Paleontological information is grossly inconsistent with this hypothesis. If the casein phylogeny is accurate, large gaps in the fossil record as well as extensive morphological reversals and convergences must be acknowledged...
  24. Cseh S, Solti L. Importance of assisted reproductive technologies in the conservation of wild, rare or indigenous ungulates: review article. Acta Vet Hung. 2000;48:313-23 pubmed
    ..Some of these procedures are already being exploited in the breeding of farm ungulates, but more basic information about the reproductive patterns of wild, rare and indigenous animal species is needed before the routine use of ARTs. ..
  25. Davis M, Langan J, Mylniczenko N, Benson K, Lamberski N, Ramer J. Colonic obstruction in three captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:181-8 pubmed
    ..Abdominal exploratory surgery will likely be necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Based on a small number of cases, gastrointestinal obstruction has a poor prognosis in giraffe. ..
  26. Hu J, Huang S, Chen M, Wen T, Esch G, Liu Q, et al. Sarcocystis tuagulusi, n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Williamson's mouse deer (Tuagulus williamsoni) (Artiodactyla:Tragulidae). Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A phyogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 sequences suggested S. tuagulusi is closely related to Sarcocystis species from ruminants that employ felids as definitive hosts. ..
  27. Young B. Ruminant cold stress: effect on production. J Anim Sci. 1983;57:1601-7 pubmed
    ..Much of the reduced productivity, and in particular the reduced nutritional efficiency, observed in ruminant production systems during the colder part of the year, can be accounted for by these adaptive changes. ..
  28. Bouts T, Vordermeier M, Flach E, Routh A. Positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of Mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:536-42 pubmed
    ..It is therefore possible that false-positive reactions were obtained. These results highlight the difficulty of diagnosing tuberculosis in the absence of pathology and the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria. ..
  29. Emura S, Okumura T, Chen H. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the sitatunga. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2011;88:23-7 pubmed
    ..The connective tissue core of the vallate papilla was covered with numerous small spines. These findings indicate that the tongue of the sitatunga is similar to that of the blackbuck and Barbary sheep. ..
  30. Metz M, Smith D, Vucetich J, Stahler D, Peterson R. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..e. elk calves, deer). We discuss how these patterns affect our overall understanding of predator and prey population dynamics. ..
  31. Babarinde I, Saitou N. Heterogeneous tempo and mode of conserved noncoding sequence evolution among four mammalian orders. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:2330-43 pubmed publisher
    ..With CNSs shown to cluster around genes involved in nervous systems and the higher number of primate CNSs, our result suggests that CNSs may be involved in the higher complexity of the primate nervous system. ..
  32. Phillips P, Welch J, Kramer M. Development of a spatially targeted field sampling technique for the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, by mapping white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, habitat in South Texas. J Insect Sci. 2014;14:88 pubmed publisher
    ..satellite remote sensed data could be used to identify white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), habitat and target locations for sampling free-living larvae of the southern cattle tick, ..
  33. Gongora J, Chen Y, Bernal J, Nicholas F, Moran C. Interspecific amplification of peccary microsatellite markers using porcine primers. Anim Genet. 2002;33:312-4 pubmed
  34. Biancardi C, Minetti A. Biomechanical determinants of transverse and rotary gallop in cursorial mammals. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:4144-56 pubmed publisher
    ..351 filmed sequences to assess the gallop type of 89 investigated mammalian species belonging to Carnivora, Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla orders...
  35. Goossens E, Vercruysse J, Vercammen F, Dorny P. Evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006;37:20-6 pubmed
    ..High contamination of grassy pastures with infective larvae/eggs in the previous year or before the first treatment may explain failure of the treatment regimes in some herds. ..
  36. Luo Z, Jiang Z, Tang S. Impacts of climate change on distributions and diversity of ungulates on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecol Appl. 2015;25:24-38 pubmed
    ..For conservation, we suggest (1) securing existing protected areas, and (2) establishing new nature reserves to counterbalance climate change impacts. ..
  37. Nava S, Mangold A, Mastropaolo M, Venzal J, Oscherov E, Guglielmone A. Amblyomma boeroi n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of the Chacoan peccary Catagonus wagneri (Rusconi) (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in Argentina. Syst Parasitol. 2009;73:161-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The principal host for all parasitic stages is C. wagneri (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae). Phylogenetically A...
  38. Clarke A, Rothery P, Isaac N. Scaling of basal metabolic rate with body mass and temperature in mammals. J Anim Ecol. 2010;79:610-9 pubmed publisher
    ..After correcting for the effects of ln B(m) and T(b), Soricomorpha, Didelphimorphia and Artiodactyla had the highest BMR of those orders represented by more than 10 species in the data set. 5...
  39. Conboy G, O Brien T, Stevens D. A natural infection of Fascioloides magna in a llama (Lama glama). J Parasitol. 1988;74:345-6 pubmed
    ..Live trematodes, identified as Fascioloides magna, were identified from the liver of this animal. This represents the first report of F. magna in a llama...
  40. Mayor P, Bodmer R, Schettini L, Mariño G, Lopez Bejar M. Anatomicohistological characteristics of the female genital organs of the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) in the Peruvian Amazon. Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:467-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Females in the follicular phase showed a more developed vaginal epithelium (in thickness and in layer composition) than females in the luteal phase and pregnant females. ..
  41. Zhang Q. Hypertension and counter-hypertension mechanisms in giraffes. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2006;6:63-7 pubmed
  42. Moks E, Jõgisalu I, Valdmann H, Saarma U. First report of Echinococcus granulosus G8 in Eurasia and a reappraisal of the phylogenetic relationships of 'genotypes' G5-G10. Parasitology. 2008;135:647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..granulosus G8 in Eurasia. Phylogenetic analyses, using 4 different methods, demonstrated with considerable statistical support that E. granulosus G6/7 forms a subgroup together with G10, whereas G8 is a sister taxon to G6/7-G10. ..
  43. Coimbra J, Hart N, Collin S, Manger P. Scene from above: retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolving power in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:2042-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The alpha ganglion cell distribution pattern is unique to the giraffe and enhances acquisition of motion information for the control of tongue movement during foraging and the detection of predators. ..
  44. Asher D, Gibbs C, Sulima M, Bacote A, Amyx H, Gajdusek D. Transmission of human spongiform encephalopathies to experimental animals: comparison of the chimpanzee and squirrel monkey. Dev Biol Stand. 1993;80:9-13 pubmed
    ..No other animals have been found so consistently susceptible to the agents in human tissues. More rapid and convenient assays for the infectious agents would greatly facilitate research on the spongiform encephalopathies of humans. ..
  45. Hawken R, Maccarone P, Toder R, Marshall Graves J, Maddox J. Isolation and characterization of marsupial IL5 genes. Immunogenetics. 1999;49:942-8 pubmed
    ..Fluorescence in situ hybridization using DNA from the IL5 clone on tammar wallaby chromosomes indicated that the IL5 gene is located on Chromosome 1. ..
  46. Peixoto G, Silva M, Lima G, Campos L, Paiva A, Paula V, et al. Use of Non-invasive Methods for Evaluating the Testicular Biometry in Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758). Anat Histol Embryol. 2016;45:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..53 ± 1.65 ml, respectively. This specific application of technologies in wild animals has the potential to revolutionize the selection process for the collared peccary entering artificial insemination or natural breeding programmes. ..
  47. Ealy A, Wooldridge L. The evolution of interferon-tau. Reproduction. 2017;154:F1-F10 pubmed publisher
    ..i>IFNT genes have only been identified in pecoran ruminants within the Artiodactyla order (e.g. cattle, sheep, goats, deer, antelope, giraffe)...
  48. Van Den Bussche R, Hoofer S, Hansen E. Characterization and phylogenetic utility of the mammalian protamine p1 gene. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2002;22:333-41 pubmed
    ..We compared these sequences with published sequences from 19 other mammals representing seven orders (Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Cetacea, Perissodactyla, Primates, Proboscidea, and Rodentia) to assess structure, base ..
  49. Ruckstuhl K, Neuhaus P. Sexual segregation in ungulates: a comparative test of three hypotheses. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2002;77:77-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that sexual differences in activity budgets are most likely driving sexual segregation and that sexual differences in predation risk or forage selection are additive factors. ..
  50. Wong K. The mammals that conquered the seas. Sci Am. 2002;286:70-9 pubmed
  51. Hammond E, Miller C, Sneed L, Radcliffe R. Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis in a reticulated giraffe. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:233-7 pubmed
    ..Twelve weeks after completion of enrofloxacin therapy evidence of Mycoplasma sp. was not detectable in the synovial fluid; no relapses occurred after 22 mo. This is the first report of Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis in a giraffe. ..
  52. Buttner Ennever J, Konakci K, Blumer R. Sensory control of extraocular muscles. Prog Brain Res. 2006;151:81-93 pubmed
    ..But other interpretations of the morphological evidence do not support this role. ..
  53. Oosthuizen M, Allsopp B, Troskie M, Collins N, Penzhorn B. Identification of novel Babesia and Theileria species in South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis, Linnaeus, 1758) and roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus, Desmarest 1804). Vet Parasitol. 2009;163:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Although parasites were observed in blood smears, there is no direct evidence that piroplasmosis caused the death of five giraffe, although it certainly seems to be likely. ..
  54. Altrichter M, Drews C, Carrillo E, Saenz J. Sex ratio and breeding of white-lipped peccaries Tayassu pecari (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) in a Costa Rican rain forest. Rev Biol Trop. 2001;49:383-9 pubmed
    ..The adult sex ratio was significantly female biased (1.4:1-1.8:1), also in contrast with South American populations. ..
  55. Marchandise E, Flaud P. Accurate modelling of unsteady flows in collapsible tubes. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2010;13:279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We compare our results with experimental simulations and discuss the sensitivity to parameters of our model. ..
  56. Streicher S, Lutermann H, Bennett N, Bertelsen M, Mohammed O, Manger P, et al. Living on the edge: Daily, seasonal and annual body temperature patterns of Arabian oryx in Saudi Arabia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180269 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the degree of heterothermy is not only driven by extrinsic factors (e.g. environmental temperatures and water availability), but may also be affected by intrinsic factors (e.g. sex and/or behaviour). ..
  57. Xie S, Green J, Bixby J, Szafranska B, DeMartini J, Hecht S, et al. The diversity and evolutionary relationships of the pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, an aspartic proteinase subfamily consisting of many trophoblast-expressed genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12809-16 pubmed
    ..amplify portions of PAG genes from genomic DNA, we estimate that cattle, sheep, and most probably all ruminant Artiodactyla possess many, possibly 100 or more, PAG genes, many of which are placentally expressed...
  58. Yang Z, Nielsen R. Synonymous and nonsynonymous rate variation in nuclear genes of mammals. J Mol Evol. 1998;46:409-18 pubmed
    ..The likelihood approach is preferable, even for pairwise sequence comparison, because more realistic models about the mutation and substitution processes can be incorporated in the analysis. ..
  59. Teófilo T, Silva A, Fontenele Neto J. Histological organization of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) lip. Anat Histol Embryol. 2007;36:194-6 pubmed
    ..The connective tissue is rich in collagen and elastic fibres. The collared peccary's lip may be used not only for food prehension but also functions as a sensitive structure giving tactile input to the central nervous system. ..
  60. Thomson G, Vosloo W, Bastos A. Foot and mouth disease in wildlife. Virus Res. 2003;91:145-61 pubmed
  61. Hoberg E, Polley L, Jenkins E, Kutz S. Pathogens of domestic and free-ranging ungulates: global climate change in temperate to boreal latitudes across North America. Rev Sci Tech. 2008;27:511-28 pubmed
    ..Predictive modelling and risk assessment utilising a range of scenarios for climate change is a final step in this multidisciplinary process...
  62. Pate M, Zajc U, Kušar D, Žele D, Vengušt G, Pirš T, et al. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia. Vet J. 2016;208:93-5 pubmed publisher
    ..avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. ..
  63. Laakkonen J. Pneumocystis carinii in wildlife. Int J Parasitol. 1998;28:241-52 pubmed
    ..carinii infection important for understanding the distribution and abundance of this organism. Some aspects of P. carinii infection in wild hosts of particular interest for future research in this field will also be discussed...
  64. Almeida M, Massad E, Aguiar E, Martorelli L, Joppert A. Neutralizing antirabies antibodies in urban terrestrial wildlife in Brazil. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37:394-8 pubmed
    ..It is evident that there is circulation of rabies virus in wild animals, which are not recommended as pets since they represent a potential risk of exposure to rabies virus for both humans and domestic animals...
  65. Pickering T, Clarke R, Heaton J. The context of Stw 573, an early hominid skull and skeleton from Sterkfontein Member 2: taphonomy and paleoenvironment. J Hum Evol. 2004;46:279-97 pubmed
    ..pardus and suggested by the presence of Alcelaphini. Finally, the reconstructed taphonomic and paleoenvironmental settings of Sterkfontein Member 2 are compared to penecontemporaneous sites in South and East Africa. ..
  66. de Carvalho M, Santos P, Nogueira S, Lessa F, Almeida V, Leça Júnior N, et al. Necrotic enteritis in collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2011;42:732-4 pubmed
    ..Histopathology of intestinal wall, culture of C. perfringens type C, and the identification of beta-toxin from intestinal content confirmed the diagnosis. ..
  67. Hubalek Z, Juricová Z, Strakova P, Blažejová H, Betášová L, Rudolf I. Serological Survey for West Nile Virus in Wild Artiodactyls, Southern Moravia (Czech Republic). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;17:654-657 pubmed publisher
    ..1% red deer, 6.3% fallow deer, 9.9% mouflons) and 4.1% of wild boars, with titers ranging between 1:20 and 1:320. The results indicate that WNV has circulated in wild artiodactyls at a variable frequency during the years in the area. ..
  68. Bielawski J, Dunn K, Yang Z. Rates of nucleotide substitution and mammalian nuclear gene evolution. Approximate and maximum-likelihood methods lead to different conclusions. Genetics. 2000;156:1299-308 pubmed
    ..the impact of the estimation method, we analyzed a sample of 82 nuclear genes from the mammalian orders Artiodactyla, Primates, and Rodentia using both approximate and maximum-likelihood methods...
  69. Natiello M, Lewis P, Samuelson D. Comparative anatomy of the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) and selected species. Vet Ophthalmol. 2005;8:375-85 pubmed
    ..Specifically, the ciliary body of the West Indian manatee has a comparatively unique construction, especially with regard to its vasculature. ..
  70. Flacke G, Tkalcic S, Steck B, Warren K, Martin G. A retrospective analysis of mortality in captive pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) from 1912 to 2014. Zoo Biol. 2016;35:556-569 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive overview presents a useful guide for recommendations in preventative veterinary care and for improved husbandry and management of pygmy hippos in captivity. Zoo Biol. 35:556-569, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  71. Huang S, Eronen J, Janis C, Saarinen J, Silvestro D, Fritz S. Mammal body size evolution in North America and Europe over 20 Myr: similar trends generated by different processes. Proc Biol Sci. 2017;284: pubmed publisher
    ..50% of the 970 species in the orders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla) in Europe and North America in a Bayesian framework...
  72. Hogue A, Ravosa M. Transverse masticatory movements, occlusal orientation, and symphyseal fusion in selenodont artiodactyls. J Morphol. 2001;249:221-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, like anthropoid primates, fusion in selenodont artiodactyls appears to function in resisting increased wishboning stresses arising from an emphasis on transverse occlusal/mandibular movements and loads. ..
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