Summary: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From, 8/4/2000)

Top Publications

  1. Roth O, Klein V, Beemelmanns A, Scharsack J, Reusch T. Male pregnancy and biparental immune priming. Am Nat. 2012;180:802-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that sex role reversal in connection with male pregnancy opens the door for biparental influences on offspring immunity and may represent an additional advantage for the evolution of male pregnancy. ..
  2. Roth O, Keller I, Landis S, Salzburger W, Reusch T. Hosts are ahead in a marine host-parasite coevolutionary arms race: innate immune system adaptation in pipefish Syngnathus typhle against Vibrio phylotypes. Evolution. 2012;66:2528-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that host defense is genetically adapted against local bacteria with a broad and unspecialized host spectrum, a situation that is typical for marine systems with weak host population structure...
  3. Birrer S, Reusch T, Roth O. Salinity change impairs pipefish immune defence. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:1238-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that composition of small coastal fish communities may change due to elevated environmental stress levels and the incorporated consequences thereof. ..
  4. Jones F, Grabherr M, Chan Y, Russell P, Mauceli E, Johnson J, et al. The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks. Nature. 2012;484:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Both coding and regulatory changes occur in the set of loci underlying marine-freshwater evolution, but regulatory changes appear to predominate in this well known example of repeated adaptive evolution in nature. ..
  5. Ravinet M, Prodohl P, Harrod C. Parallel and nonparallel ecological, morphological and genetic divergence in lake-stream stickleback from a single catchment. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:186-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Lake-stream stickleback divergence in Lough Neagh provides evidence for the deterministic role of selection and supports the hypothesis that parallel selection in similar environments may initiate parallel speciation...
  6. Alho J, Leinonen T, Merilä J. Inheritance of vertebral number in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19579 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of the three-spined stickleback, independent evolution of body size and number of vertebrae should be possible given the low genetic correlation between the two traits...
  7. Scobell S, MacKenzie D. Reproductive endocrinology of Syngnathidae. J Fish Biol. 2011;78:1662-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, their coastal distribution and embryo retention make them potentially important subjects for studies on the effect of endocrine disruption on fitness...
  8. Deagle B, Jones F, Chan Y, Absher D, Kingsley D, Reimchen T. Population genomics of parallel phenotypic evolution in stickleback across stream-lake ecological transitions. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:1277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data emphasize the important role of ecological boundaries in driving both local and broadly occurring parallel genetic changes during adaptation...
  9. Jones F, Chan Y, Schmutz J, Grimwood J, Brady S, Southwick A, et al. A genome-wide SNP genotyping array reveals patterns of global and repeated species-pair divergence in sticklebacks. Curr Biol. 2012;22:83-90 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Eizaguirre C, Lenz T, Kalbe M, Milinski M. Divergent selection on locally adapted major histocompatibility complex immune genes experimentally proven in the field. Ecol Lett. 2012;15:723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Hybrids with local MHC genotype gained more body weight and thus higher fitness than those with foreign MHC in either habitat, suggesting the evolutionary significance of locally adapted MHC genotypes...
  2. McKinnon J, Hamele N, Frey N, Chou J, McAleavey L, Greene J, et al. Male choice in the stream-anadromous stickleback complex. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37951 pubmed publisher
    ..We found little indication of males responding preferentially to females of their own ecotype independent of body size. ..
  3. Deagle B, Jones F, Absher D, Kingsley D, Reimchen T. Phylogeography and adaptation genetics of stickleback from the Haida Gwaii archipelago revealed using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:1917-32 pubmed publisher
  4. Defaveri J, Jonsson P, Merilä J. Heterogeneous Genomic Differentiation in marine threespine sticklebacks: adaptation along an environmental gradient. Evolution. 2013;67:2530-46 pubmed publisher
  5. Roth O, Scharsack J, Keller I, Reusch T. Bateman's principle and immunity in a sex-role reversed pipefish. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:1410-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Males not only had a more active but also a more specific immune defence than females. Our results thus indeed suggest that the sex that invests more into the offspring has the stronger immune defence...
  6. Eichenlaub M, Ettwiller L. De novo genesis of enhancers in vertebrates. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001188 pubmed publisher
    ..By revealing that minor changes in non-regulatory sequences are sufficient to generate new enhancers, our study highlights an important playground for creating new regulatory variability and evolutionary innovation...
  7. Shimada Y, Shikano T, Kuparinen A, Gonda A, Leinonen T, Merilä J. Quantitative genetics of body size and timing of maturation in two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28859 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the results suggest that the body size differences within and between populations reflect heritable genetic differences in the timing of maturation, and that the observed body size divergence is adaptive. ..
  8. Kitano J, Kawagishi Y, Mori S, Peichel C, Makino T, Kawata M, et al. Divergence in sex steroid hormone signaling between sympatric species of Japanese threespine stickleback. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29253 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals. ..
  9. Taylor E, Gerlinsky C, Farrell N, Gow J. A test of hybrid growth disadvantage in wild, free-ranging species pairs of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and its implications for ecological speciation. Evolution. 2012;66:240-51 pubmed publisher
  10. Benesh D, Hafer N. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:90 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host...
  11. Roesti M, Salzburger W, Berner D. Uninformative polymorphisms bias genome scans for signatures of selection. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:94 pubmed publisher
  12. Rogers S, Tamkee P, Summers B, Balabahadra S, MARKS M, Kingsley D, et al. Genetic signature of adaptive peak shift in threespine stickleback. Evolution. 2012;66:2439-50 pubmed publisher
  13. McGee M, Wainwright P. Sexual dimorphism in the feeding mechanism of threespine stickleback. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:835-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that sexual dimorphism in feeding functional morphology exists in nature and may have played an important role in the radiation of threespine stickleback...
  14. Trokovic N, Herczeg G, McCairns R, Ab Ghani N, Merilä J. Intraspecific divergence in the lateral line system in the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). J Evol Biol. 2011;24:1546-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the results align with the conclusion that the mechanosensory lateral line system divergence among marine and pond nine-spined sticklebacks is adaptive...
  15. Wilson A, Orr J. The evolutionary origins of Syngnathidae: pipefishes and seahorses. J Fish Biol. 2011;78:1603-23 pubmed publisher
  16. Kaeuffer R, Peichel C, Bolnick D, Hendry A. Parallel and nonparallel aspects of ecological, phenotypic, and genetic divergence across replicate population pairs of lake and stream stickleback. Evolution. 2012;66:402-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that parallel evolution, and deviations from it, are primarily the result of natural selection, which corresponds in only some respects to the dichotomous habitat classifications frequently used in such studies...
  17. Roesti M, Hendry A, Salzburger W, Berner D. Genome divergence during evolutionary diversification as revealed in replicate lake-stream stickleback population pairs. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:2852-62 pubmed publisher
  18. Blass E, Bell M, Boissinot S. Accumulation and rapid decay of non-LTR retrotransposons in the genome of the three-spine stickleback. Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4:687-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that nLTR-RT decay in fish occurs mostly through large deletions and not by the accumulation of small deletions...
  19. Raeymaekers J, Konijnendijk N, Larmuseau M, Hellemans B, De Meester L, Volckaert F. A gene with major phenotypic effects as a target for selection vs. homogenizing gene flow. Mol Ecol. 2014;23:162-81 pubmed publisher
  20. Teacher A, Shikano T, Karjalainen M, Merilä J. Phylogeography and genetic structuring of European nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius)-mitochondrial DNA evidence. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19476 pubmed publisher
  21. Defaveri J, Shikano T, Shimada Y, Goto A, Merilä J. Global analysis of genes involved in freshwater adaptation in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Evolution. 2011;65:1800-7 pubmed publisher
  22. Berner D, Kaeuffer R, Grandchamp A, Raeymaekers J, Räsänen K, Hendry A. Quantitative genetic inheritance of morphological divergence in a lake-stream stickleback ecotype pair: implications for reproductive isolation. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:1975-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that traits involved in adaptation might contribute to reproductive isolation qualitatively differently, depending on their mode of inheritance...
  23. Mobley K, Small C, Jones A. The genetics and genomics of Syngnathidae: pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons. J Fish Biol. 2011;78:1624-46 pubmed publisher
  24. Kimmel C, Cresko W, Phillips P, Ullmann B, Currey M, von Hippel F, et al. Independent axes of genetic variation and parallel evolutionary divergence of opercle bone shape in threespine stickleback. Evolution. 2012;66:419-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the parallel opercle evolution is most likely due to selection during adaptation to freshwater habitats, rather than due to biasing effects of opercle genetic architecture...
  25. Natri H, Shikano T, Merilä J. Progressive recombination suppression and differentiation in recently evolved neo-sex chromosomes. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:1131-44 pubmed publisher
  26. McGee M, Schluter D, Wainwright P. Functional basis of ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:277 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the consequences of morphological differences using high speed video of feeding fish...
  27. Rosenqvist G, Berglund A. Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae. J Fish Biol. 2011;78:1647-61 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known, however, that this group of fishes exhibits a remarkable variation in sex roles and ornamentation, making them an ideal group for the study of mating patterns, sexual selection and sexually selected signals...
  28. Shikano T, Natri H, Shimada Y, Merilä J. High degree of sex chromosome differentiation in stickleback fishes. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:474 pubmed publisher
  29. Kleszczynska A, Sokołowska E, Kulczykowska E. Variation in brain arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) levels with reproductive stage and social status in males of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;175:290-6 pubmed publisher
    ..IT may be also involved in courtship in three-spined stickleback. These findings highlight the importance of determination of "free", bioavailable neuropeptides' level in behavioral studies...
  30. Kimmel C, HOHENLOHE P, Ullmann B, Currey M, Cresko W. Developmental dissociation in morphological evolution of the stickleback opercle. Evol Dev. 2012;14:326-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the derived state includes dissociated ontogenetic changes. Dissociability may reflect an underlying modular pattern of opercle development, and facilitate flexibility of morphological evolution...
  31. Kim W, Kim J, Jang M, Jung S, Oh M. Infection of wild mullet (Mugil cephalus) with Myxobolus episquamalis in Korea. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:447-51 pubmed publisher
  32. Merilä J. Nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius): an emerging model for evolutionary biology research. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;1289:18-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides a synopsis of and reflections on the insights borne out of recent studies of nine-spined sticklebacks-the little sister of ecology's "new supermodel."..
  33. McGee M, Wainwright P. Convergent evolution as a generator of phenotypic diversity in threespine stickleback. Evolution. 2013;67:1204-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Lenz T, Eizaguirre C, Rotter B, Kalbe M, Milinski M. Exploring local immunological adaptation of two stickleback ecotypes by experimental infection and transcriptome-wide digital gene expression analysis. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:774-86 pubmed publisher
  35. Dingemanse N, Van der Plas F, Wright J, Reale D, Schrama M, Roff D, et al. Individual experience and evolutionary history of predation affect expression of heritable variation in fish personality and morphology. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:1285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment effects on variance components imply that predators can affect evolution, not only by acting directly as selective agents, but also by influencing the expression of heritable variation. ..
  36. Barrett R, Rogers S, Schluter D. Environment specific pleiotropy facilitates divergence at the Ectodysplasin locus in threespine stickleback. Evolution. 2009;63:2831-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, because size is important for mate choice in stickleback, the growth rate differences influenced by Eda may have effects on reproductive isolation between marine and freshwater populations. ..
  37. Lucek K, Roy D, Bezault E, Sivasundar A, Seehausen O. Hybridization between distant lineages increases adaptive variation during a biological invasion: stickleback in Switzerland. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:3995-4011 pubmed publisher
  38. Rick I, Bakker T. Color signaling in conspicuous red sticklebacks: do ultraviolet signals surpass others?. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:189 pubmed publisher
  39. Barrett R, Rogers S, Schluter D. Natural selection on a major armor gene in threespine stickleback. Science. 2008;322:255-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Opposing selection at the larval stage and changing dominance for fitness throughout life suggest either that the gene affects additional traits undergoing selection or that linked loci also are affecting fitness. ..
  40. Excoffier L, Hofer T, Foll M. Detecting loci under selection in a hierarchically structured population. Heredity (Edinb). 2009;103:285-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The elimination of false positive loci from genome scans should allow us to better determine on which specific class of genes selection is operating. ..
  41. Wark A, Peichel C. Lateral line diversity among ecologically divergent threespine stickleback populations. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:108-17 pubmed publisher
  42. Chen M, Peng Z, He S. Olfactory receptor gene family evolution in stickleback and medaka fishes. Sci China Life Sci. 2010;53:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis showed that many PTSs overlap, or are adjacent to previously deduced binding sites in mammals. These results support the hypothesis that binding sites of fish OR genes may evolved under positive selection. ..
  43. Hendry A, Hudson K, Walker J, Räsänen K, Chapman L. Genetic divergence in morphology-performance mapping between Misty Lake and inlet stickleback. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these observations, we advance a hypothesis for why populations adapting to different environments should show adaptive genetic divergence in morphology-performance mapping. ..
  44. Albert A, Sawaya S, Vines T, Knecht A, Miller C, Summers B, et al. The genetics of adaptive shape shift in stickleback: pleiotropy and effect size. Evolution. 2008;62:76-85 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with predictions of the geometric model of adaptation. Shape evolution in stickleback results from a few genes with large and possibly widespread effects and multiple genes of smaller effect. ..
  45. Herczeg G, Gonda A, Merilä J. Evolution of gigantism in nine-spined sticklebacks. Evolution. 2009;63:3190-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, reduced risk of predation and interspecific competition appear to be chief forces driving insular body size evolution toward gigantism...
  46. Shikano T, Shimada Y, Herczeg G, Merilä J. History vs. habitat type: explaining the genetic structure of European nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:1147-61 pubmed publisher
  47. Wilson A, Eigenmann Veraguth I. The impact of Pleistocene glaciation across the range of a widespread European coastal species. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:4535-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the strength of a multilocus approach to phylogeography and suggest that an overdependence on mitochondrial loci may provide a misleading picture of population-level processes. ..
  48. Dorucu M, Wilson D, Barber I. Differences in adult egg output of Schistocephalus solidus from singly- and multiply-infected sticklebacks. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1521-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss our results in terms of recent studies examining strategic egg production in helminths...
  49. Coyle S, Huntingford F, Peichel C. Parallel evolution of Pitx1 underlies pelvic reduction in Scottish threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). J Hered. 2007;98:581-6 pubmed
  50. Cresko W. Evolution. Armor development and fitness. Science. 2008;322:204-6 pubmed publisher
  51. Krobbach C, Kalbe M, Kurtz J, Scharsack J. Infectivity of two nematode parasites, Camallanus lacustris and Anguillicola crassus, in a paratenic host, the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;74:119-26 pubmed
    ..Granulocyte:lymphocyte ratios were elevated only within the stickleback group showing the highest infection intensity of C. lacustris, i.e. to those exposed 18 parasites...
  52. Gow J, Peichel C, Taylor E. Ecological selection against hybrids in natural populations of sympatric threespine sticklebacks. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:2173-80 pubmed
    ..This provides compelling evidence that extrinsic selection plays an important role in maintaining species divergence and supports a role for ecological speciation in sticklebacks. ..
  53. Purnell M, Bell M, Baines D, Hart P, Travis M. Correlated evolution and dietary change in fossil stickleback. Science. 2007;317:1887 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the potential for tooth microwear analysis to provide powerful insights into trophic ecology during aquatic adaptive radiations. ..
  54. McCairns R, Bernatchez L. Adaptive divergence between freshwater and marine sticklebacks: insights into the role of phenotypic plasticity from an integrated analysis of candidate gene expression. Evolution. 2010;64:1029-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss how this is consistent with adaptation facilitated by ancestral plasticity as a heuristic example that may prove useful for future, explicit tests of the genetic assimilation hypothesis. ..
  55. Vlieger L, Candolin U. How not to be seen: does eutrophication influence three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus sneaking behaviour?. J Fish Biol. 2009;75:2163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The total number of sneaking attempts, including unsuccessful ones, was not affected by either form of decreasing visibility. ..
  56. Bjorkblom C, Olsson P, Katsiadaki I, Wiklund T. Estrogen- and androgen-sensitive bioassays based on primary cell and tissue slice cultures from three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;146:431-42 pubmed
    ..Primary cell and tissue slice cultures isolated from the three-spined stickleback will allow simultaneously screening in vitro for potential estrogenic and androgenic activity of complex samples. ..
  57. Ward A, Sumpter D, Couzin I, Hart P, Krause J. Quorum decision-making facilitates information transfer in fish shoals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6948-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that effective and accurate information transfer in groups may be gained only through nonlinear responses of group members to each other, thus highlighting the importance of quorum decision-making. ..
  58. Kuparinen A, Cano J, Loehr J, Herczeg G, Gonda A, Merilä J. Fish age at maturation is influenced by temperature independently of growth. Oecologia. 2011;167:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, one cannot predict, on the basis of growth only, how changes in temperature might alter age and size at maturation and the subsequent reproduction. ..
  59. U taynapun K, Penprapai N, Bangrak P, Mekata T, Itami T, Tantikitti C. Myxobolus supamattayai n. sp. (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) from Thailand parasitizing the scale pellicle of wild mullet (Valamugil seheli). Parasitol Res. 2011;109:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..which infected mullet represents the newly formed species. These results suggested the presumably nearby evolution prospecting of Myxobolus species that were found in the same host. ..
  60. Marchinko K. Predation's role in repeated phenotypic and genetic divergence of armor in threespine stickleback. Evolution. 2009;63:127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Because size strongly influences mate choice, predator-driven divergent selection on size may play a substantial role in byproduct reproductive isolation and speciation in threespine stickleback. ..
  61. Kawahara R, Miya M, Mabuchi K, Near T, Nishida M. Stickleback phylogenies resolved: evidence from mitochondrial genomes and 11 nuclear genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;50:401-4 pubmed publisher
  62. Andersson C, Katsiadaki I, Lundstedt Enkel K, Orberg J. Effects of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol on EROD activity, spiggin and vitellogenin in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Aquat Toxicol. 2007;83:33-42 pubmed
    ..These findings are important for interpretation of biomonitoring data. ..
  63. Jager I, Eizaguirre C, Griffiths S, Kalbe M, Krobbach C, Reusch T, et al. Individual MHC class I and MHC class IIB diversities are associated with male and female reproductive traits in the three-spined stickleback. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:2005-15 pubmed
    ..The parasite against which this allele provides resistance is therefore unlikely to have been predominant the previous year - a step to negative frequency-dependent selection. ..
  64. Mäkinen H, Cano J, Merilä J. Identifying footprints of directional and balancing selection in marine and freshwater three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3565-82 pubmed publisher
  65. Kozak G, Reisland M, Boughmann J. Sex differences in mate recognition and conspecific preference in species with mutual mate choice. Evolution. 2009;63:353-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, males are likely to undermine sexual isolation, but females uphold it. Despite mutual mate choice and mate recognition in both sexes, females are primarily responsible for sexual isolation in these taxa. ..
  66. Ke H, Lin W, Kao H. Genetic diversity and differentiation of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in the coastal waters of Taiwan. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the dates of specimen collection and phylogenetic analyses, we propose that groups 1 and 2 are migratory populations from China and Japan, respectively, whereas group 3 is a resident population in Taiwan. ..
  67. Wootton R. The Darwinian stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: a history of evolutionary studies. J Fish Biol. 2009;75:1919-42 pubmed publisher
    ..From 2001, the application of genomic studies to these problems began to open up the study of the relationships between genotype, phenotype and selective advantage to causal analysis. ..
  68. Raeymaekers J, Van Houdt J, Larmuseau M, Geldof S, Volckaert F. Divergent selection as revealed by P(ST) and QTL-based F(ST) in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations along a coastal-inland gradient. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:891-905 pubmed
    ..No genetic confirmation was obtained for divergent selection on dorsal spine length, as no outlier F(ST)s were detected at dorsal spine QTL, and no significant correlations with P(ST) were observed. ..
  69. Hibbeler S, Scharsack J, Becker S. Housekeeping genes for quantitative expression studies in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:18 pubmed publisher
  70. Reimchen T, Bergstrom C. The ecology of asymmetry in stickleback defense structures. Evolution. 2009;63:115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply a complex relationship between slight asymmetries and niche space that is relevant to the broader literature on the evolutionary implications of developmental instability and intrapopulation variability. ..
  71. Barrett R, Vines T, Bystriansky J, Schulte P. Should I stay or should I go? The Ectodysplasin locus is associated with behavioural differences in threespine stickleback. Biol Lett. 2009;5:788-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This behaviour may facilitate the colonization of freshwater habitats from the sea, but could also hinder local adaptation by promoting migration of low alleles between marine and freshwater environments. ..
  72. Leder E, Cano J, Leinonen T, O Hara R, Nikinmaa M, Primmer C, et al. Female-biased expression on the X chromosome as a key step in sex chromosome evolution in threespine sticklebacks. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1495-503 pubmed publisher
  73. Carlson S, Kottas A, Mangel M. Bayesian analysis of size-dependent overwinter mortality from size-frequency distributions. Ecology. 2010;91:1016-24 pubmed
    ..Our method allows us to compare the intensity of size-biased mortality in different years. We discuss generalizations that include more complicated relationships between size and survival as well as time-series modeling. ..
  74. Matthews B, Marchinko K, Bolnick D, Mazumder A. Specialization of trophic position and habitat use by sticklebacks in an adaptive radiation. Ecology. 2010;91:1025-34 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that gill raker length is an important trait that underlies differentiation in both habitat use and trophic position among stickleback species, populations, and individuals. ..
  75. Shimada Y, Shikano T, Merilä J. A high incidence of selection on physiologically important genes in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:181-93 pubmed publisher
    ..4%). In general, our findings indicate strong selective pressures on physiologically important genes, suggesting that these genes have significant functions in evolutionary adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. ..
  76. Bolnick D, Lau O. Predictable patterns of disruptive selection in stickleback in postglacial lakes. Am Nat. 2008;172:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that it may be possible to anticipate the kinds of environments and populations most likely to experience disruptive selection. ..
  77. Schluter D, Conte G. Genetics and ecological speciation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106 Suppl 1:9955-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Selection from standing genetic variation is likely to play a large role in ecological speciation, which may partly account for its rapidity. ..
  78. Young M. The efficacy of the aquatic anaesthetic AQUI-S for anaesthesia of a small freshwater fish, Melanotaenia australis. J Fish Biol. 2009;75:1888-94 pubmed publisher
    ..All fish given this dose during induction and recovery time trials ate within 1 h of recovery, and there was zero mortality during a subsequent 1 month monitoring period. ..
  79. Knecht A, Hosemann K, Kingsley D. Constraints on utilization of the EDA-signaling pathway in threespine stickleback evolution. Evol Dev. 2007;9:141-54 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the presence of highly modular cis-acting control sequences may be a key factor influencing the likelihood that particular genes will serve as the basis of major phenotypic changes in nature. ..
  80. Pike T, Blount J, Bjerkeng B, Lindström J, Metcalfe N. Carotenoids, oxidative stress and female mating preference for longer lived males. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:1591-6 pubmed
  81. Maunder R, Matthiessen P, Sumpter J, Pottinger T. Impaired reproduction in three-spined sticklebacks exposed to ethinyl estradiol as juveniles. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:999-1006 pubmed
  82. Olafsdóttir G, Snorrason S, Ritchie M. Postglacial intra-lacustrine divergence of Icelandic threespine stickleback morphs in three neovolcanic lakes. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:1870-81 pubmed
    ..Intra-lacustrine threespine stickleback morphs in all three lakes show significant genetic divergence probably indicating restricted gene flow...
  83. Kurtz J, Kalbe M, Langefors A, Mayer I, Milinski M, Hasselquist D. An experimental test of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in a teleost fish: 11-ketotestosterone suppresses innate immunity in three-spined sticklebacks. Am Nat. 2007;170:509-19 pubmed
    ..Moreover, there was a trend for fish with high 11kT levels to suffer more from oxidative stress. Thus, our data provide support for the ICHH...
  84. Rick I, Bakker T. Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male territorial aggression in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Naturwissenschaften. 2008;95:631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback...
  85. Gonda A, Herczeg G, Merilä J. Adaptive brain size divergence in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius)?. J Evol Biol. 2009;22:1721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the results suggest that genetically based brain size and structure differences can evolve relatively rapidly and in repeatable fashion with respect to habitat structure...
  86. Candolin U, Salesto T, Evers M. Changed environmental conditions weaken sexual selection in sticklebacks. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:233-9 pubmed
    ..Anthropogenic disturbances hence affect the selection pressures that mould the species, which could have long-term effects on the viability and evolution of the populations...
  87. Holdway D, Hefferman J, Smith A. Multigeneration assessment of nonylphenol and endosulfan using a model Australian freshwater fish, Melanotaenia fluviatilis. Environ Toxicol. 2008;23:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..0 and 1 microg/L. These observed effects have the potential to significantly impact exposed rainbowfish populations through the observed approximately 45% reduction of hatchability and thus larval production...
  88. Araújo M, Guimarães P, Svanback R, Pinheiro A, Guimaraes P, dos Reis S, et al. Network analysis reveals contrasting effects of intraspecific competition on individual vs. population diets. Ecology. 2008;89:1981-93 pubmed
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    ..Here we introduce the host and the parasite, review the major findings of these recent experimental infection studies and identify further aspects of host parasite interactions that might be investigated using the system...
  91. Park P, Bell M. Variation of telencephalon morphology of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in relation to inferred ecology. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:1261-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Freshwater stickleback from structurally complex habitats have retained the ancestral telencephalon morphology, but populations that feed more in open habitats on plankton have evolved larger, laterally concave telencephala...
  92. Candolin U. Population responses to anthropogenic disturbance: lessons from three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in eutrophic habitats. J Fish Biol. 2009;75:2108-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Human disturbances can be dramatic and resolution of the limit of flexibility and the possibility of genetic adaptation should be important targets of future research...