flatfishes

Summary

Summary: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.

Top Publications

  1. Shi W, Dong X, Wang Z, Miao X, Wang S, Kong X. Complete mitogenome sequences of four flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) reveal a novel gene arrangement of L-strand coding genes. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:173 pubmed publisher
    ..It is difficult, therefore, to propose a mechanism to account for observed changes in mitogenome structure. Mitochondrial gene rearrangements are usually explained by the recombination model or tandem duplication and random loss model...
  2. Li X, Han Y, Yang Q, Zhang X. Detection of quorum sensing signal molecules and mutation of luxS gene in Vibrio ichthyoenteri. Res Microbiol. 2010;161:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither V. ichthyoenteri DA3 nor type strain LMG19664(T) produced any cholerae autoinducer 1 (CAI-1) activity...
  3. Zheng W, Hu Y, Xiao Z, Sun L. Cloning and analysis of a ferritin subunit from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that SmFer1 is likely to play a role in both iron storage and immune defense against microbial infections...
  4. Little A, Lougheed S, Moyes C. Evolutionary affinity of billfishes (Xiphiidae and Istiophoridae) and flatfishes (Plueronectiformes): Independent and trans-subordinal origins of endothermy in teleost fishes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;56:897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..show that billfishes are only distantly related to tunas, but rather share strong evolutionary affinities with flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) and jacks (Carangidae)...
  5. Wang N, Wang X, Sha Z, Tian Y, Chen S. Development and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:1227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, significant green fluorescent signals were observed when the TK cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 vector, indicating its potential utility for fish virus study and genetic manipulation...
  6. Millán A, Gomez Tato A, Pardo B, Fernandez C, Bouza C, Vera M, et al. Gene expression profiles of the spleen, liver, and head kidney in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) along the infection process with Aeromonas salmonicida using an immune-enriched oligo-microarray. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2011;13:1099-114 pubmed publisher
    ..The information obtained will aid to understand the turbot immune response and will specifically be valuable to develop strategies of defense to A. salmonicida to achieve more resistant broodstocks for turbot industry...
  7. Forne I, Castellana B, Marín Juez R, Cerdà J, Abian J, Planas J. Transcriptional and proteomic profiling of flatfish (Solea senegalensis) spermatogenesis. Proteomics. 2011;11:2195-211 pubmed publisher
  8. Darias M, Boglino A, Manchado M, Ortiz Delgado J, Estévez A, Andree K, et al. Molecular regulation of both dietary vitamin A and fatty acid absorption and metabolism associated with larval morphogenesis of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2012;161:130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings revealed that dietary composition induced different strategies for VA and lipid absorption and metabolism affecting, in turn, larval development, growth and health...
  9. Taboada X, Robledo D, Del Palacio L, Rodeiro A, Felip A, Martínez P, et al. Comparative expression analysis in mature gonads, liver and brain of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by cDNA-AFLPS. Gene. 2012;492:250-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We found slight but important differences between sexes which deserve further investigation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Li Y, Hu Y, Sun J, Sun L. CsCXCe1: A novel Cynoglossus semilaevis CXC chemokine that functions as a chemoattractant and an immunomodulator for peripheral blood leukocytes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;37:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that CsCXCe1 is likely a new type of CXC chemokine that exerts chemotactic and immunostimulatory effects on PBL...
  2. Pardo B, Millán A, Gomez Tato A, Fernandez C, Bouza C, Alvarez Dios J, et al. Gene expression profiles of spleen, liver, and head kidney in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) along the infection process with Philasterides dicentrarchi using an immune-enriched oligo-microarray. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2012;14:570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The information obtained will aid to understand the turbot immune response and will specifically be valuable to develop strategies of defense to P. dicentrarchi to achieve more resistant broodstocks for turbot industry...
  3. Pereiro P, Balseiro P, Romero A, Dios S, Forn Cuni G, Fuste B, et al. High-throughput sequence analysis of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) transcriptome using 454-pyrosequencing for the discovery of antiviral immune genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35369 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to identify new genes involved in immune defense, we conducted 454-pyrosequencing of the turbot transcriptome after different immune stimulations...
  4. Rodríguez Ramilo S, Toro M, Bouza C, Hermida M, Pardo B, Cabaleiro S, et al. QTL detection for Aeromonas salmonicida resistance related traits in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). BMC Genomics. 2011;12:541 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives were to identify consistent QTL using different statistical approaches (linear regression and maximum likelihood) and to locate the tightest associated markers for their application in genetic breeding strategies...
  5. Navajas Pérez R, Robles F, Molina Luzón M, de la Herran R, Alvarez Dios J, Pardo B, et al. Exploitation of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) immune-related expressed sequence tag (EST) database for microsatellite screening and validation. Mol Ecol Resour. 2012;12:706-16 pubmed publisher
    ..map, and because they are mostly EST-derived, they will be very useful for comparative genomic studies within flatfishes and with model fish species...
  6. Li Y, Sun J, Sun L. An inflammatory CC chemokine of Cynoglossus semilaevis is involved in immune defense against bacterial infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that CsCCK1 is a functional CC chemokine whose biological activity depends on the DCCL motif and that CsCCK1 plays a role in host immune defense against bacterial infection...
  7. Bouza C, Hermida M, Pardo B, Vera M, Fernandez C, de la Herran R, et al. An Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-enriched genetic map of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): a useful framework for comparative genomics across model and farmed teleosts. BMC Genet. 2012;13:54 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to construct a higher-resolution turbot genetic map using EST-linked markers, which will turn out to be useful for comparative mapping studies...
  8. Sun J, Zhao L, Sun L. Interleukin-8 of Cynoglossus semilaevis is a chemoattractant with immunoregulatory property. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CsIL8 is a biologically active CXC chemokine with immunoregulatory activity and that CsIL8 is involved in pathogen-induced inflammatory response...
  9. Bao B, Ke Z, Xing J, Peatman E, Liu Z, Xie C, et al. Proliferating cells in suborbital tissue drive eye migration in flatfish. Dev Biol. 2011;351:200-7 pubmed publisher
    The left/right asymmetry of adult flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) is remarkable given the external body symmetry of the larval fish. The best-known change is the migration of their eyes: one eye migrates from one side to the other...
  10. Maruya K, Vidal Dorsch D, Bay S, Kwon J, Xia K, Armbrust K. Organic contaminants of emerging concern in sediments and flatfish collected near outfalls discharging treated wastewater effluent to the Southern California Bight. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:2683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean tissue PBDE and diazepam concentrations were higher in livers from male versus female P. verticalis, suggesting that gender differences also be considered in designing such studies...
  11. Guillot R, Ceinos R, Cal R, Rotllant J, Cerdá Reverter J. Transient ectopic overexpression of agouti-signalling protein 1 (asip1) induces pigment anomalies in flatfish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48526 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, generates a ventral-like differentiation environment in dorsal regions...
  12. Campbell M, Chen W, López J. Are flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) monophyletic?. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:664-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the genus Psettodes has been found to be more related to non-flatfishes than to other flatfishes in many recent studies...
  13. Martínez P, Bouza C, Hermida M, Fernández J, Toro M, Vera M, et al. Identification of the major sex-determining region of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Genetics. 2009;183:1443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A small proportion of families did not fit perfectly with this model, which suggests that other minor genetic and/or environmental factors are involved in sex determination in this species...
  14. Millán A, Gomez Tato A, Fernandez C, Pardo B, Alvarez Dios J, Calaza M, et al. Design and performance of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) oligo-microarray based on ESTs from immune tissues. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2010;12:452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..A set of differentially expressed genes and enriched functions related to immune/defense response were detected at 3 days postchallenging...
  15. Betancur R R, Li C, Munroe T, Ballesteros J, Orti G. Addressing gene tree discordance and non-stationarity to resolve a multi-locus phylogeny of the flatfishes (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes). Syst Biol. 2013;62:763-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a detailed analysis of a data set with 20 genes and 214 taxa to study the phylogeny of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) and their position among percomorphs...
  16. Darias M, Andree K, Boglino A, Fernández I, Estévez A, Gisbert E. Coordinated regulation of chromatophore differentiation and melanogenesis during the ontogeny of skin pigmentation of Solea senegalensis (Kaup, 1858). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63005 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we present a first approximation towards explaining the genetic mechanisms for regulating pigmentation ontogeny in Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis. ..
  17. Rodríguez Ramilo S, Fernandez J, Toro M, Bouza C, Hermida M, Fernandez C, et al. Uncovering QTL for resistance and survival time to Philasterides dicentrarchi in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Anim Genet. 2013;44:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Obtained results will be essential to identify candidate genes for resistance and to apply them in marker-assisted selection programs to improve turbot production...
  18. Farto R, Milton D, Bermúdez M, Nieto T. Colonization of turbot tissues by virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains during infection. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;95:167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons of the distribution profiles of both virulent and avirulent strains during early and late stages of an infection in turbot has provided important information on the route and persistence of an ASS infection in this host...
  19. Wang W, Zhang M, Sun L. Ferritin M of Cynoglossus semilaevis: an iron-binding protein and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial that depends on the integrity of the ferroxidase center and nucleation center for biological activity. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also indicate the importance of the conserved iron uptake and mineralization sites to the function of CsFerM...
  20. Cerda J, Douglas S, Reith M. Genomic resources for flatfish research and their applications. J Fish Biol. 2010;77:1045-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Flatfishes are a group of teleosts of high commercial and environmental interest, whose biology is still poorly understood...
  21. Kong X, Dong X, Zhang Y, Shi W, Wang Z, Yu Z. A novel rearrangement in the mitochondrial genome of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis: control region translocation and a tRNA gene inversion. Genome. 2009;52:975-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of 8 protein-coding genes, were found through comparison of the mitogenome sequence with those from other flatfishes. All the features detected and their relationships with the rearrangements, as well as a possible rearrangement ..
  22. Campos C, Valente L, Borges P, Bizuayehu T, Fernandes J. Dietary lipid levels have a remarkable impact on the expression of growth-related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup). J Exp Biol. 2010;213:200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to its practical implications, this work provides a valuable contribution towards our understanding of the genetic networks controlling growth in teleosts...
  23. Lan J, Zhang X, Wang Y, Chen J, Han Y. Isolation of an unusual strain of Edwardsiella tarda from turbot and establish a PCR detection technique with the gyrB gene. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:644-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to report an unusual Edwardsiella tarda and develop an effective method to identify this bacterium...
  24. Bjornsdottir B, Gudmundsdottir S, Bambir S, Gudmundsdottir B. Experimental infection of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and evaluation of cross protection induced by a furunculosis vaccine. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:181-8 pubmed
    ..The results of the study indicate that Asa may be a potential threat to turbot farming and that the development of new turbot vaccines is needed...
  25. García López A, Couto E, Canario A, Sarasquete C, Martínez Rodríguez G. Ovarian development and plasma sex steroid levels in cultured female Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;146:342-54 pubmed
    ..We propose the inadequate seasonal thermal regime as the main cause of such dysfunction...
  26. Pardo B, Fernandez C, Hermida M, Vazquez Lopez A, Perez M, Presa P, et al. Development and characterization of 248 novel microsatellite markers in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Genome. 2007;50:329-32 pubmed
  27. Manchado M, Infante C, Asensio E, Cañavate J. Differential gene expression and dependence on thyroid hormones of two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup). Gene. 2007;400:1-8 pubmed
    ..A treatment with the goitrogen thiourea indicated that GAPDH-1 expression was negatively regulated by thyroid hormones. The possible role of GAPDHs in metamorphosis is discussed...
  28. Infante C, Asensio E, Cañavate J, Manchado M. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five different elongation factor 1 alpha genes in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup): differential gene expression and thyroid hormones dependence during metamorphosis. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:19 pubmed publisher
    ..With regard to this, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which eEF1A gene remains to be characterized...
  29. Matsuoka M, Infante C, Reith M, Cañavate J, Douglas S, Manchado M. Translational machinery of senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.): comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 60s ribosomal proteins and their expression. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2008;10:676-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will be useful for the study of Pleuronectiformes evolution...
  30. Manchado M, Infante C, Rebordinos L, Cañavate J. Molecular characterization, gene expression and transcriptional regulation of thyroid hormone receptors in Senegalese sole. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;160:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results demonstrate that TRbeta transcription is up-regulated by THs playing a major role during metamorphosis in Senegalese sole...
  31. Cerdà J, Mercadé J, Lozano J, Manchado M, Tingaud Sequeira A, Astola A, et al. Genomic resources for a commercial flatfish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): EST sequencing, oligo microarray design, and development of the Soleamold bioinformatic platform. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:508 pubmed publisher
  32. Deng X, Rempel M, Armstrong J, Schlenk D. Seasonal evaluation of reproductive status and exposure to environmental estrogens in hornyhead turbot at the municipal wastewater outfall of Orange County, CA. Environ Toxicol. 2007;22:464-71 pubmed
    ..However, the histopathological and reproductive relevance of the responses appeared to be insignificant and may not affect the population in these locations...
  33. Leaver M. A family of Tc1-like transposons from the genomes of fishes and frogs: evidence for horizontal transmission. Gene. 2001;271:203-14 pubmed
  34. Cuñado N, Terrones J, Sanchez L, Martinez P, Santos J. Synaptonemal complex analysis in spermatocytes and oocytes of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (Pisces, Scophthalmidae). Genome. 2001;44:1143-7 pubmed
    ..No statistical differences in DNA content were revealed between the sexes [Wilcoxon/Mann-Whitney test; P(W(x) = 0.243)]. The SC/DNA content ratio observed in turbot was the highest reported to date in bony fishes (Osteichthyes)...
  35. Wang C, Zhang X, Jia A, Chen J, Austin B. Identification of immune-related genes from kidney and spleen of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), by suppression subtractive hybridization following challenge with Vibrio harveyi. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR was performed for the MHC class Ia gene, and it was revealed that the expression level of the MHC class Ia gene in V. harveyi-challenged turbot increased to fourfold that of the controls...
  36. Marchand O, Duffraisse M, Triqueneaux G, Safi R, Laudet V. Molecular cloning and developmental expression patterns of thyroid hormone receptors and T3 target genes in the turbot (Scophtalmus maximus) during post-embryonic development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004;135:345-57 pubmed
    ..The fact that TH regulates metamorphosis in amphibian and teleost fishes suggests that TH-regulated metamorphosis is a post-embryonic process conserved in most vertebrates...
  37. Parama A, Arranz J, Alvarez M, Sanmartin M, Leiro J. Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia) from farmed turbot in NW Spain. Parasitology. 2006;132:555-64 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi isolates and M. avidus are closely related and a possible synonymy between both ciliates species should be considered...
  38. Ordás M, Costa M, Roca F, Lopez Castejon G, Mulero V, Meseguer J, et al. Turbot TNFalpha gene: molecular characterization and biological activity of the recombinant protein. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:389-400 pubmed
    ..Finally, turbot rTNFalpha was able to recruit and activate inflammatory cells when injected in gilthead seabream, although to a lesser extent than gilthead seabream rTNFalpha...
  39. Grotmol S, Nerland A, Biering E, Totland G, Nishizawa T. Characterization of the capsid protein gene from a nodavirus strain affecting the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus and design of an optimal reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection assay. Dis Aquat Organ. 2000;39:79-88 pubmed
    ..The detection limit of the PCR was 10 to 100 copies of plasmid, while the detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was 100 to 1000 copies of in vitro transcribed viral RNA...
  40. Manchado M, Infante C, Asensio E, Planas J, Cañavate J. Thyroid hormones down-regulate thyrotropin beta subunit and thyroglobulin during metamorphosis in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:447-55 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the TU+T4 treated larvae exhibited similar or lower mRNA levels than in the control. Present results demonstrate that TH mediate metamorphosis and down-regulate TSH beta and Tg at transcriptional level in Senegalese sole...
  41. Manchado M, Infante C, Asensio E, Cañavate J, Douglas S. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes): phylogeny and tissue- and development-spe. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:107 pubmed
    ..Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis...
  42. Parama A, Castro R, Arranz J, Sanmartin M, Lamas J, Leiro J. Scuticociliate cysteine proteinases modulate turbot leucocyte functions. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:945-56 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi to modulate the innate immune response of turbot, which together with the inflammation mediators produced during infection, may play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease and in the survival of the parasite...
  43. Funes V, Asensio E, Ponce M, Infante C, Cañavate J, Manchado M. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in the sole Solea senegalensis: cDNA cloning and quantitation of gene expression in tissues and during larval development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;149:166-72 pubmed
    ..The abundance of IGF-II transcripts correlated positively with the growth rate during larval development. The putative role of IGF-II on metamorphosis and larval growth is discussed...
  44. Zhang Y, Chen S. Molecular identification, polymorphism, and expression analysis of major histocompatibility complex class IIA and B genes of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2006;8:611-23 pubmed
  45. Quiroga M, Redondo M, Sitja Bobadilla A, Palenzuela O, Riaza A, Macias A, et al. Risk factors associated with Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa) infection in cultured turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). Parasitology. 2006;133:433-42 pubmed
  46. Pardo B, Fernandez C, Millán A, Bouza C, Vazquez Lopez A, Vera M, et al. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from immune tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) challenged with pathogens. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:37 pubmed publisher
    ..This information enabled us to obtain a preliminary view of regulated genes in response to these pathogens and it constitutes the basis for subsequent and more accurate microarray analysis...
  47. Sugita H, Ito Y. Identification of intestinal bacteria from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and their ability to digest chitin. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;43:336-42 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to clarify the taxonomic status of intestinal bacteria isolated from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and describe their ability to digest chitin...
  48. Bouza C, Hermida M, Millan A, Vilas R, Vera M, Fernandez C, et al. Characterization of EST-derived microsatellites for gene mapping and evolutionary genomics in turbot. Anim Genet. 2008;39:666-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Nineteen were mapped in the turbot consensus map. These EST-derived microsatellites constitute useful tools for genome scanning of turbot populations, marker-assisted selection programmes and comparative mapping...
  49. Aragão C, Corte Real J, Costas B, Dinis M, Conceição L. Stress response and changes in amino acid requirements in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858). Amino Acids. 2008;34:143-8 pubmed
    ..Plasma amino acid concentrations indicate that their requirements in stressed fish were altered, which probably reflects the synthesis of proteins or other specific compounds related to stress response...
  50. Redondo M, Palenzuela O, Riaza A, Macías A, Alvarez Pellitero P. Experimental transmission of Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa), an enteric parasite of turbot Scophthalmus maximus. J Parasitol. 2002;88:482-8 pubmed
    ..The temperature also affected the course of the infections, which were established earlier at higher water temperature. Direct fish-to-fish transmission of the disease explains the rapid spreading of the turbot enteromyxosis in farms...
  51. Zhong Q, Zhang Q, Wang Z, Qi J, Chen Y, Li S, et al. Expression profiling and validation of potential reference genes during Paralichthys olivaceus embryogenesis. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2008;10:310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..olivaceus, but also possible guidance to reference gene selection for embryonic gene expression analyses in other fish species...
  52. Iglesias R, Parama A, Alvarez M, Leiro J, Fernandez J, Sanmartin M. Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) as the causative agent of scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus in Galicia (NW Spain). Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;46:47-55 pubmed
    ..We discuss possible routes of entry into the host, and environmental factors possibly facilitating infection...
  53. Parra G, Yúfera M. Comparative energetics during early development of two marine fish species, Solea senegalensis (Kaup) and Sparus aurata (L.). J Exp Biol. 2001;204:2175-83 pubmed
    ..During the first month after hatching, Solea senegalensis always allocated more energy for growth than did Sparus aurata...