torpedo

Summary

Summary: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.

Top Publications

  1. Baptista Hon D, Deeb T, Lambert J, Peters J, Hales T. The minimum M3-M4 loop length of neurotransmitter-activated pentameric receptors is critical for the structural integrity of cytoplasmic portals. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21558-68 pubmed publisher
    The 5-HT3A receptor homology model, based on the partial structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata, reveals an asymmetric ion channel with five portals framed by adjacent helical amphipathic (HA) stretches ..
  2. Lee W, Sine S. Principal pathway coupling agonist binding to channel gating in nicotinic receptors. Nature. 2005;438:243-7 pubmed
    ..a principal pathway that links neurotransmitter binding to channel gating by using a structural model of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor at 4-A resolution, recordings of currents through single receptor channels and ..
  3. Kottwitz D, Kukhtina V, Dergousova N, Alexeev T, Utkin Y, Tsetlin V, et al. Intracellular domains of the delta-subunits of Torpedo and rat acetylcholine receptors--expression, purification, and characterization. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;38:237-47 pubmed
    ..coli the intracellular loops (between transmembrane fragments TM3 and TM4) of the delta-subunits from the Torpedo californica and Rattus norvegicus muscle nAChRs...
  4. Chen M, Chen T. Side-chain charge effects and conductance determinants in the pore of ClC-0 chloride channels. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:133-45 pubmed
    The charge on the side chain of the internal pore residue lysine 519 (K519) of the Torpedo ClC-0 chloride (Cl-) channel affects channel conductance...
  5. Kukhtina V, Kottwitz D, Strauss H, Heise B, Chebotareva N, Tsetlin V, et al. Intracellular domain of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: the importance of being unfolded. J Neurochem. 2006;97 Suppl 1:63-7 pubmed
    ..data of limited proteolysis and NMR performed on the mostly monomeric fraction of heterologously expressed Torpedo intracellular domain protein...
  6. Colletier J, Sanson B, Nachon F, Gabellieri E, Fattorusso C, Campiani G, et al. Conformational flexibility in the peripheral site of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase revealed by the complex structure with a bifunctional inhibitor. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:4526-7 pubmed
    The X-ray crystallographic structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) in complex with the bifunctional inhibitor NF595, a potentially new anti-Alzheimer drug, has been solved...
  7. Kasheverov I, Zhmak M, Vulfius C, Gorbacheva E, Mordvintsev D, Utkin Y, et al. Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. FEBS J. 2006;273:4470-81 pubmed
    ..in alpha-conotoxin SIA increased the affinity for both the high- and low-affinity sites in membrane-bound Torpedo californica nAChR...
  8. Zifarelli G, Pusch M. The role of protons in fast and slow gating of the Torpedo chloride channel ClC-0. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:869-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of protons in the gating of the model Torpedo channel ClC-0 is best understood. ClC-0 is a homodimer with separate pores in each subunit...
  9. Greenblatt H, Guillou C, Guenard D, Argaman A, Botti S, Badet B, et al. The complex of a bivalent derivative of galanthamine with torpedo acetylcholinesterase displays drastic deformation of the active-site gorge: implications for structure-based drug design. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:15405-11 pubmed
    ..site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and its peripheral cation binding site, have been assayed with Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE), and the three-dimensional structures of their complexes with the enzyme have been ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Traverso S, Elia L, Pusch M. Gating competence of constitutively open CLC-0 mutants revealed by the interaction with a small organic Inhibitor. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:295-306 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mutating this critical residue (Glu166) in the prototype Torpedo CLC-0 to alanine, serine, or lysine leads to constitutively open channels, whereas a mutation to aspartate ..
  2. daCosta C, Medaglia S, Lavigne N, Wang S, Carswell C, Baenziger J. Anionic lipids allosterically modulate multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor conformational equilibria. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33841-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Kasheverov I, Zhmak M, Maslennikov I, Utkin Y, Tsetlin V. A comparative study on selectivity of alpha-conotoxins GI and ImI using their synthetic analogues and derivatives. Neurochem Res. 2003;28:599-606 pubmed
    ..GI acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) from mammalian muscles and from the electric organ of the Torpedo californica ray and for alpha-conotoxin ImI, which targets the neuronal alpha7 AChR...
  4. Pusch M, Accardi A, Liantonio A, Guida P, Traverso S, Camerino D, et al. Mechanisms of block of muscle type CLC chloride channels (Review). Mol Membr Biol. 2002;19:285-92 pubmed
    ..They might also turn out to be useful to obtain information about the intricate coupling of gating and permeation that characterizes CLC channels...
  5. Lahiri S, Wang P, Babbitt P, McLeish M, Kenyon G, Allen K. The 2.1 A structure of Torpedo californica creatine kinase complexed with the ADP-Mg(2+)-NO(3)(-)-creatine transition-state analogue complex. Biochemistry. 2002;41:13861-7 pubmed
    ..Cocrystallization of the enzyme from Torpedo californica (TcCK) with ADP-Mg(2+), nitrate, and creatine yielded a homodimer, one monomer of which was liganded ..
  6. Park K, Suk J, Jacobsen R, Gray W, McIntosh J, Han K. Solution conformation of alpha-conotoxin EI, a neuromuscular toxin specific for the alpha 1/delta subunit interface of torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:49028-33 pubmed
    ..The unique binding preference of alpha-conotoxin EI to the alpha(1)/delta subunit interface of Torpedo neuromuscular receptor makes it a valuable structural template for superposition of various alpha-conotoxins ..
  7. Hales T, Dunlop J, Deeb T, Carland J, Kelley S, Lambert J, et al. Common determinants of single channel conductance within the large cytoplasmic loop of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:8062-71 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 0.5 pS). Homology models of the 5-HT3A and alpha4beta2 nAChRs against Torpedo nAChR revealed MA -4', 0', and 4' residues within five intracellular portals...
  8. Felder C, Harel M, Silman I, Sussman J. Structure of a complex of the potent and specific inhibitor BW284C51 with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:1765-71 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) complexed with BW284C51 [CO[-CH(2)CH(2)-pC(6)H(4)-N(CH(3))(2)(CH(2)-CH=CH(2))](2)] is described and compared with the complexes of two other active-site ..
  9. Lin C, Chen T. Probing the pore of ClC-0 by substituted cysteine accessibility method using methane thiosulfonate reagents. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:147-59 pubmed
    ..To study the pore architecture of the Torpedo ClC-0 channel, we employed the substituted-cysteine-accessibility method (SCAM) and used charged methane ..
  10. Bartolucci C, Stojan J, Yu Q, Greig N, Lamba D. Kinetics of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase inhibition by bisnorcymserine and crystal structure of the complex with its leaving group. Biochem J. 2012;444:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook detailed kinetic studies on the activity of the carbamate bisnorcymserine with Tc (Torpedo californica) AChE and, on the basis of the results, crystallized the complex between TcAChE and bisnorcymserine...
  11. Chiara D, Hamouda A, Ziebell M, Mejia L, Garcia G, Cohen J. [(3)H]chlorpromazine photolabeling of the torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor identifies two state-dependent binding sites in the ion channel. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10066-77 pubmed publisher
  12. Kasheverov I, Zhmak M, Fish A, Rucktooa P, Khruschov A, Osipov A, et al. Interaction of alpha-conotoxin ImII and its analogs with nicotinic receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins: additional binding sites on Torpedo receptor. J Neurochem. 2009;111:934-44 pubmed publisher
    ..5-8.2 microM). On Torpedo nAChR, alpha-conotoxin [(125)I]-ImII(W10Y) revealed specific binding (K(d) 1.5-6...
  13. Rydberg E, Brumshtein B, Greenblatt H, Wong D, Shaya D, Williams L, et al. Complexes of alkylene-linked tacrine dimers with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase: Binding of Bis5-tacrine produces a dramatic rearrangement in the active-site gorge. J Med Chem. 2006;49:5491-500 pubmed
    The X-ray crystal structures were solved for complexes with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase of two bivalent tacrine derivative compounds in which the two tacrine rings were separated by 5- and 7-carbon spacers...
  14. Zeng H, Hawrot E. NMR-based binding screen and structural analysis of the complex formed between alpha-cobratoxin and an 18-mer cognate peptide derived from the alpha 1 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37439-45 pubmed
    The alpha18-mer peptide, spanning residues 181-198 of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha1 subunit, contains key binding determinants for agonists and competitive antagonists...
  15. Hamouda A, Chiara D, Blanton M, Cohen J. Probing the structure of the affinity-purified and lipid-reconstituted torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12787-94 pubmed publisher
    The Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the only member of the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) that is available in high abundance in a native membrane preparation...
  16. Antollini S, Barrantes F. Unique effects of different fatty acid species on the physical properties of the torpedo acetylcholine receptor membrane. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1249-54 pubmed
    To study the effects produced by free fatty acids (FFA) on the biophysical properties of Torpedo marmorata nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-rich native membranes and to investigate the topology of their binding site(s), fluorescence ..
  17. Faure G, Copic A, Le Porrier S, Gubensek F, Bon C, Krizaj I. Crotoxin acceptor protein isolated from Torpedo electric organ: binding properties to crotoxin by surface plasmon resonance. Toxicon. 2003;41:509-17 pubmed
    ..the existence of a 48 kDa crotoxin-binding protein in the presynaptic membranes of the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata...
  18. Araoz R, Ramos S, Pelissier F, Guerineau V, Benoit E, Vilariño N, et al. Coupling the Torpedo microplate-receptor binding assay with mass spectrometry to detect cyclic imine neurotoxins. Anal Chem. 2012;84:10445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of ..
  19. Mukhtasimova N, Sine S. An intersubunit trigger of channel gating in the muscle nicotinic receptor. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4110-9 pubmed
    ..element required for rapid and efficient gating of muscle nicotinic receptors using a structural model of the Torpedo receptor at 4 A resolution, recordings of currents through single receptor channels, measurements of inter-..
  20. Harel M, Sonoda L, Silman I, Sussman J, Rosenberry T. Crystal structure of thioflavin T bound to the peripheral site of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase reveals how thioflavin T acts as a sensitive fluorescent reporter of ligand binding to the acylation site. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:7856-61 pubmed publisher
    ..basis of this advantageous signal change, we here report the X-ray structure of the complex of thioflavin T with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase...
  21. Asmar Rovira G, Asseo García A, Quesada O, Hanson M, Cheng A, Nogueras C, et al. Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying detergent-lipid environments. J Membr Biol. 2008;223:13-26 pubmed publisher
    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades...
  22. Pandhare A, Hamouda A, Staggs B, Aggarwal S, Duddempudi P, Lever J, et al. Bupropion binds to two sites in the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane domain: a photoaffinity labeling study with the bupropion analogue [(125)I]-SADU-3-72. Biochemistry. 2012;51:2425-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on inhibition of [(125)I]SADU-3-72 binding, SADU-3-72 binds with high affinity (IC(50) = 0.8 ?M) to the Torpedo nAChR in the resting (closed channel) state and in the agonist-induced desensitized state, and bupropion binds to ..
  23. Dvir H, Jiang H, Wong D, Harel M, Chetrit M, He X, et al. X-ray structures of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase complexed with (+)-huperzine A and (-)-huperzine B: structural evidence for an active site rearrangement. Biochemistry. 2002;41:10810-8 pubmed
    Kinetic and structural data are presented on the interaction with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) of (+)-huperzine A, a synthetic enantiomer of the anti-Alzheimer drug, (-)-huperzine A, and of its natural homologue (-)-..
  24. Mantipragada S, Horvath L, Arias H, Schwarzmann G, Sandhoff K, Barrantes F, et al. Lipid-protein interactions and effect of local anesthetics in acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes from Torpedo marmorata electric organ. Biochemistry. 2003;42:9167-75 pubmed
    ..for spin-labeled phospholipids and gangliosides in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes from Torpedo marmorata has been studied by ESR spectroscopy...
  25. Purohit P, Auerbach A. Acetylcholine receptor gating at extracellular transmembrane domain interface: the "pre-M1" linker. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:559-68 pubmed
  26. Colletier J, Fournier D, Greenblatt H, Stojan J, Sussman J, Zaccai G, et al. Structural insights into substrate traffic and inhibition in acetylcholinesterase. EMBO J. 2006;25:2746-56 pubmed
    ..Here, we present the crystal structures of Torpedo californica AChE complexed with the substrate acetylthiocholine, the product thiocholine and a nonhydrolysable ..
  27. Rozman K, Araoz R, Sepcic K, Molgo J, Suput D. Parazoanthoxanthin A blocks Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;187:384-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason its effect on Torpedo nAChR (alpha1(2)betagammadelta) transplanted to Xenopus laevis oocytes was evaluated, using the voltage-clamp ..
  28. Pilger C, Bartolucci C, Lamba D, Tropsha A, Fels G. Accurate prediction of the bound conformation of galanthamine in the active site of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase using molecular docking. J Mol Graph Model. 2001;19:288-96, 374-8 pubmed
    ..correctly predict the orientation and conformation of the galanthamine molecule in the active site of AChE from Torpedo californica (TcAChE) using a combination of rigid docking and flexible geometry optimization with a molecular ..
  29. Santiago J, Guzmán G, Rojas L, Marti R, Asmar Rovira G, Santana L, et al. Probing the effects of membrane cholesterol in the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor and the novel lipid-exposed mutation alpha C418W in Xenopus oocytes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:46523-32 pubmed
    The effects of cholesterol on the ion-channel function of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and the novel lipid-exposed gain in function alpha C418W mutation have been investigated in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  30. Dvir H, Wong D, Harel M, Barril X, Orozco M, Luque F, et al. 3D structure of Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase complexed with huprine X at 2.1 A resolution: kinetic and molecular dynamic correlates. Biochemistry. 2002;41:2970-81 pubmed
    ..Cocrystallization of huprine X with Torpedo californica AChE yielded crystals whose 3D structure was determined to 2.1 A resolution...
  31. Li Y, Yu W, Lin C, Chen T. Oxidation and reduction control of the inactivation gating of Torpedo ClC-0 chloride channels. Biophys J. 2005;88:3936-45 pubmed
    ..Here, we report a redox regulation of the function of ClC-0, a chloride (Cl(-)) channel from the Torpedo electric organ...
  32. Taly A, Delarue M, Grutter T, Nilges M, Le Novère N, Corringer P, et al. Normal mode analysis suggests a quaternary twist model for the nicotinic receptor gating mechanism. Biophys J. 2005;88:3954-65 pubmed
    ..of the extracellular domain of nAChRs; and 2), cryo-electron microscopy data of the membrane domain collected on Torpedo marmorata nAChRs...
  33. Unwin N, Fujiyoshi Y. Gating movement of acetylcholine receptor caught by plunge-freezing. J Mol Biol. 2012;422:617-634 pubmed publisher
    ..This coupled allosteric transition shifts the structure from a tense (closed) state toward a more relaxed (open) state. ..
  34. Poh S, Mourier G, Thai R, Armugam A, Molgo J, Servent D, et al. A synthetic weak neurotoxin binds with low affinity to Torpedo and chicken alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:4247-56 pubmed
    ..Our data confirm previous observations that natural weak neurotoxins from cobras have poor affinity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  35. Prisco M, Liguoro A, Comitato R, Cardone A, D Onghia B, Ricchiari L, et al. Apoptosis during spermatogenesis in the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata. Mol Reprod Dev. 2003;64:341-8 pubmed
    This article is a cytological and molecular investigation on the occurrence of apoptosis during spermatogenesis in Torpedo, a cartilaginous fish characterised by a typical cystic testis...
  36. Xiu X, Hanek A, Wang J, Lester H, Dougherty D. A unified view of the role of electrostatic interactions in modulating the gating of Cys loop receptors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41655-66 pubmed
  37. Scheel O, Zdebik A, Lourdel S, Jentsch T. Voltage-dependent electrogenic chloride/proton exchange by endosomal CLC proteins. Nature. 2005;436:424-7 pubmed
    ..ClC-4 and ClC-5 may still compensate the charge accumulation by endosomal proton pumps, but are expected to couple directly vesicular pH gradients to Cl- gradients...
  38. Texidó L, Ros E, Martín Satué M, Lopez S, Aleu J, Marsal J, et al. Effect of galantamine on the human alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and spontaneous cholinergic synaptic activity. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:672-8 pubmed
    ..3. The same enhancing effect was obtained in oocytes transplanted with Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) isolated from the electric organ, but in this case the optimal ..
  39. Pusch M, Accardi A, Liantonio A, Ferrera L, De Luca A, Camerino D, et al. Mechanism of block of single protopores of the Torpedo chloride channel ClC-0 by 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB). J Gen Physiol. 2001;118:45-62 pubmed
    ..in detail the mechanism of inhibition by the S(-) enantiomer of 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)butyric acid (CPB) of the Torpedo Cl(-)channel, ClC-0...
  40. Hamouda A, Chiara D, Sauls D, Cohen J, Blanton M. Cholesterol interacts with transmembrane alpha-helices M1, M3, and M4 of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: photolabeling studies using [3H]Azicholesterol. Biochemistry. 2006;45:976-86 pubmed
    ..probe [3alpha-(3)H]6-Azi-5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol ([3H]Azicholesterol) was used to identify domains in the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that interact with cholesterol...
  41. Miyazawa A, Fujiyoshi Y, Unwin N. Structure and gating mechanism of the acetylcholine receptor pore. Nature. 2003;423:949-55 pubmed
    ..These rotations are communicated through the inner helices, and open the pore by breaking the girdle apart...
  42. Nazarian J, Hathout Y, Vertes A, Hoffman E. The proteome survey of an electricity-generating organ (Torpedo californica electric organ). Proteomics. 2007;7:617-627 pubmed publisher
    b>Torpedo californica is a species in class Chondrichthyes. Electric rays have evolved the electric organ, which is similar to the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
  43. Traverso S, Zifarelli G, Aiello R, Pusch M. Proton sensing of CLC-0 mutant E166D. J Gen Physiol. 2006;127:51-65 pubmed
    ..Voltage-independent protonation of D166 from the outside favors a low conductance state, whereas protonation from the inside favors the high conductance state...
  44. Andreeva I, Nirthanan S, Cohen J, Pedersen S. Site specificity of agonist-induced opening and desensitization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Biochemistry. 2006;45:195-204 pubmed
    Agonist-binding kinetics to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from Torpedo californica were measured using sequential-mixing stopped-flow fluorescence methods to determine the contribution of each individual site to agonist-..
  45. Valiante S, Prisco M, Ricchiari L, Laforgia V, Varano L, Andreuccetti P. Distribution of PACAP in the brain of the cartilaginous fish torpedo marmorata. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1070:591-6 pubmed
    ..in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR techniques, in the central nervous system of the elasmobranch Torpedo marmorata. RT-PCR analysis showed that the CNS of T. marmorata expresses a messenger encoding PACAP...
  46. Kawai H, Dunn S, Raftery M. Epibatidine binds to four sites on the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;366:834-9 pubmed
    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo electric organ is a pentamer of homologous subunits. This receptor is generally thought to carry two high affinity sites for agonists under equilibrium conditions...
  47. Wang H, Toghraee R, Papke D, Cheng X, McCammon J, Ravaioli U, et al. Single-channel current through nicotinic receptor produced by closure of binding site C-loop. Biophys J. 2009;96:3582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach of applying Biology Boltzmann transport Monte Carlo simulation can be used to further investigate the binding to gating transduction mechanism and the structural bases for ion selection and translocation...
  48. Srivastava S, Hamouda A, Pandhare A, Duddempudi P, Sanghvi M, Cohen J, et al. [(3)H]Epibatidine photolabels non-equivalent amino acids in the agonist binding site of Torpedo and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24939-47 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the mode of binding of epibatidine in a muscle and a neuronal nAChR, we photolabeled Torpedo alpha(2)betagammadelta and expressed human alpha4beta2 nAChRs with [(3)H]epibatidine and identified by Edman ..
  49. Liguoro A, Prisco M, Mennella C, Ricchiari L, Angelini F, Andreuccetti P. Distribution of terminal sugar residues in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;68:524-30 pubmed
    ..The present investigation aims to identify lectin-binding sites in testis of Torpedo marmorata...
  50. Accardi A, Pusch M. Conformational changes in the pore of CLC-0. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:277-93 pubmed
    The Torpedo Cl- channel, CLC-0, is inhibited by clofibric acid derivatives from the intracellular side...
  51. Purohit P, Auerbach A. Acetylcholine receptor gating: movement in the alpha-subunit extracellular domain. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:569-79 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the inner and outer sheets of the alpha-subunit beta-core do not rotate as a rigid body...
  52. Jha A, Cadugan D, Purohit P, Auerbach A. Acetylcholine receptor gating at extracellular transmembrane domain interface: the cys-loop and M2-M3 linker. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:547-58 pubmed
    ..The M2-M3 linker appears to be the key moving part that couples gating motions at the base of the ECD with those in TMD. These interactions are distributed along an approximately 16-A border and involve about a dozen residues...
  53. Mordvintsev D, Polyak Y, Levtsova O, Tourleigh Y, Kasheverov I, Shaitan K, et al. A model for short alpha-neurotoxin bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica: comparison with long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and alpha-conotoxins. Comput Biol Chem. 2005;29:398-411 pubmed
    ..Here, we present a model for a short alpha-neurotoxin, neurotoxin II from Naja oxiana (NTII), bound to Torpedo californica nAChR...