dogfish

Summary

Summary: Sharks of the family Squalidae, also called dogfish sharks. They comprise at least eight genera and 44 species. Their LIVER is valued for its oil and its flesh is often made into fertilizer.

Top Publications

  1. Hecht J, Stricker S, Wiecha U, Stiege A, Panopoulou G, Podsiadlowski L, et al. Evolution of a core gene network for skeletogenesis in chordates. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000025 pubmed publisher
    ..vertebrates, we cloned the Runt genes from hagfish as representative of jawless fish (MgRunxA, MgRunxB) and from dogfish as representative of jawed cartilaginous fish (ScRunx1-3)...
  2. Masseck O, Hoffmann K. Responses to moving visual stimuli in pretectal neurons of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:200-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the recorded direction-selective neurons in the Cgl are plausible detectors for retinal slip created by body rotations in all directions...
  3. Wotton K, French K, Shimeld S. The developmental expression of foxl2 in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:793-7 pubmed
    ..We have isolated a foxl2 cDNA from the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (also known as the lesser spotted catshark), allowing the characterisation of this gene's ..
  4. Baehr C, Fricker G, Miller D. Fluorescein-methotrexate transport in dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) choroid plexus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R464-72 pubmed
    ..fluorescein-methotrexate (FL-MTX), from bath (CSF-side) to blood vessels in intact lateral choroid plexus from dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, an evolutionarily ancient vertebrate...
  5. Sueiro C, Carrera I, Molist P, Rodriguez Moldes I, Anadón R. Distribution and development of glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (elasmobranchs). J Comp Neurol. 2004;478:189-206 pubmed
    ..of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing cells and fibers in the spinal cord of the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L...
  6. Richards J, Heigenhauser G, Wood C. Exercise and recovery metabolism in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). J Comp Physiol B. 2003;173:463-74 pubmed
    ..muscle substrate depletion and metabolite distribution between white muscle and blood plasma in the Pacific spiny dogfish, both in vivo and in an electrically stimulated perfused tail-trunk preparation...
  7. Haitina T, Takahashi A, Holmén L, Enberg J, Schioth H. Further evidence for ancient role of ACTH peptides at melanocortin (MC) receptors; pharmacology of dogfish and lamprey peptides at dogfish MC receptors. Peptides. 2007;28:798-805 pubmed
    ..In this paper we synthesized melanocortin peptides from both the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and tested them on the MC3 and MC4 receptors from spiny dogfish...
  8. Sauka Spengler T, Baratte B, Lepage M, Mazan S. Characterization of Brachyury genes in the dogfish S. canicula and the lamprey L. fluviatilis. Insights into gastrulation in a chondrichthyan. Dev Biol. 2003;263:296-307 pubmed
    ..well as cephalochordates, we have used this marker to identify these cell populations during gastrulation in the dogfish. The results suggest that these cells are initially present over the whole margin of the blastoderm and are ..
  9. Ringholm A, Klovins J, Fredriksson R, Poliakova N, Larson E, Kukkonen J, et al. Presence of melanocortin (MC4) receptor in spiny dogfish suggests an ancient vertebrate origin of central melanocortin system. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:213-21 pubmed
    ..characterization and tissue distribution of a melanocortin (MC) receptor gene in a shark, the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) (Sac)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Derobert Y, Plouhinec J, Sauka Spengler T, Le Mentec C, Baratte B, Jaillard D, et al. Structure and expression of three Emx genes in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula: functional and evolutionary implications. Dev Biol. 2002;247:390-404 pubmed
    We report the characterization of three Emx genes in a chondrichthyan, the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula...
  2. Lou F, Curtin N, Woledge R. Isometric and isovelocity contractile performance of red muscle fibres from the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:1585-95 pubmed
    Maximum isometric tetanic force produced by bundles of red muscle fibres from dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (L.), was 142.4+/-10.3 kN m(-2) (N=35 fibre bundles); this was significantly less than that produced by white fibres 289.2+/-8...
  3. Sauka Spengler T, Baratte B, Shi L, Mazan S. Structure and expression of an Otx5-related gene in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula: evidence for a conserved role of Otx5 and Crxgenes in the specification of photoreceptors. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:533-44 pubmed
    ..pattern during neurulation and early organogenesis of ScOtx5, a novel member of the Otx gene family in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula...
  4. Evans D. Vasoactive receptors in abdominal blood vessels of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2001;74:120-6 pubmed
    Previous studies have demonstrated that the ventral aorta of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, responds to a variety of cell-signaling agents...
  5. Carrera I, Molist P, Anadón R, Rodriguez Moldes I. Development of the serotoninergic system in the central nervous system of a shark, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:804-31 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons and the growth of axonal pathways in the central nervous system of a shark, the lesser spotted dogfish. Hindbrain serotonin-immunoreactive cells arose close to the floor plate and most populations migrated ventrally ..
  6. Tanaka M, Munsterberg A, Anderson W, Prescott A, Hazon N, Tickle C. Fin development in a cartilaginous fish and the origin of vertebrate limbs. Nature. 2002;416:527-31 pubmed
    ..Here we examine fin development in embryos of the primitive cartilaginous fish, Scyliorhinus canicula (dogfish) using scanning electron microscopy and investigate expression of genes known to be involved in limb positioning, ..
  7. Part P, Wright P, Wood C. Urea and water permeability in dogfish (Squalus acanthias) gills. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 1998;119:117-23 pubmed
    We used a perfused gill preparation from dogfish to investigate the origin of low branchial permeability to urea. Urea permeability (14C-urea) was measured simultaneously with diffusional water permeability (3H2O)...
  8. Koob T, Callard I. Reproductive endocrinology of female elasmobranchs: lessons from the little skate (Raja erinacea) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). J Exp Zool. 1999;284:557-74 pubmed
    ..The reproductive biology and endocrinology of the oviparous little skate and lecithotrophic viviparous spiny dogfish are reviewed in order to derive a working hypothesis that explains the complex nature of endocrine patterns ..
  9. Jamieson A, Fujii T, Bagley P, Priede I. Scavenging interactions between the arrow tooth eel Synaphobranchus kaupii and the Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis. J Fish Biol. 2011;79:205-16 pubmed publisher
    A scavenging interaction between the arrow tooth eel Synaphobranchus kaupii and the Portuguese dogfish Centroscymnus coelolepis, both ubiquitous components of fish assemblages at bathyal depths, was observed...
  10. Grondona J, Perez J, Cifuentes M, Lopez Avalos M, Nualart F, Peruzzo B, et al. Analysis of the secretory glycoproteins of the subcommissural organ of the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994;26:299-308 pubmed
    ..The SCO of an elasmobranch species, the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, was investigated applying morphological and biochemical methods...
  11. Carrera I, Anadón R, Rodriguez Moldes I. Development of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell populations and fiber pathways in the brain of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula: new perspectives on the evolution of the vertebrate catecholaminergic system. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:3574-603 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides key information about the evolution of the developmental patterns of central CA systems in fishes and thus may help in understanding how the vertebrate CA systems have evolved...
  12. Stock D, Powers D. A monophyletic origin of heart-predominant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes of gnathostome vertebrates: evidence from the cDNA sequence of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) LDH-B. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol. 1998;7:160-4 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of this and other LDH isozyme sequences provided strong support for a single origin of LDH-Bs prior to the divergence of cartilaginous and bony fishes...
  13. Debiais Thibaud M, Oulion S, Bourrat F, Laurenti P, Casane D, Borday Birraux V. The homology of odontodes in gnathostomes: insights from Dlx gene expression in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:307 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examine Dlx gene expression in oral teeth and dermal denticles in order to test the hypothesis of serial homology between these odontodes...
  14. Delarbre C, Spruyt N, Delmarre C, Gallut C, Barriel V, Janvier P, et al. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Genetics. 1998;150:331-44 pubmed
    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula...
  15. West T, Curtin N, Ferenczi M, He Z, Sun Y, Irving M, et al. Actomyosin energy turnover declines while force remains constant during isometric muscle contraction. J Physiol. 2004;555:27-43 pubmed
    Energy turnover was measured during isometric contractions of intact and Triton-permeabilized white fibres from dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) at 12 degrees C...
  16. Curtin N, Kushmerick M, Wiseman R, Woledge R. Recovery after contraction of white muscle fibres from the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J Exp Biol. 1997;200:1061-71 pubmed
    Recovery after contraction of white muscle fibres of dogfish was investigated using 31P-NMR and measurements of heat production...
  17. Salaneck E, Ardell D, Larson E, Larhammar D. Three neuropeptide Y receptor genes in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, support en bloc duplications in early vertebrate evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:1271-80 pubmed
    ..describe here the cloning of three neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor genes belonging to the Y1 subfamily in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, a cartilaginous fish...
  18. Klovins J, Haitina T, Ringholm A, Löwgren M, Fridmanis D, Slaidina M, et al. Cloning of two melanocortin (MC) receptors in spiny dogfish: MC3 receptor in cartilaginous fish shows high affinity to ACTH-derived peptides while it has lower preference to gamma-MSH. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:4320-31 pubmed
    We report the cloning and characterization of two melanocortin receptors (MCRs) from the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) (Sac)...
  19. Anderson W, Ali M, Einarsdottir I, Schäffer L, Hazon N, Conlon J. Purification, characterization, and biological activity of insulins from the spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, and the hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2002;126:113-22 pubmed
    ..of two elasmobranch species belonging to different families in the order Carcharhiniformes, the European spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (Scyliorhinidae), and the hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Carcharhinidae)...
  20. Quan F, Kenigfest N, Mazan S, Tostivint H. Molecular cloning of the cDNAs encoding three somatostatin variants in the dogfish (Scylorhinus canicula). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;180:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report the cloning of three distinct somatostatin cDNAs from the dogfish Scylorhinus canicula, a member of the group of cartilaginous fish...
  21. McKendry J, Milsom W, Perry S. Branchial CO(2) receptors and cardiorespiratory adjustments during hypercarbia in Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). J Exp Biol. 2001;204:1519-27 pubmed
    Adult Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were exposed to acute (approximately 20 min) hypercarbia while we monitored arterial blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance (R(S)), cardiac output (V(b)) and frequency (fh) as well as ..
  22. Anadon R, Molist P, Rodriguez Moldes I, Lopez J, Quintela I, Cervino M, et al. Distribution of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the brain of an elasmobranch, the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). J Comp Neurol. 2000;420:139-70 pubmed
    ..Western blot analysis of brain extracts of dogfish, sturgeon, trout, and rat showed that this antibody recognized similar bands in the four species...
  23. Curtin N, Lou F, Woledge R. Sustained performance by red and white muscle fibres from the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:1921-9 pubmed publisher
    The mechanical performance of red and white muscle fibres from dogfish was compared during a long series of contractions with sinusoidal movement or under isometric conditions at 12 degrees C (normal in vivo temperature)...
  24. Iconomidou V, Georgaka M, Chryssikos G, Gionis V, Megalofonou P, Hamodrakas S. Dogfish egg case structural studies by ATR FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Int J Biol Macromol. 2007;41:102-8 pubmed
    The dogfish egg case is a composite structure that combines mechanical tensile strength, toughness and elasticity with high permeability to small molecules and ions...
  25. Park Holohan S, West T, Woledge R, Ferenczi M, Barclay C, Curtin N. Effect of phosphate and temperature on force exerted by white muscle fibres from dogfish. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2010;31:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We have measured the Pi sensitivity of force produced by permeabilized muscle fibres from dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and rabbit...
  26. Inoue Y, Saito T, Endo M, Haruta C, Nakai T, Moritomo T, et al. Molecular cloning and preliminary expression analysis of banded dogfish (Triakis scyllia) CC chemokine cDNAs by use of suppression subtractive hybridization. Immunogenetics. 2005;56:722-34 pubmed
    ..subtractive hybridization was carried out by using cDNAs of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) of banded dogfish (Triakis scyllia) after phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation...
  27. Ghahghaei A, Rekas A, Carver J, Augusteyn R. Structure/function studies of dogfish alpha-crystallin, comparison with bovine alpha-crystallin. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2411-20 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of alpha-crystallin have changed during the course of evolution...
  28. Sueiro C, Carrera I, Rodriguez Moldes I, Molist P, Anadón R. Development of catecholaminergic systems in the spinal cord of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Elasmobranchs). Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003;142:141-50 pubmed
    The development of catecholamine-synthesizing cells and fibers in the spinal cord of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L.) was studied by means of immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
  29. Shiells R, Falk G. Potentiation of 'on' bipolar cell flash responses by dim background light and cGMP in dogfish retinal slices. J Physiol. 2002;542:211-20 pubmed
    ..This mechanism would allow stochastic resonance to occur, facilitating single-photon detection when dark-adapted, and may therefore lead to improved discrimination...
  30. Shiells R, Falk G. A rise in intracellular Ca2+ underlies light adaptation in dogfish retinal 'on' bipolar cells. J Physiol. 1999;514 ( Pt 2):343-50 pubmed
    ..2. Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from bipolar cells in dark-adapted dogfish retinal slices. Current responses to brief flashes and steps of light were analysed...
  31. Kalman M, Gould R. GFAP-immunopositive structures in spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, and little skate, Raia erinacea, brains: differences have evolutionary implications. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2001;204:59-80 pubmed
    GFAP expression patterns were compared between the brains of a spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and a little skate (Raia erinacea). After anesthesia, the animals were perfused with paraformaldehyde...
  32. Redon E, Bosseboeuf A, Rocancourt C, Da Silva C, Wincker P, Mazan S, et al. Stage-specific gene expression during spermatogenesis in the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). Reproduction. 2010;140:57-71 pubmed publisher
    In the dogfish testis, the cystic arrangement and polarization of germ cell stages make it possible to observe all stages of spermatogenesis in a single transverse section...
  33. Curtin N, Gardner Medwin A, Woledge R. Predictions of the time course of force and power output by dogfish white muscle fibres during brief tetani. J Exp Biol. 1998;201:103-14 pubmed
    ..Fully activated, white muscle fibres isolated from dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula were used to characterize the force-velocity relationship of the contractile component (CC) ..
  34. Plouhinec J, Leconte L, Sauka Spengler T, Bovolenta P, Mazan S, Saule S. Comparative analysis of gnathostome Otx gene expression patterns in the developing eye: implications for the functional evolution of the multigene family. Dev Biol. 2005;278:560-75 pubmed
    ..Expression patterns were examined in the developing eye of a chondrichthyan, the dogfish, and an amniote, the chick, and compared with the capacity of paralogous proteins to induce a pigmented phenotype ..
  35. Inoue Y, Haruta C, Usui K, Moritomo T, Nakanishi T. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the banded dogfish (Triakis scyllia) interleukin-8 cDNA. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;14:275-81 pubmed
    The dogfish (Triakis scyllia) interleukin-8 (IL-8) cDNA was isolated from mitogen-stimulated peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) utilising the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  36. Wotton K, Mazet F, Shimeld S. Expression of FoxC, FoxF, FoxL1, and FoxQ1 genes in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula defines ancient and derived roles for Fox genes in vertebrate development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1590-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterize all four gene families in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, a member of the cartilaginous fish lineage that diverged before the radiation of ..
  37. Esmann M, Fedosova N, Maunsbach A. Protonation-dependent inactivation of Na,K-ATPase by hydrostatic pressure developed at high-speed centrifugation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1468:320-8 pubmed
    ..H,K-ATPase is protected at alkaline pH, whereas Ca-ATPase is protected only in the neutral pH range...
  38. Evans D. Evidence for the presence of A1 and A2 adenosine receptors in the ventral aorta of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. J Comp Physiol B. 1992;162:179-83 pubmed
    Isolated, endothelium-free rings of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) from the ventral aorta of the dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, were used to examine the vasoactive effects of various adenosine agonists...
  39. Greger R, Heitzmann D, Hug M, Hoffmann E, Bleich M. The Na+2Cl-K+ cotransporter in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias is activated by cell shrinkage. Pflugers Arch. 1999;438:165-76 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the primary and key process for triggering the Na+2Cl-K+ cotransport is transient cell shrinkage...
  40. Iwahana H, Fujimura M, Ii S, Kondo M, Moritani M, Takahashi Y, et al. Molecular cloning of a human cDNA encoding a trifunctional enzyme of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase in de Novo pyrimidine synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;219:249-55 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis suggested that the CAD gene exists as a single copy in the human genome...
  41. Hsieh M, Liu C, Chen J, Jiang S. Speciation analysis of arsenic and selenium compounds by CE-dynamic reaction cell-ICP-MS. Electrophoresis. 2010;31:2272-8 pubmed publisher
    ..been applied to determine various arsenic and selenium compounds in NIST SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash and NRCC DOLT-3 Dogfish Liver reference materials and a selenium dietary supplement...
  42. Ferreiro Galve S, Rodriguez Moldes I, Candal E. Calretinin immunoreactivity in the developing retina of sharks: comparison with cell proliferation and GABAergic system markers. Exp Eye Res. 2010;91:378-86 pubmed publisher
    ..CR-ir) elements in the embryonic and postembryonic retina of two elasmobranchs, the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the brown shyshark (Haploblepharus fuscus)...
  43. Wang C, Perera T, Ford H, Dascher C. Characterization of a divergent non-classical MHC class I gene in sharks. Immunogenetics. 2003;55:57-61 pubmed
    ..genes encoding proteins related to the MHC class I gene family were isolated from splenic cDNA derived from spiny dogfish shark ( Squalus acanthias). The genes have been designated MhcSqac-UAA*01 and MhcSqac-UAA*NC1...
  44. Jeffree R, Oberhansli F, Teyssie J. Accumulation and transport behaviour of 241americium, 60cobalt and 134cesium by eggs of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Mar Pollut Bull. 2007;54:912-20 pubmed
    ..from seawater of the anthropogenic radionuclides (241)Am, (60)Co and (134)Cs through the egg-case of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula...
  45. Seo J, Lee Y, Park H, Lee J. The intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus small heat shock protein 20 gene (Hsp20) enhances thermotolerance of transformed Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:901-8 pubmed
    ..1% identity), moth (24.1% identity), Mexican tetra (19.5% identity), zebrafish (19.5% identity), and spiny dogfish (17...
  46. Cornelius F, Turner N, Christensen H. Modulation of Na,K-ATPase by phospholipids and cholesterol. II. Steady-state and presteady-state kinetics. Biochemistry. 2003;42:8541-9 pubmed
  47. Knight D, Vollrath F. Comparison of the spinning of selachian egg case ply sheets and orb web spider dragline filaments. Biomacromolecules. 2001;2:323-34 pubmed
    ..crystal spinning by comparing the spinning of two very different materials: the egg case wall of Selachians (dogfish, rays, and their allies) and the dragline silk of orb web spiders...
  48. Bernier N, Gilmour K, Takei Y, Perry S. Cardiovascular control via angiotensin II and circulating catecholamines in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias. J Comp Physiol B. 1999;169:237-48 pubmed
    The contributions of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) and catecholamines to cardiovascular control in the spiny dogfish were investigated by monitoring the effects of exogenous and endogenous dogfish [Asn1, Pro3, Ile5]-Ang II (dfAng ..
  49. Valentich J, Karnaky K, Ecay T. Ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of cultured dogfish shark rectal gland cells. Am J Physiol. 1996;271:C1993-2003 pubmed
    The dogfish shark rectal gland (SRG) is histologically complex, containing connective, nerve, and smooth muscle tissue and at least three types of epithelial cells: secretory tubule, central duct, and endothelial...
  50. Evans D, Gunderson M, Cegelis C. ETB-type receptors mediate endothelin-stimulated contraction in the aortic vascular smooth muscle of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. J Comp Physiol B. 1996;165:659-64 pubmed
    ..we have examined the sensitivity to endothelin of the vascular smooth muscle of the ventral aorta of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias...
  51. Solomon R, Lear S, Cohen R, Spokes K, Silva M, Solomon H, et al. The effect of organotin compounds on chloride secretion by the in vitro perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989;100:307-14 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence of toxicity to membrane transport functions in a marine species which is at risk from environmental exposure...
  52. Curtin N, West T, Ferenczi M, He Z, Sun Y, Irving M, et al. Rate of actomyosin ATP hydrolysis diminishes during isometric contraction. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;538:613-25; discussion 625-6 pubmed
  53. Delarbre C, Barriel V, Tillier S, Janvier P, Gachelin G. The main features of the craniate mitochondrial DNA between the ND1 and the COI genes were established in the common ancestor with the lancelet. Mol Biol Evol. 1997;14:807-13 pubmed
    ..The gene order is the same in the hagfish, lamprey and dogfish. In the lancelet, the location of the tRNA genes is slightly different...