sharks

Summary

Summary: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.

Top Publications

  1. Barnett A, Braccini J, Awruch C, Ebert D. An overview on the role of Hexanchiformes in marine ecosystems: biology, ecology and conservation status of a primitive order of modern sharks. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:966-90 pubmed publisher
    The large size, high trophic level and wide distribution of Hexanchiformes (cow and frilled sharks) should position this order as important apex predators in coastal and deep-water ecosystems...
  2. Towner A, Underhill L, Jewell O, Smale M. Environmental influences on the abundance and sexual composition of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias in Gansbaai, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71197 pubmed publisher
    The seasonal occurrence of white sharks visiting Gansbaai, South Africa was investigated from 2007 to 2011 using sightings from white shark cage diving boats...
  3. Matich P, Heithaus M, Layman C. Contrasting patterns of individual specialization and trophic coupling in two marine apex predators. J Anim Ecol. 2011;80:294-305 pubmed publisher
    ..turnover rates were used to quantify patterns of individual specialization in two species of 'generalist' sharks (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, and tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier). 4...
  4. Weltz K, Kock A, Winker H, Attwood C, Sikweyiya M. The influence of environmental variables on the presence of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias at two popular Cape Town bathing beaches: a generalized additive mixed model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68554 pubmed publisher
    ..These patterns will be incorporated into shark awareness and bather safety campaigns in Cape Town...
  5. Moftah M, Abdel Aziz S, Elramah S, Favereaux A. Classification of sharks in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters using morphological and DNA barcoding approaches. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27001 pubmed publisher
    ..of a new barcoding database concerning shark composition in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters (Barcoding of Egyptian Mediterranean Sharks [BEMS], http://www.boldsystems.org/views/projectlist.php?&#Barcoding%20Fish%20%28FishBOL%29).
  6. Griffiths A, Jacoby D, Casane D, MCHUGH M, Croft D, Genner M, et al. First analysis of multiple paternity in an oviparous shark, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula L.). J Hered. 2012;103:166-73 pubmed publisher
    Multiple paternity (MP) has been demonstrated in a variety of sharks, although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species...
  7. Mourier J, Mills S, Planes S. Population structure, spatial distribution and life-history traits of blacktip reef sharks Carcharhinus melanopterus. J Fish Biol. 2013;82:979-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports on the population characteristics of this widespread carcharhinid shark species and makes comparisons with other locations, confirming high geographic variability in the population structure of the species...
  8. Kim S, del Rio C, Casper D, Koch P. Isotopic incorporation rates for shark tissues from a long-term captive feeding study. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:2495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the incorporation of carbon and nitrogen into the tissues of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata)...
  9. Ma Q, Su Y, Wang J, Zhuang Z, Tang Q. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of major histocompatibility complex class IIB gene of the Whitespotted bambooshark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Fish Physiol Biochem. 2013;39:131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the MHC IIB plays an important role in response to bacterial infection in elasmobranches...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kim S, Tinker M, Estes J, Koch P. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45068 pubmed publisher
    ..most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age...
  2. Guinot G, Adnet S, Cappetta H. An analytical approach for estimating fossil record and diversification events in sharks, skates and rays. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44632 pubmed publisher
    Modern selachians and their supposed sister group (hybodont sharks) have a long and successful evolutionary history...
  3. Brunnschweiler J, Baensch H, Pierce S, Sims D. Deep-diving behaviour of a whale shark Rhincodon typus during long-distance movement in the western Indian Ocean. J Fish Biol. 2009;74:706-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Dives to depths well into the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones (1286 m maximum depth) were recorded in a bathymetrically non-constraining habitat. The water temperature range recorded during the fish's movement was 3.4-29.9 degrees C...
  4. Queiroz N, Humphries N, Noble L, Santos A, Sims D. Spatial dynamics and expanded vertical niche of blue sharks in oceanographic fronts reveal habitat targets for conservation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32374 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, blue sharks moved south-west of tagging sites (English Channel; southern Portugal), exhibiting pronounced site fidelity ..
  5. Iagher F, de Brito Belo S, Naliwaiko K, Franzói A, de Brito G, Yamazaki R, et al. Chronic supplementation with shark liver oil for reducing tumor growth and cachexia in walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:1307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..SLO, alone or combined with CF, promoted increase of tumor lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, SLO supplemented chronically, alone or associated with CF, was able to reduce tumor growth and cachexia...
  6. McCauley D, Mclean K, Bauer J, Young H, Micheli F. Evaluating the performance of methods for estimating the abundance of rapidly declining coastal shark populations. Ecol Appl. 2012;22:385-92 pubmed
    ..trials and computer simulations to critically examine the operation of four common methods for counting coastal sharks: stationary point counts, belt transects, video surveys, and mark and recapture abundance estimators...
  7. Lucifora L, García V, Worm B. Global diversity hotspots and conservation priorities for sharks. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19356 pubmed publisher
    b>Sharks are one of the most threatened groups of marine animals, as high exploitation rates coupled with low resilience to fishing pressure have resulted in population declines worldwide...
  8. Mourier J, Planes S. Direct genetic evidence for reproductive philopatry and associated fine-scale migrations in female blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) in French Polynesia. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:201-14 pubmed publisher
    ..There have been some attempts to investigate breeding patterns of reef sharks from litter reconstruction using molecular analyses...
  9. Ferrara T, Clausen P, Huber D, McHenry C, Peddemors V, Wroe S. Mechanics of biting in great white and sandtiger sharks. J Biomech. 2011;44:430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, tooth shape has been regarded as a primary predictor of feeding behavior in sharks. Here we apply Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to examine form and function in the jaws of two threatened shark ..
  10. Dunn M, Stevens D, Forman J, Connell A. Trophic interactions and distribution of some Squaliforme sharks, including new diet descriptions for Deania calcea and Squalus acanthias. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59938 pubmed publisher
    Squaliforme sharks are a common but relatively vulnerable bycatch in many deep water fisheries...
  11. Fallows C, Gallagher A, Hammerschlag N. White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) scavenging on whales and its potential role in further shaping the ecology of an apex predator. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60797 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present findings from multiple opportunistic observations of white sharks scavenging on whale carcasses in False Bay, South Africa...
  12. Vignaud T, Maynard J, Leblois R, Meekan M, Vazquez Juarez R, Ramírez Macías D, et al. Genetic structure of populations of whale sharks among ocean basins and evidence for their historic rise and recent decline. Mol Ecol. 2014;23:2590-601 pubmed publisher
    This study presents genetic evidence that whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are comprised of at least two populations that rarely mix and is the first to document a population expansion...
  13. Hammerschlag N, Luo J, Irschick D, Ault J. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45958 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines...
  14. Clarke S, Harley S, Hoyle S, Rice J. Population trends in Pacific Oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning. Conserv Biol. 2013;27:197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..management of shark resources, we analyzed a long-term record of species-specific catches, sizes, and sexes of sharks collected by onboard observers in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1995 to 2010...
  15. Kock A, O Riain M, Mauff K, Meyer M, Kotze D, Griffiths C. Residency, habitat use and sexual segregation of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55048 pubmed publisher
    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection...
  16. Nadon M, Baum J, Williams I, McPherson J, Zgliczynski B, Richards B, et al. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks. Conserv Biol. 2012;26:493-503 pubmed publisher
    b>Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems...
  17. Carlisle A, Kim S, Semmens B, Madigan D, Jorgensen S, Perle C, et al. Using stable isotope analysis to understand the migration and trophic ecology of northeastern Pacific white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30492 pubmed publisher
    ..Electronic tagging has demonstrated that white sharks exhibit a regular migratory pattern, occurring at coastal sites during the late summer, autumn and early winter ..
  18. Marshall A, Pierce S. The use and abuse of photographic identification in sharks and rays. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:1361-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the first detailed review of photo-identification as a research technique for sharks and rays is provided, and its assumptions, current applications and potential highlighted...
  19. Barnett A, Abrantes K, Seymour J, Fitzpatrick R. Residency and spatial use by reef sharks of an isolated seamount and its implications for conservation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36574 pubmed publisher
    ..The protection of sharks at these seamounts should be an integral component of conservation plans...
  20. Brunnschweiler J, Barnett A. Opportunistic visitors: long-term behavioural response of bull sharks to food provisioning in Fiji. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58522 pubmed publisher
    ..visual (n?=?48 individuals) and acoustic tracking data (n?=?82 transmitters; array of up to 16 receivers) of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas from a long-term shark feeding site at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve and reefs along the Beqa ..
  21. Delaney D, Johnson R, Bester M, Gennari E. Accuracy of using visual identification of white sharks to estimate residency patterns. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34753 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine this, in 2005, we deployed acoustic transmitters on 22 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in Mossel Bay, South Africa to quantify the probability of detecting these tagged sharks ..
  22. Chapple T, Jorgensen S, Anderson S, Kanive P, Klimley A, Botsford L, et al. A first estimate of white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, abundance off Central California. Biol Lett. 2011;7:581-3 pubmed publisher
    The decline of sharks in the global oceans underscores the need for careful assessment and monitoring of remaining populations...
  23. Haman K, Norton T, Thomas A, Dove A, Tseng F. Baseline health parameters and species comparisons among free-ranging Atlantic sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo), and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) sharks in Georgia, Florida, and Washington, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:295-306 pubmed
    b>Sharks are of commercial, research, conservation, and exhibition importance but we know little regarding health parameters and population status for many species...
  24. Preciado I, Cartes J, Serrano A, Velasco F, Olaso I, Sanchez F, et al. Resource utilization by deep-sea sharks at the Le Danois Bank, Cantabrian Sea, north-east Atlantic Ocean. J Fish Biol. 2009;75:1331-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Deep-sea sharks were collected during two multidisciplinary surveys carried out in October 2003 and April 2004 at the Le Danois ..
  25. Couturier L, Rohner C, Richardson A, Pierce S, Marshall A, Jaine F, et al. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays. Lipids. 2013;48:1029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton ..
  26. Tillett B, Meekan M, Field I, Thorburn D, Ovenden J. Evidence for reproductive philopatry in the bull shark Carcharhinus leucas. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:2140-58 pubmed publisher
    Reproductive philopatry in bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas was investigated by comparing mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4, 797 base pairs and control region genes 837 base pairs) and nuclear (three microsatellite loci) DNA of ..
  27. Andrews K, Williams G, Levin P. Seasonal and ontogenetic changes in movement patterns of sixgill sharks. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12549 pubmed publisher
    ..g. fishing), or that exert a large influence on community structure, such as sharks. We monitored the patterns of movement of 34 sixgill sharks Hexanchus griseus using two large-scale acoustic ..
  28. Vignaud T, Clua E, Mourier J, Maynard J, Planes S. Microsatellite analyses of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) in a fragmented environment show structured clusters. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61067 pubmed publisher
    ..This explanation is consistent with the ecological traits of blacktip reef sharks, and that the suitable habitat for blacktips in French Polynesia is highly fragmented...
  29. Brunnschweiler J, Baensch H. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16597 pubmed publisher
    ..because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at ..
  30. Motta P, Maslanka M, Hueter R, Davis R, de la Parra R, Mulvany S, et al. Feeding anatomy, filter-feeding rate, and diet of whale sharks Rhincodon typus during surface ram filter feeding off the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Zoology (Jena). 2010;113:199-212 pubmed publisher
    ..During surface ram filter feeding, sharks swam at an average velocity of 1.1m/s with 85% of the open mouth below the water's surface...
  31. Morris A, Hamlin H, Francis Floyd R, Sheppard B, Guillette L. Nitrate-induced goiter in captive whitespotted bamboo sharks Chilosryllium plagiosum. J Aquat Anim Health. 2011;23:92-9 pubmed
    ..the effects of high environmental nitrate concentrations on thyroid function in juvenile whitespotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum...
  32. de la Parra Venegas R, Hueter R, González Cano J, Tyminski J, Gregorio Remolina J, Maslanka M, et al. An unprecedented aggregation of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18994 pubmed publisher
    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters...
  33. Howey Jordan L, Brooks E, Abercrombie D, Jordan L, Brooks A, Williams S, et al. Complex movements, philopatry and expanded depth range of a severely threatened pelagic shark, the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the western North Atlantic. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56588 pubmed publisher
    Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance...
  34. Campana S, Dorey A, Fowler M, Joyce W, Wang Z, Wright D, et al. Migration pathways, behavioural thermoregulation and overwintering grounds of blue sharks in the Northwest Atlantic. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16854 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recaptures of tagged sharks have shown that the species is highly migratory, migration pathways towards the overwintering grounds remain ..
  35. Sequeira A, Mellin C, Meekan M, Sims D, Bradshaw C. Inferred global connectivity of whale shark Rhincodon typus populations. J Fish Biol. 2013;82:367-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This will assist endeavours to predict the longer-term response of the species to ocean warming and changing patterns of human-induced mortality...
  36. Bond M, Babcock E, Pikitch E, Abercrombie D, Lamb N, Chapman D. Reef sharks exhibit site-fidelity and higher relative abundance in marine reserves on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32983 pubmed publisher
    Carcharhinid sharks can make up a large fraction of the top predators inhabiting tropical marine ecosystems and have declined in many regions due to intense fishing pressure...
  37. Hueter R, Tyminski J, de la Parra R. Horizontal movements, migration patterns, and population structure of whale sharks in the Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Caribbean sea. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71883 pubmed publisher
    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate by the hundreds in a summer feeding area off the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, where the Gulf of Mexico meets the Caribbean Sea...
  38. Soares M, de Carvalho M. Comparative myology of the mandibular and hyoid arches of sharks of the order hexanchiformes and their bearing on its monophyly and phylogenetic relationships (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii). J Morphol. 2013;274:203-14 pubmed publisher
    The order Hexanchiformes currently comprises two families, Chlamydoselachidae (frilled sharks) and Hexanchidae (six- and seven-gill sharks), but its monophyly and relationships with other elasmobranchs are still discussed...
  39. Huveneers C, Otway N, Harcourt R, Ellis M. Quantification of the maternal-embryonal nutritional relationship of elasmobranchs: case study of wobbegong sharks (genus Orectolobus). J Fish Biol. 2011;78:1375-89 pubmed publisher
    The present study used wobbegong sharks (genus Orectolobus) to assess the threshold value proposed by previous research to categorize strict lecithotrophic from incipient histotrophic species...
  40. Zhu C, Feng W, Weedon J, Hua P, Stefanov D, Ohta Y, et al. The multiple shark Ig H chain genes rearrange and hypermutate autonomously. J Immunol. 2011;187:2492-501 pubmed publisher
    b>Sharks and skates are representatives of the earliest vertebrates with an immune system based on V(D)J rearrangement...
  41. Jewell O, Wcisel M, Gennari E, Towner A, Bester M, Johnson R, et al. Effects of Smart Position Only (SPOT) tag deployment on white sharks Carcharodon carcharias in South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27242 pubmed publisher
    We present 15 individual cases of sub-adult white sharks that were SPOT tagged in South Africa from 2003-2004 and have been re-sighted as recently as 2011...
  42. Daly Engel T, Seraphin K, Holland K, Coffey J, Nance H, Toonen R, et al. Global phylogeography with mixed-marker analysis reveals male-mediated dispersal in the endangered scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29986 pubmed publisher
  43. Dale J, Stankus A, Burns M, Meyer C. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16962 pubmed publisher
    ..Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36...
  44. Semmens J, Payne N, Huveneers C, Sims D, Bruce B. Feeding requirements of white sharks may be higher than originally thought. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1471 pubmed publisher
    ..physiological, behavioural, and ecosystem ecology; however, for difficult-to-study species such as large sharks, prey intake rates are largely unknown...
  45. Davidson B, Cliff G. Liver lipids of female Carcharias taurus (spotted raggedtooth) sharks: a comparison between seasons. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2011;37:613-8 pubmed publisher
    Female raggedtooth sharks (Carcharias taurus) migrate from the waters off the eastern Cape past KwaZulu-Natal and up to southern Mozambique and then back on an annual basis...
  46. Barnett A, Stevens J, Frusher S, Semmens J. Seasonal occurrence and population structure of the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus in coastal habitats of south-east Tasmania. J Fish Biol. 2010;77:1688-701 pubmed publisher
    ..cepedianus may have a significant influence on community dynamics through both direct and indirect predator-prey interactions...
  47. Towner A, Wcisel M, Reisinger R, Edwards D, Jewell O. Gauging the threat: the first population estimate for white sharks in South Africa using photo identification and automated software. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66035 pubmed publisher
    South Africa is reputed to host the world's largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals...
  48. Zhang J, Liu Y, Zhang X, Pan J, Nie Z, Zhang W, et al. The identification of microRNAs in the whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) liver by Illumina sequencing. Gene. 2013;527:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This study resulted in the addition of a significant number of novel miRNA sequences to GenBank and laid the foundation for further understanding of the function of miRNAs in the regulation of C. plagiosum liver development. ..
  49. Hisano M, Connolly S, Robbins W. Population growth rates of reef sharks with and without fishing on the great barrier reef: robust estimation with multiple models. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25028 pubmed publisher
    Overfishing of sharks is a global concern, with increasing numbers of species threatened by overfishing. For many sharks, both catch rates and underwater visual surveys have been criticized as indices of abundance...
  50. Ramírez Macías D, Meekan M, de la Parra Venegas R, Remolina Suárez F, Trigo Mendoza M, Vazquez Juarez R. Patterns in composition, abundance and scarring of whale sharks Rhincodon typus near Holbox Island, Mexico. J Fish Biol. 2012;80:1401-16 pubmed publisher
    ..typus in this area and for designing better management programmes for R. typus conservation...
  51. Zhou F, Wang Y, Guan Y, Xu Y, Gao X, Wu W, et al. Construction and characterization of a cDNA library from shark regenerated hepatic tissue. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1170-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and have big livers...
  52. Velez Zuazo X, Agnarsson I. Shark tales: a molecular species-level phylogeny of sharks (Selachimorpha, Chondrichthyes). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;58:207-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Sharks are a diverse and ecologically important group, including some of the ocean's largest predatory animals. Sharks are also commercially important, with many species suffering overexploitation and facing extinction...
  53. Otway N, Ellis M, Starr R. Serum biochemical reference intervals for wild dwarf ornate wobbegong sharks (Orectolobus ornatus). Vet Clin Pathol. 2011;40:361-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Sharks are important to sport and commercial fishing, public aquaria, and research institutions. However, serum biochemical reference values have been established for few species.