ambystoma

Summary

Summary: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.

Top Publications

  1. Karraker N, Gibbs J, Vonesh J. Impacts of road deicing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians. Ecol Appl. 2008;18:724-34 pubmed
    ..the possible effects of road salt on two common vernal-pond-breeding amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica)...
  2. Forson D, Storfer A. Effects of atrazine and iridovirus infection on survival and life-history traits of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:168-73 pubmed
    ..We exposed six-week-old, larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) to Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV; 0 or 10(3...
  3. Bos D, Williams R, Gopurenko D, Bulut Z, DeWoody J. Condition-dependent mate choice and a reproductive disadvantage for MHC-divergent male tiger salamanders. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:3307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the extent MHC-based mating preferences among wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) using multiple molecular approaches...
  4. Putta S, Smith J, Walker J, Rondet M, Weisrock D, Monaghan J, et al. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders. BMC Genomics. 2004;5:54 pubmed
    ..We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum), species with deep and diverse research histories.
  5. Bommarito T, Sparling D, Halbrook R. Toxicity of coal-tar pavement sealants and ultraviolet radiation to Ambystoma Maculatum. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:1147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study exposes larvae of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to determine if coal tar sealant can have negative effects on aquatic amphibians and if coal tar ..
  6. Tassava R, Olsen Winner C. Responses to amputation of denervated ambystoma limbs containing aneurogenic limb grafts. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2003;297:64-79 pubmed
    The developing neural tubes and associated neural crest cells were removed from stage 30 Ambystoma maculatum embryos to obtain larvae with aneurogenic forelimbs. Forelimbs were allowed to develop to late 3 digit or early 4 digit stages...
  7. Robertson A, Ramsden C, Niedzwiecki J, Fu J, Bogart J. An unexpected recent ancestor of unisexual Ambystoma. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:3339-51 pubmed
    Previous research has shown that members of the unisexual hybrid complex of the genus Ambystoma possess a mitochondrial genome that is unrelated to their nuclear parental species, but the origin of this mitochondrion has remained unclear...
  8. Smith J, Voss S. Bird and mammal sex-chromosome orthologs map to the same autosomal region in a salamander (ambystoma). Genetics. 2007;177:607-13 pubmed
    ..and mammal sex chromosomes by mapping the location of amniote sex-chromosome loci in a salamander amphibian (Ambystoma)...
  9. Gorsic M, Majdic G, Komel R. Identification of differentially expressed genes in 4-day axolotl limb blastema by suppression subtractive hybridization. J Physiol Biochem. 2008;64:37-50 pubmed
    The goal of our study was the identification of up-regulated genes during axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) hindlimb regeneration 4 days after amputation using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)...
  10. Thoreson W, Nitzan R, Miller R. Chloride efflux inhibits single calcium channel open probability in vertebrate photoreceptors: chloride imaging and cell-attached patch-clamp recordings. Vis Neurosci. 2000;17:197-206 pubmed
    ..Examination of the open and closed time distributions suggests that the reduction in open probability arises from increases in closed-state dwell times. Changes in intracellular [Cl-] may thus modulate photoreceptor Ca2+ channels...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Karraker N, Gibbs J, Vonesh J. Impacts of road deicing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians. Ecol Appl. 2008;18:724-34 pubmed
    ..the possible effects of road salt on two common vernal-pond-breeding amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica)...
  2. Forson D, Storfer A. Effects of atrazine and iridovirus infection on survival and life-history traits of the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:168-73 pubmed
    ..We exposed six-week-old, larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) to Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV; 0 or 10(3...
  3. Bos D, Williams R, Gopurenko D, Bulut Z, DeWoody J. Condition-dependent mate choice and a reproductive disadvantage for MHC-divergent male tiger salamanders. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:3307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the extent MHC-based mating preferences among wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) using multiple molecular approaches...
  4. Putta S, Smith J, Walker J, Rondet M, Weisrock D, Monaghan J, et al. From biomedicine to natural history research: EST resources for ambystomatid salamanders. BMC Genomics. 2004;5:54 pubmed
    ..We developed ESTs for Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Eastern tiger salamander (A. tigrinum tigrinum), species with deep and diverse research histories.
  5. Bommarito T, Sparling D, Halbrook R. Toxicity of coal-tar pavement sealants and ultraviolet radiation to Ambystoma Maculatum. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:1147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study exposes larvae of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to determine if coal tar sealant can have negative effects on aquatic amphibians and if coal tar ..
  6. Tassava R, Olsen Winner C. Responses to amputation of denervated ambystoma limbs containing aneurogenic limb grafts. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2003;297:64-79 pubmed
    The developing neural tubes and associated neural crest cells were removed from stage 30 Ambystoma maculatum embryos to obtain larvae with aneurogenic forelimbs. Forelimbs were allowed to develop to late 3 digit or early 4 digit stages...
  7. Robertson A, Ramsden C, Niedzwiecki J, Fu J, Bogart J. An unexpected recent ancestor of unisexual Ambystoma. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:3339-51 pubmed
    Previous research has shown that members of the unisexual hybrid complex of the genus Ambystoma possess a mitochondrial genome that is unrelated to their nuclear parental species, but the origin of this mitochondrion has remained unclear...
  8. Smith J, Voss S. Bird and mammal sex-chromosome orthologs map to the same autosomal region in a salamander (ambystoma). Genetics. 2007;177:607-13 pubmed
    ..and mammal sex chromosomes by mapping the location of amniote sex-chromosome loci in a salamander amphibian (Ambystoma)...
  9. Gorsic M, Majdic G, Komel R. Identification of differentially expressed genes in 4-day axolotl limb blastema by suppression subtractive hybridization. J Physiol Biochem. 2008;64:37-50 pubmed
    The goal of our study was the identification of up-regulated genes during axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) hindlimb regeneration 4 days after amputation using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)...
  10. Thoreson W, Nitzan R, Miller R. Chloride efflux inhibits single calcium channel open probability in vertebrate photoreceptors: chloride imaging and cell-attached patch-clamp recordings. Vis Neurosci. 2000;17:197-206 pubmed
    ..Examination of the open and closed time distributions suggests that the reduction in open probability arises from increases in closed-state dwell times. Changes in intracellular [Cl-] may thus modulate photoreceptor Ca2+ channels...
  11. Fairhall A, Burlingame C, Narasimhan R, Harris R, Puchalla J, Berry M. Selectivity for multiple stimulus features in retinal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:2724-38 pubmed
    ..These reverse models were able to account for 80-100% of the information encoded by ganglion cells...
  12. Kumar A, Velloso C, Imokawa Y, Brockes J. The regenerative plasticity of isolated urodele myofibers and its dependence on MSX1. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E218 pubmed
    ..The induction of Msx1 expression is required to activate this programme. Our understanding of the regulation of plasticity in postmitotic salamander cells should inform strategies to promote regeneration in other contexts...
  13. Fitzpatrick B, Shaffer H. Hybrid vigor between native and introduced salamanders raises new challenges for conservation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15793-8 pubmed
    ..caused by differential viability of hybrid larvae in wild populations where native California Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma californiense) and introduced Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) have been hybridizing for ..
  14. Das J, Crouch R, Ma J, Oprian D, Kono M. Role of the 9-methyl group of retinal in cone visual pigments. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5532-8 pubmed
    ..However, for the red cone pigment, the 9-methyl group of retinal appears to be critical in the deactivation pathway...
  15. Smith J, Voss S. Gene order data from a model amphibian (Ambystoma): new perspectives on vertebrate genome structure and evolution. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:219 pubmed
    ..We used 491 transcribed sequences from a salamander (Ambystoma) genetic map and whole genome assemblies for human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, zebrafish, and the freshwater ..
  16. Ganmor E, Segev R, Schneidman E. The architecture of functional interaction networks in the retina. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3044-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that the underlying interaction map of the retina is sparse and dominated by local overlapping interaction modules...
  17. Mercer A, Chen M, Thoreson W. Lateral mobility of presynaptic L-type calcium channels at photoreceptor ribbon synapses. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..mobility of presynaptic L-type Ca(2+) channels at photoreceptor ribbon synapses of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina...
  18. Jancovich J, Davids E, Seiler A, Jacobs B, Collins J. Transmission of the Ambystoma tigrinum virus to alternative hosts. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;46:159-63 pubmed
    b>Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) is a lethal virus originally isolated from Sonora tiger salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi in the San Rafael Valley in southern Arizona. USA. ATV is implicated in several salamander epizootics...
  19. Ala Laurila P, Donner K, Crouch R, Cornwall M. Chromophore switch from 11-cis-dehydroretinal (A2) to 11-cis-retinal (A1) decreases dark noise in salamander red rods. J Physiol. 2007;585:57-74 pubmed
  20. Zamudio K, Wieczorek A. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure and dispersal among spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) breeding populations. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:257-74 pubmed
    We examined fine-scale genetic variation among breeding aggregations of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to quantify dispersal, interpopulation connectivity and population genetic structure...
  21. Satoh A, Gardiner D, Bryant S, Endo T. Nerve-induced ectopic limb blastemas in the Axolotl are equivalent to amputation-induced blastemas. Dev Biol. 2007;312:231-44 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the ALM is appropriate for identifying the signaling pathways regulating the early events of tetrapod limb regeneration...
  22. Ferrari M, Chivers D. Latent inhibition of predator recognition by embryonic amphibians. Biol Lett. 2009;5:160-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The widespread ability of prey to learn to recognize non-predators might explain the persistence of injured conspecific cues as a reliable mechanism for learned predator recognition...
  23. Zhang J, Wu S. Immunocytochemical analysis of photoreceptors in the tiger salamander retina. Vision Res. 2009;49:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The different photoreceptors selectively contacting bipolar and horizontal cells support the idea that visual signals may be conveyed to the inner retina by different functional pathways in the outer retina...
  24. Kefalov V, Carter Cornwall M, Crouch R. Occupancy of the chromophore binding site of opsin activates visual transduction in rod photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 1999;113:491-503 pubmed
    ..We propose that this distinction is due to a fundamental difference in the interaction of rod and cone opsins with retinal, which may have implications for the different physiology of the two types of photoreceptors...
  25. Bos D, DeWoody J. Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II alleles in wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Immunogenetics. 2005;57:775-81 pubmed
    ..Prior to this study, the MHC was poorly characterized in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), but the congeneric axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is thought to have an unusual MHC...
  26. Corson D, Kefalov V, Cornwall M, Crouch R. Effect of 11-cis 13-demethylretinal on phototransduction in bleach-adapted rod and cone photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 2000;116:283-97 pubmed
  27. Shaffer H, Pauly G, Oliver J, Trenham P. The molecular phylogenetics of endangerment: cryptic variation and historical phylogeography of the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense. Mol Ecol. 2004;13:3033-49 pubmed
    ..We present the results of a range-wide survey of genetic variation in the California tiger salamander, Ambystoma californiense, as well as a summary of the past several million years of inundation and isolation of the Great ..
  28. Zhang J, Wu S. Goalpha labels ON bipolar cells in the tiger salamander retina. J Comp Neurol. 2003;461:276-89 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize photoreceptor inputs and axon terminal morphology of a population of ON bipolar cell with the use of a G(oalpha) antibody as an immunomarker in the salamander retina...
  29. Eo S, Doyle J, Hale M, Marra N, Ruhl J, DeWoody J. Comparative transcriptomics and gene expression in larval tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) gill and lung tissues as revealed by pyrosequencing. Gene. 2012;492:329-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the tissue-specific differences we observed in transcriptomes, these data reinforce the idea that changes in gene expression serve as a primary mechanism underlying phenotypic plasticity...
  30. Mitra P, Slaughter M. Mechanism of generation of spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) in retinal amacrine cells. J Gen Physiol. 2002;119:355-72 pubmed
    ..This amplified Ca(2+) signal in turn activates BK channels in a discontinuous fashion, resulting in randomly occurring SMOCs...
  31. Schnapp E, Kragl M, Rubin L, Tanaka E. Hedgehog signaling controls dorsoventral patterning, blastema cell proliferation and cartilage induction during axolotl tail regeneration. Development. 2005;132:3243-53 pubmed
  32. Sakmar T. Timing is everything: Direct measurement of retinol production in cones and rods. J Gen Physiol. 2006;128:147-8 pubmed
  33. Bulut Z, McCormick C, Gopurenko D, Williams R, Bos D, DeWoody J. Microsatellite mutation rates in the eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) differ 10-fold across loci. Genetica. 2009;136:501-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we present empirical data on MMRs in eastern tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum)...
  34. Vessey J, Lalonde M, Mizan H, Welch N, Kelly M, Barnes S. Carbenoxolone inhibition of voltage-gated Ca channels and synaptic transmission in the retina. J Neurophysiol. 2004;92:1252-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest broad inhibitory actions for carbenoxolone in the retina that must be considered when interpreting its effects on inhibitory feedback...
  35. Mable B. Sex in the postgenomic era. Trends Ecol Evol. 2007;22:559-61 pubmed
    ..on what was considered to be a classic example of a such a lineage, an all-female polyploid hybrid complex of Ambystoma salamanders, not only refutes previous allegations of sexual abstinence in this complex, but also provides ..
  36. Graham E, Fay S, Davey A, Sanders R. Intracapsular algae provide fixed carbon to developing embryos of the salamander Ambystoma maculatum. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:452-9 pubmed publisher
    Each spring, North American spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) females each lay hundreds of eggs in shallow pools of water. Eggs are surrounded by jelly layers and are deposited as large gelatinous masses...
  37. Echeverri K, Clarke J, Tanaka E. In vivo imaging indicates muscle fiber dedifferentiation is a major contributor to the regenerating tail blastema. Dev Biol. 2001;236:151-64 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results show that endogenous multinucleate muscle fibers can dedifferentiate into mononucleate cells and contribute significantly to the blastema...
  38. Rieke F. Temporal contrast adaptation in salamander bipolar cells. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9445-54 pubmed
    ..The functional properties of adaptation differed for the two bipolar types, however, with contrast having a much more pronounced effect on the kinetics of the responses of off cells than on cells...
  39. O Neill E, Schwartz R, Bullock C, Williams J, Shaffer H, Aguilar Miguel X, et al. Parallel tagged amplicon sequencing reveals major lineages and phylogenetic structure in the North American tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:111-29 pubmed publisher
    ..amplicons generated from 95 nuclear loci and 93 individuals sampled across the range of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) species complex...
  40. Cadetti L, Bartoletti T, Thoreson W. Quantal mEPSCs and residual glutamate: how horizontal cell responses are shaped at the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2575-86 pubmed publisher
  41. Larson D, McDonald S, Fivizzani A, Newton W, Hamilton S. Effects of the herbicide atrazine on Ambystoma tigrinum metamorphosis: duration, larval growth, and hormonal response. Physiol Zool. 1998;71:671-9 pubmed
    We exposed larval tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) reared in the laboratory from eggs collected from a prairie wetland in North Dakota to three concentrations of atrazine (0, 75, and 250 micrograms/L) in a static renewal test to ..
  42. Voss S, Kump D, Putta S, Pauly N, Reynolds A, Henry R, et al. Origin of amphibian and avian chromosomes by fission, fusion, and retention of ancestral chromosomes. Genome Res. 2011;21:1306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We used comparative mapping to investigate the organization of genes in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a species that presents relatively few chromosomes (n = 14) and a gigantic genome (>20 pg/N)...
  43. Schilling N, Deban S. Fiber-type distribution of the perivertebral musculature in Ambystoma. J Morphol. 2010;271:200-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the muscle-fiber-type distribution and the anatomical cross-sectional area of all perivertebral muscles in Ambystoma tigrinum and A. maculatum...
  44. Bogart J, Bartoszek J, Noble D, Bi K. Sex in unisexual salamanders: discovery of a new sperm donor with ancient affinities. Heredity (Edinb). 2009;103:483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma are common around the Great Lakes region in eastern North America...
  45. Fitzpatrick B, Johnson J, Kump D, Shaffer H, Smith J, Voss S. Rapid fixation of non-native alleles revealed by genome-wide SNP analysis of hybrid tiger salamanders. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:176 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess variation of admixture dynamics, we scored a large panel of markers in five wild hybrid populations formed when Barred Tiger Salamanders were introduced into the range of California Tiger Salamanders...
  46. Gollisch T, Meister M. Rapid neural coding in the retina with relative spike latencies. Science. 2008;319:1108-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism allows the retina to rapidly and reliably transmit new spatial information with the very first spikes emitted by a neural population...
  47. Bi K, Bogart J, Fu J. Intergenomic translocations in unisexual salamanders of the genus Ambystoma (Amphibia, Caudata). Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;116:289-97 pubmed
    ..Homoeologous recombinations have recently been documented in unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma and revealed exchanged chromosomal segments between A. laterale and A...
  48. He Q, Alexeev D, Estevez M, McCabe S, Calvert P, Ong D, et al. Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in rod photoreceptors are protected from retinoid inhibition. J Gen Physiol. 2006;128:473-85 pubmed
    ..Exceptionally high retinoid levels, e.g., associated with some retinal degenerations, could overcome the buffer, however, and impair sensitivity or delay the recovery after exposure to bright light...
  49. Ala Laurila P, Kolesnikov A, Crouch R, Tsina E, Shukolyukov S, Govardovskii V, et al. Visual cycle: Dependence of retinol production and removal on photoproduct decay and cell morphology. J Gen Physiol. 2006;128:153-69 pubmed
    ..The more rapid rates of retinol production in cones compared to rods are consistent with the more rapid operation of the visual cycle in these cells...
  50. Akopian A, Szikra T, Cristofanilli M, Krizaj D. Glutamate-induced Ca2+ influx in third-order neurons of salamander retina is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. Neuroscience. 2006;138:17-24 pubmed
  51. Church S, Kraus J, Mitchell J, Church D, Taylor D. Evidence for multiple Pleistocene refugia in the postglacial expansion of the eastern tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum. Evolution. 2003;57:372-83 pubmed
    ..we identify potential refugia and estimate the timing of vicariance events of the eastern tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum, using mitochondrial sequence data. The results suggest a vicariant event 0...
  52. Vajda A, Norris D. Effects of steroids and dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) on the developing wolffian ducts of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;141:1-11 pubmed
    ..TCDD) on steroid-dependent development of the wolffian ducts of an amphibian, the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)...
  53. Valls J, Mills N. Intermittent hypoxia in eggs of Ambystoma maculatum: embryonic development and egg capsule conductance. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:2430-5 pubmed
    The spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum breeds in shallow freshwater pools and imbeds its eggs within a common outer jelly matrix that can limit oxygen availability...
  54. Mitra P, Slaughter M. Calcium-induced transitions between the spontaneous miniature outward and the transient outward currents in retinal amacrine cells. J Gen Physiol. 2002;119:373-88 pubmed
    ..Based on their characteristics, SMOCs in retinal neurons may function as synaptic noise suppressors at quiescent glutamatergic synapses...
  55. Ganmor E, Segev R, Schneidman E. Sparse low-order interaction network underlies a highly correlated and learnable neural population code. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9679-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we show that the interaction network is organized in a hierarchical and modular manner, which hints at scalability. Our results suggest that learnability may be a key feature of the neural code...
  56. Rohr J, Elskus A, Shepherd B, Crowley P, McCarthy T, Niedzwiecki J, et al. Lethal and sublethal effects of atrazine, carbaryl, endosulfan, and octylphenol on the streamside salamander (Ambystoma barbouri). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2003;22:2385-92 pubmed
    ..the last 6 d), and octylphenol (5, 50, and 500 micrograms/L) and to a solvent control on streamside salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri) in the presence and absence of food...
  57. Fitzpatrick B, Shaffer H. Environment-dependent admixture dynamics in a tiger salamander hybrid zone. Evolution. 2004;58:1282-93 pubmed
    After an estimated five million years of independent evolution, the barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) was introduced by bait dealers into the native range of the California tiger salamander (A. californiense)...
  58. Rojas S, Richards K, Jancovich J, Davidson E. Influence of temperature on Ranavirus infection in larval salamanders Ambystoma tigrinum. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;63:95-100 pubmed
    Temperature strongly influenced percent mortality and time to death of salamanders exposed to the Ambystoma tigrinum virus (iridovirus) (ATV)...
  59. Matthews H, Fain G. The effect of light on outer segment calcium in salamander rods. J Physiol. 2003;552:763-76 pubmed
    ..by making simultaneous measurements of suction pipette current and [Ca2+]i from isolated rods of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum after incorporation of the fluorescent dye fluo-5F...
  60. Thoreson W, Bryson E, Rabl K. Reciprocal interactions between calcium and chloride in rod photoreceptors. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:1747-53 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that feedback interactions between Ca2+- and Ca2+-activated Cl- channels may contribute to the regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ currents involved in synaptic transmission from rod photoreceptors...
  61. Page R, Monaghan J, Samuels A, Smith J, Beachy C, Voss S. Microarray analysis identifies keratin loci as sensitive biomarkers for thyroid hormone disruption in the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;145:15-27 pubmed
    ..endocrine disruption research, including genomic and bioinformatics resources, an accessible laboratory model (Ambystoma mexicanum), and natural lineages that are broadly distributed among North American habitats...
  62. Yang X, Gao F, Wu S. Non-linear, high-gain and sustained-to-transient signal transmission from rods to amacrine cells in dark-adapted retina of Ambystoma. J Physiol. 2002;539:239-51 pubmed
    ..RCaPs in bipolar cell synaptic terminals cause transient glutamate release that results in the sTDPs in darkness, and leTDPs in On, Off and After responses in ACs...