Summary: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.

Top Publications

  1. Kuratani S, Adachi N, Wada N, Oisi Y, Sugahara F. Developmental and evolutionary significance of the mandibular arch and prechordal/premandibular cranium in vertebrates: revising the heterotopy scenario of gnathostome jaw evolution. J Anat. 2013;222:41-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show, in the lamprey embryo, early migration of mandibular arch mesenchyme into the premandibular domain, and propose an updated version of the heterotopy theory on the origin of the jaw. ..
  2. Szczesny P, Iacovache I, Muszewska A, Ginalski K, van der Goot F, Grynberg M. Extending the aerolysin family: from bacteria to vertebrates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20349 pubmed publisher
    ..Its putative role in the virulence of B. anthracis and its three dimensional model are discussed. ..
  3. Matsui H, Gavinio R, Asano T, Uemura N, Ito H, Taniguchi Y, et al. PINK1 and Parkin complementarily protect dopaminergic neurons in vertebrates. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PINK1 and Parkin work in a complementary way to protect dopaminergic neurons by maintaining mitochondrial function in vertebrates.
  4. Sanchez S, Dupret V, Tafforeau P, Trinajstic K, Ryll B, Gouttenoire P, et al. 3D microstructural architecture of muscle attachments in extant and fossil vertebrates revealed by synchrotron microtomography. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56992 pubmed publisher
    ..Entheses are frequently preserved in fossil bones, but sectioning is inappropriate for rare or unique fossil material...
  5. Kasahara M, Sutoh Y. Two forms of adaptive immunity in vertebrates: similarities and differences. Adv Immunol. 2014;122:59-90 pubmed publisher
    Unlike jawed vertebrates that use T-cell and B-cell receptors for antigen recognition, jawless vertebrates represented by lampreys and hagfish use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) as antigen receptors...
  6. Venkatesh B, Lee A, Ravi V, Maurya A, Lian M, Swann J, et al. Elephant shark genome provides unique insights into gnathostome evolution. Nature. 2014;505:174-9 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) from jawless vertebrates was accompanied by major morphological and physiological innovations, such as hinged jaws, paired fins and immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity...
  7. Tapia N, Reinhardt P, Duemmler A, Wu G, Arauzo Bravo M, Esch D, et al. Reprogramming to pluripotency is an ancient trait of vertebrate Oct4 and Pou2 proteins. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1279 pubmed publisher
    ..pluripotency induced by Oct4 gene activity is a feature specific to mammals or was already present in ancestral vertebrates. Here we report that different vertebrate Pou2 and Oct4 homologues can induce pluripotency in mouse and human ..
  8. Sabbagh A, Marin J, Veyssière C, Lecompte E, Boukouvala S, Poloni E, et al. Rapid birth-and-death evolution of the xenobiotic metabolizing NAT gene family in vertebrates with evidence of adaptive selection. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:62 pubmed publisher
  9. Soshnikova N, Dewaele R, Janvier P, Krumlauf R, Duboule D. Duplications of hox gene clusters and the emergence of vertebrates. Dev Biol. 2013;378:194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..suggesting that the ancestral HoxA/B cluster was co-opted to help in diversifying the complex organ in vertebrates. Other phenotypic effects observed seem to illustrate the resurgence of ancestral (plesiomorphic) features...

More Information


  1. Strausfeld N, Hirth F. Deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia. Science. 2013;340:157-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed multitude of similarities suggests deep homology of arthropod central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia circuitries underlying the selection and maintenance of behavioral actions...
  2. Morgan M, Iaconcig A, Muro A. Identification of 3' gene ends using transcriptional and genomic conservation across vertebrates. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:708 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, we have previously reported two different genes, ADD2 and CPEB3, with conserved 3'UTR alternative isoforms not annotated in the current versions of Ensembl and RefSeq human databases...
  3. Nelson E, Habibi H. Estrogen receptor function and regulation in fish and other vertebrates. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;192:15-24 pubmed publisher
    Estrogens, steroid hormones critically involved in reproductive processes of vertebrates, signal primarily through their intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs)...
  4. Konstantinides N, Averof M. A common cellular basis for muscle regeneration in arthropods and vertebrates. Science. 2014;343:788-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Planarians and vertebrates use different strategies, based on pluripotent versus committed progenitor cells, respectively, to replace ..
  5. Gabillard J, Biga P, Rescan P, Seiliez I. Revisiting the paradigm of myostatin in vertebrates: insights from fishes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;194:45-54 pubmed publisher
  6. Chiandetti C, Galliussi J, Andrew R, Vallortigara G. Early-light embryonic stimulation suggests a second route, via gene activation, to cerebral lateralization in vertebrates. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2701 pubmed publisher
    ..More than one sensitive period seems thus available to light stimulation to trigger brain lateralization. ..
  7. Xu J, Zhang R, Shen Y, Liu G, Lu X, Wu C. The evolution of evolvability in microRNA target sites in vertebrates. Genome Res. 2013;23:1810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..have been offered, but an attractive one-that the conservation may be a function of taxonomic hierarchy (vertebrates, mammals, primates, etc.)-has rarely been discussed...
  8. Kassis J, Brown J. Polycomb group response elements in Drosophila and vertebrates. Adv Genet. 2013;81:83-118 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss evidence for PREs in vertebrates and explore similarities and differences between Drosophila and vertebrate PREs.
  9. Yokoyama S. Synthetic biology of phenotypic adaptation in vertebrates: the next frontier. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:1495-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Smith J, Kuraku S, Holt C, Sauka Spengler T, Jiang N, Campbell M, et al. Sequencing of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) genome provides insights into vertebrate evolution. Nat Genet. 2013;45:415-21, 421e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The lamprey genome provides an important resource for reconstructing vertebrate origins and the evolutionary events that have shaped the genomes of extant organisms. ..
  11. Navara K. Hormone-mediated adjustment of sex ratio in vertebrates. Integr Comp Biol. 2013;53:877-87 pubmed publisher
    ..a physiological signal to influence sex ratios, hormones likely play a role in the adjustment of sex ratio in vertebrates, because the endocrine system acts as a prime communicator that directs physiological activities in response to ..
  12. Dijkstra J, Grimholt U, Leong J, Koop B, Hashimoto K. Comprehensive analysis of MHC class II genes in teleost fish genomes reveals dispensability of the peptide-loading DM system in a large part of vertebrates. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:260 pubmed publisher
    ..Teleost fish, a major group of vertebrates, do not possess the DM system for the classical class II peptide-loading and this sophisticated system has ..
  13. Kuprys P, Davis S, Hauer T, Meltser M, Tzfati Y, Kirk K. Identification of telomerase RNAs from filamentous fungi reveals conservation with vertebrates and yeasts. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58661 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings not only provide insights into the structure and evolution of a complex RNA but also provide molecular tools to further study telomere dynamics in filamentous fungi...
  14. Sanges R, Hadzhiev Y, Guéroult Bellone M, Roure A, Ferg M, Meola N, et al. Highly conserved elements discovered in vertebrates are present in non-syntenic loci of tunicates, act as enhancers and can be transcribed during development. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3600-18 pubmed publisher
    ..are conserved in non-syntenic regions between vertebrate and tunicate genomes, while being syntenic among vertebrates. Nevertheless, in all the groups, they are significantly associated with transcription factors showing specific ..
  15. Jenkins C, Pimm S, Joppa L. Global patterns of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and conservation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2602-10 pubmed publisher
    ..As conservation knowledge and threats change, we must reevaluate priorities. We mapped priority areas for vertebrates using newly updated data on >21,000 species of mammals, amphibians, and birds...
  16. Makino T, McLysaght A, Kawata M. Genome-wide deserts for copy number variation in vertebrates. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2283 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that investigating copy number variation of genes in regions that are typically copy number variation deserts is an efficient means to find disease-related copy number variations. ..
  17. Doherty A, McInerney J. Translational selection frequently overcomes genetic drift in shaping synonymous codon usage patterns in vertebrates. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:2263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, detection of translational selection in vertebrates has proven to be a challenging task, obscured by small long-term effective population sizes in larger animals ..
  18. Chang C, Semyonov J, Cheng P, Huang S, Park J, Tsai H, et al. Widespread divergence of the CEACAM/PSG genes in vertebrates and humans suggests sensitivity to selection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61701 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study suggested that CEACAM/PSG genes have had a more dynamic evolutionary history in vertebrates than previously thought...
  19. Ning J, Otto T, Pfander C, Schwach F, Brochet M, Bushell E, et al. Comparative genomics in Chlamydomonas and Plasmodium identifies an ancient nuclear envelope protein family essential for sexual reproduction in protists, fungi, plants, and vertebrates. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1198-215 pubmed publisher
    ..Our comparative transcriptomics approach provides a new resource for studying sexual development and demonstrates that exploiting the data can lead to the discovery of novel biology that is conserved across distant taxa. ..
  20. Collar D, Reynaga C, Ward A, Mehta R. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates. Zoology (Jena). 2013;116:246-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging...
  21. Canestro C, Albalat R, Irimia M, Garcia Fernandez J. Impact of gene gains, losses and duplication modes on the origin and diversification of vertebrates. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2013;24:83-94 pubmed publisher
    The study of the evolutionary origin of vertebrates has been linked to the study of genome duplications since Susumo Ohno suggested that the successful diversification of vertebrate innovations was facilitated by two rounds of whole-..
  22. Schwarze K, Burmester T. Conservation of globin genes in the "living fossil" Latimeria chalumnae and reconstruction of the evolution of the vertebrate globin family. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:1801-12 pubmed publisher
    ..cytoglobins, which are unlikely to be involved in O2 supply, form the earliest globin branch within the jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata), but do not group with the agnathan hemoglobins, as it has been proposed before...
  23. Ozair M, Kintner C, Brivanlou A. Neural induction and early patterning in vertebrates. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol. 2013;2:479-98 pubmed publisher
    In vertebrates, the development of the nervous system is triggered by signals from a powerful 'organizing' region of the early embryo during gastrulation...
  24. Nikaido M, Noguchi H, Nishihara H, Toyoda A, Suzuki Y, Kajitani R, et al. Coelacanth genomes reveal signatures for evolutionary transition from water to land. Genome Res. 2013;23:1740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These coelacanth genomes will provide a cornerstone for studies to elucidate how ancestral aquatic vertebrates evolved into terrestrial animals.
  25. Dibrova D, Cherepanov D, Galperin M, Skulachev V, Mulkidjanian A. Evolution of cytochrome bc complexes: from membrane-anchored dehydrogenases of ancient bacteria to triggers of apoptosis in vertebrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:1407-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes. ..
  26. Tani S, Kuraku S, Sakamoto H, Inoue K, Kusakabe R. Developmental expression and evolution of muscle-specific microRNAs conserved in vertebrates. Evol Dev. 2013;15:293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that, after the gene duplications, these muscle-specific miRs acquired differential regulatory functions and have contributed to the establishment of diverse and complex musculature of vertebrates.
  27. Bökel C, Brand M. Generation and interpretation of FGF morphogen gradients in vertebrates. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2013;23:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments have benefitted from the optical properties of the zebrafish embryo that render this vertebrate organism particularly suited for advanced microscopic and biophysical approaches. ..
  28. Bajoghli B. Evolution and function of chemokine receptors in the immune system of lower vertebrates. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:1686-92 pubmed publisher
    Chemokine receptors and their counterpart ligands are one of the evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. They play a guiding role in the coordination of cell trafficking in many biological processes...
  29. Amemiya C, Alföldi J, Lee A, Fan S, Philippe H, MacCallum I, et al. The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution. Nature. 2013;496:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution. ..
  30. Zhao J, Lendahl U, Nister M. Regulation of mitochondrial dynamics: convergences and divergences between yeast and vertebrates. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:951-76 pubmed publisher
    ..for these processes and that the fusion/fission machinery is not completely conserved between yeast and vertebrates. The recent characterization of several mammalian proteins important for the process that were not conserved in ..
  31. Abramochkin D, Borodinova A, Rosenshtraukh L. Effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor paraoxon denote the possibility of non-quantal acetylcholine release in myocardium of different vertebrates. J Comp Physiol B. 2012;182:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, non-quantal release of acetylcholine in the heart is not specific only for mammals, but is also present in the hearts of different vertebrates.
  32. Vagnarelli P. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:1435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure...
  33. Ben J, Elworthy S, Ng A, van Eeden F, Ingham P. Targeted mutation of the talpid3 gene in zebrafish reveals its conserved requirement for ciliogenesis and Hedgehog signalling across the vertebrates. Development. 2011;138:4969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings underline the importance of the primary cilium for Hh signaling in zebrafish and reveal the conservation of Ta3 function during vertebrate evolution...
  34. Baillet A, Le Bouffant R, Volff J, Luangpraseuth A, Poumerol E, Th pot D, et al. TOPAZ1, a novel germ cell-specific expressed gene conserved during evolution across vertebrates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26950 pubmed publisher
    ..In the mouse, Topaz1 is a germ cell-specific gene. TOPAZ1 protein is highly conserved in vertebrates and specifically expressed in mouse and sheep gonads...
  35. Milet C, Monsoro Burq A. Neural crest induction at the neural plate border in vertebrates. Dev Biol. 2012;366:22-33 pubmed publisher
    The neural crest is a transient and multipotent cell population arising at the edge of the neural plate in vertebrates. Recent findings highlight that neural crest patterning is initiated during gastrulation, i.e...
  36. Castro L, Monroig O, Leaver M, Wilson J, Cunha I, Tocher D. Functional desaturase Fads1 (?5) and Fads2 (?6) orthologues evolved before the origin of jawed vertebrates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31950 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the timing of Fads1-?5 and Fads2-?6 evolution in vertebrates we used a combination of comparative and functional genomics with the analysis of key phylogenetic species...
  37. Pani A, Mullarkey E, Aronowicz J, Assimacopoulos S, Grove E, Lowe C. Ancient deuterostome origins of vertebrate brain signalling centres. Nature. 2012;483:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This has led to the idea that signalling-centre genetic programs were first assembled in stem vertebrates and potentially drove morphological innovations of the brain...
  38. Poliakov E, Gubin A, Stearn O, Li Y, Campos M, Gentleman S, et al. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49975 pubmed publisher the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates.
  39. Ericsson R, Knight R, Johanson Z. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck. J Anat. 2013;222:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris...
  40. Smith V. Phylogeny of whey acidic protein (WAP) four-disulfide core proteins and their role in lower vertebrates and invertebrates. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:1403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus WAP domains are widely distributed and highly conserved, serving in diverse physiological processes (proteinase inhibition, bacterial killing or inhibition of calcium transport)...
  41. Niknejad A, Comte A, Parmentier G, Roux J, Bastian F, Robinson Rechavi M. vHOG, a multispecies vertebrate ontology of homologous organs groups. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:1017-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Most anatomical ontologies are species-specific, whereas a framework for comparative studies is needed. We describe the vertebrate Homologous Organs Groups ontology, vHOG, used to compare expression patterns between species...
  42. Ocampo Daza D, Sundstrom G, Bergqvist C, Larhammar D. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:231 pubmed publisher
    ..To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved ..
  43. Ford Thompson A, Snell C, Saunders G, White P. Stakeholder participation in management of invasive vertebrates. Conserv Biol. 2012;26:345-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a case study of the management of invasive vertebrates in Australia...
  44. Meslin C, Mugnier S, Callebaut I, Laurin M, Pascal G, Poupon A, et al. Evolution of genes involved in gamete interaction: evidence for positive selection, duplications and losses in vertebrates. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44548 pubmed publisher
    ..have not been systematically and exhaustively studied with an evolutionary perspective, in particular across vertebrates with internal and external fertilization...
  45. Hultqvist G, Ocampo Daza D, Larhammar D, Kilimann M. Evolution of the vertebrate paralemmin gene family: ancient origin of gene duplicates suggests distinct functions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41850 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings point to ancient roles for paralemmins and distinct biological functions of the gene duplicates...
  46. Ryan K, Chiang C. Hedgehog secretion and signal transduction in vertebrates. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:17905-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Although many aspects of the Drosophila Hh pathway are conserved in vertebrates, mechanistic differences between the two species have begun to emerge...
  47. Trinchella F, Esposito M, Scudiero R. Metallothionein primary structure in amphibians: Insights from comparative evolutionary analysis in vertebrates. C R Biol. 2012;335:480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis also reveals the complexity of vertebrate metallothionein evolution, made by both ancient and more recent events of gene duplication and loss...
  48. Grandel H, Brand M. Comparative aspects of adult neural stem cell activity in vertebrates. Dev Genes Evol. 2013;223:131-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we report on regeneration of the zebrafish telencephalon after injury to highlight similarities and differences of constitutive neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration...
  49. Gao T, Shih C, Xu X, Wang S, Ren D. Mid-Mesozoic flea-like ectoparasites of feathered or haired vertebrates. Curr Biol. 2012;22:732-5 pubmed publisher
  50. Wolff J, White D, Woodhams M, White H, Gemmell N. The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20522 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry) in ..
  51. Theunissen T, Costa Y, Radzisheuskaya A, van Oosten A, Lavial F, Pain B, et al. Reprogramming capacity of Nanog is functionally conserved in vertebrates and resides in a unique homeodomain. Development. 2011;138:4853-65 pubmed publisher
    ..resides within a unique DNA-binding domain, which appeared at least 450 million years ago in a common ancestor of vertebrates. Our results support the hypothesis that naive pluripotency is a generic feature of vertebrate development.
  52. Drillon G, Fischer G. Comparative study on synteny between yeasts and vertebrates. C R Biol. 2011;334:629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..regions of conserved synteny between all pairwise combinations of species within each group, we show that in vertebrates, the number of conserved synteny blocks exponentially increases along with the divergence between orthologous ..
  53. Montavon T, Duboule D. Landscapes and archipelagos: spatial organization of gene regulation in vertebrates. Trends Cell Biol. 2012;22:347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the impact of recent technological advances on our understanding of large-scale gene regulation in vertebrates, by focusing on paradigmatic gene loci.
  54. Silva Rodríguez E, Sieving K. Influence of care of domestic carnivores on their predation on vertebrates. Conserv Biol. 2011;25:808-15 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of different levels of care (provision of food) of dogs and cats on their predation rates on wild vertebrates in 2 areas of southern Chile...