ciona intestinalis

Summary

Summary: The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.

Top Publications

  1. Zega G, Biggiogero M, Groppelli S, Candiani S, Oliveri D, Parodi M, et al. Developmental expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase and of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptors in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:489-505 pubmed
    We describe Ciona intestinalis gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons during development, studying the expression pattern of Ci-GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase: GABA synthesizing enzyme) by in situ hybridization...
  2. Aihara H, Katikala L, Zeller R, Di Gregorio A, Nibu Y. Optimization of a method for chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in the marine invertebrate chordate Ciona. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2013;15:520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..we describe the development of a polyclonal antibody against the Brachyury protein of the marine invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis and provide a detailed ChIP protocol that should be easily adaptable to other marine organisms.
  3. Tosti E, Gallo A, Silvestre F. Ion currents involved in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:854-60 pubmed publisher
    Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the role of ion currents in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis oocyte plasma membrane during different stages of growth, meiosis, fertilization and early development...
  4. Yamada L. Embryonic expression profiles and conserved localization mechanisms of pem/postplasmic mRNAs of two species of ascidian, Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi. Dev Biol. 2006;296:524-36 pubmed
    ..In early Ciona intestinalis embryos, the posterior-most localization appears to be the major specialized pattern of maternal transcripts...
  5. Stolfi A, Christiaen L. Genetic and genomic toolbox of the chordate Ciona intestinalis. Genetics. 2012;192:55-66 pubmed publisher
    The experimental malleability and unique phylogenetic position of the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis as part of the sister group to the vertebrates have helped establish these marine chordates as model organisms for the study of ..
  6. Imai J, Meinertzhagen I. Neurons of the ascidian larval nervous system in Ciona intestinalis: II. Peripheral nervous system. J Comp Neurol. 2007;501:335-52 pubmed
    ..Precleavage embryos of Ciona intestinalis transfected with the promoter of the neuron-specific synaptotagmin gene fused to a green fluorescent protein ..
  7. Matias I, McPartland J, Di Marzo V. Occurrence and possible biological role of the endocannabinoid system in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. J Neurochem. 2005;93:1141-56 pubmed
    A cannabinoid receptor orthologue (CiCBR) has been described in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. Here we report that CiCBR mRNA expression is highest in cerebral ganglion, branchial pharynx, heart and testis of C...
  8. Kubo A, Suzuki N, Yuan X, Nakai K, Satoh N, Imai K, et al. Genomic cis-regulatory networks in the early Ciona intestinalis embryo. Development. 2010;137:1613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..determined the structure of the core networks at the cis-regulatory level in early embryos of the chordate Ciona intestinalis by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of 11 TFs...
  9. Hudson C, Lotito S, Yasuo H. Sequential and combinatorial inputs from Nodal, Delta2/Notch and FGF/MEK/ERK signalling pathways establish a grid-like organisation of distinct cell identities in the ascidian neural plate. Development. 2007;134:3527-37 pubmed
    ..Most remarkably, the distinct fates of the eight neural precursors are each determined by a unique combination of inputs from these three signalling pathways...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Takimoto N, Kusakabe T, Horie T, Miyamoto Y, Tsuda M. Origin of the vertebrate visual cycle: III. Distinct distribution of RPE65 and beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase homologues in Ciona intestinalis. Photochem Photobiol. 2006;82:1468-74 pubmed
    ..retinaldehyde-binding protein (Ci-CRALBP) and beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (Ci-BCO) in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ci-opsin3 and Ci-CRALBP are localized in both ocellus photoreceptor cells and surrounding non-photoreceptor ..
  2. Roure A, Rothbächer U, Robin F, Kalmar E, Ferone G, Lamy C, et al. A multicassette Gateway vector set for high throughput and comparative analyses in ciona and vertebrate embryos. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e916 pubmed
    ..Large scale cross-species comparisons of protein function and cis-regulatory sequences may help to understand the emergence of specific traits during evolution...
  3. Sasakura Y, Inaba K, Satoh N, Kondo M, Akasaka K. Ciona intestinalis and Oxycomanthus japonicus, representatives of marine invertebrates. Exp Anim. 2009;58:459-69 pubmed
    ..Recently, advances have been made in the study of two deuterostomes, an ascidian Ciona intestinalis and a feather star Oxycomanthus japonicus...
  4. Ushimaru Y, Konno A, Kaizu M, Ogawa K, Satoh N, Inaba K. Association of a 66 kDa homolog of Chlamydomonas DC2, a subunit of the outer arm docking complex, with outer arm dynein of sperm flagella in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Zoolog Sci. 2006;23:679-87 pubmed
    We previously identified a 66 kDa axonemal protein (Ci-Axp66.0) in sperm of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Here we found that Ci-Axp66.0 shows sequence similarity to the DC2 subunit of the Chlamydomonas outer arm docking complex...
  5. Godefroy N, Hoa C, Tsokanos F, Le Goff E, Douzery E, Baghdiguian S, et al. Identification of autophagy genes in Ciona intestinalis: a new experimental model to study autophagy mechanism. Autophagy. 2009;5:805-15 pubmed
    ..Until now our laboratory used Ciona intestinalis, a chordate model in which in vivo experiments are possible, to study apoptosis...
  6. Fedders H, Leippe M. A reverse search for antimicrobial peptides in Ciona intestinalis: identification of a gene family expressed in hemocytes and evaluation of activity. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:286-98 pubmed publisher
    In search of antimicrobial peptides in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, we used the recently completed genome project and the substantial number of expressed sequence tag (EST) data available as a screening matrix...
  7. Natale A, Sims C, Chiusano M, Amoroso A, D Aniello E, Fucci L, et al. Evolution of anterior Hox regulatory elements among chordates. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:330 pubmed publisher
    ..Among chordates, of particular interest are the Hox paralogous genes in groups 1-4 since their expression is coupled to the control of regional identity in the anterior nervous system, where the highest structural diversity is observed...
  8. Vizzini A, Parrinello D, Sanfratello M, Salerno G, Cammarata M, Parrinello N. Inducible galectins are expressed in the inflamed pharynx of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;32:101-9 pubmed publisher
    Although ascidians belong to a key group in chordate phylogenesis, amino acid sequences of Ciona intestinalis galectin-CRDs (CiLgals-a and -b) have been retained too divergent from vertebrate galectins...
  9. Liu L, Kohout S, Xu Q, Müller S, Kimberlin C, Isacoff E, et al. A glutamate switch controls voltage-sensitive phosphatase function. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:633-41 pubmed publisher
    The Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP) couples a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a lipid phosphatase that is similar to the tumor suppressor PTEN. How the VSD controls enzyme function has been unclear...
  10. Nakamura M, Hotta K, Oka K. Raman spectroscopic imaging of the whole Ciona intestinalis embryo during development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71739 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we explored the application of Raman spectroscopic imaging in the whole Ciona intestinalis embryo during development. Analysis of Raman spectra scattered from C...
  11. Maury B, Martinand Mari C, Chambon J, Soule J, Degols G, Sahuquet A, et al. Fertilization regulates apoptosis of Ciona intestinalis extra-embryonic cells through thyroxine (T4)-dependent NF-kappaB pathway activation during early embryonic development. Dev Biol. 2006;289:152-65 pubmed
    In Ciona intestinalis, the elimination of extra-embryonic test cells during early stage of development is delayed by a fertilization signal...
  12. Jin G, Zhang Q, Satou Y, Satoh N, Kasai H, Yonei S. Cloning and characterization of an ascidian homolog of the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) that is involved in the repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine in DNA in Ciona intestinalis. Int J Radiat Biol. 2006;82:241-50 pubmed
    ..To address these issues, we first identified 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)-DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis as a good model system.
  13. Dehal P, Boore J. Two rounds of whole genome duplication in the ancestral vertebrate. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e314 pubmed
    ..Our results highlight the potential for these large-scale genomic events to have driven the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage...
  14. Hudson C, Yasuo H. A signalling relay involving Nodal and Delta ligands acts during secondary notochord induction in Ciona embryos. Development. 2006;133:2855-64 pubmed
    ..We show that specification of the secondary but not the primary notochord in Ciona intestinalis requires a relay mechanism involving two signalling pathways...
  15. Takada N, Yamaguchi H, Shida K, Terajima D, Satou Y, Kasuya A, et al. The cell death machinery controlled by Bax and Bcl-XL is evolutionarily conserved in Ciona intestinalis. Apoptosis. 2005;10:1211-20 pubmed
    ..characterization of two Bcl-2 homologues, ciBax and ciBcl-XL, in a basal invertebrate-chordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis. CiBax is a Ciona homologue of the BH1-3 pro-apoptotic protein Bax, whereas ciBcl-XL is a Bcl-XL-like anti-..
  16. Sasaki N, Ogasawara M, Sekiguchi T, Kusumoto S, Satake H. Toll-like receptors of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis: prototypes with hybrid functionalities of vertebrate Toll-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27336-43 pubmed publisher
    ..ligand recognition, activities, and inflammatory cytokine production of all TLRs of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, designated as Ci-TLR1 and Ci-TLR2...
  17. Christiaen L, Stolfi A, Levine M. BMP signaling coordinates gene expression and cell migration during precardiac mesoderm development. Dev Biol. 2010;340:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations led us to propose a model for the coordination of cell migration and gene expression based on the temporal unfolding of a gene regulatory sub-network in a relevant developmental context...
  18. Dahlberg C, Auger H, Dupont S, Sasakura Y, Thorndyke M, Joly J. Refining the Ciona intestinalis model of central nervous system regeneration. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4458 pubmed publisher
    ..We focus here on the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, which has the capacity to regenerate nerves and a complete adult central nervous system, a capacity unusual ..
  19. Suzuki M, Nishikawa T, Bird A. Genomic approaches reveal unexpected genetic divergence within Ciona intestinalis. J Mol Evol. 2005;61:627-35 pubmed
    The invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis is a widely used model organism in biological research. Individuals from waters ranging from arctic to temperate are morphologically almost indistinguishable...
  20. Oda Ishii I, Di Gregorio A. Lineage-independent mosaic expression and regulation of the Ciona multidom gene in the ancestral notochord. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1806-19 pubmed
    ..factor Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra) plays an essential role in notochord development in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. We characterized a putative Ci-Bra target gene, which we named Ci-multidom, and analyzed in detail its ..
  21. Irvine S, Cangiano M, Millette B, Gutter E. Non-overlapping expression patterns of the clustered Dll-A/B genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:428-41 pubmed publisher
    The Ci-Dll-A and Ci-Dll-B genes of Ciona intestinalis are arranged in a convergently transcribed gene cluster. This genomic arrangement is similar to that of the multiple bigene clusters of the Dlx homologs in vertebrates...
  22. Comes S, Locascio A, Silvestre F, d Ischia M, Russo G, Tosti E, et al. Regulatory roles of nitric oxide during larval development and metamorphosis in Ciona intestinalis. Dev Biol. 2007;306:772-84 pubmed
    Metamorphosis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis is a very complex process which converts a swimming tadpole to an adult...
  23. Imai K, Levine M, Satoh N, Satou Y. Regulatory blueprint for a chordate embryo. Science. 2006;312:1183-7 pubmed
    ..These diagrams constitute a blueprint for the Ciona embryo and provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origins of the chordate body plan...
  24. Sasakura Y. Germline transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1758-67 pubmed
    ..transformation using a Tc1/mariner transposable element Minos has been reported in two ascidians: Ciona intestinalis and C. savignyi...
  25. Chambon J, Touati S, Berneau S, Cladière D, Hebras C, Groeme R, et al. The PP2A inhibitor I2PP2A is essential for sister chromatid segregation in oocyte meiosis II. Curr Biol. 2013;23:485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful sister chromatid segregation by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II...
  26. Russo G, Ciarcia G, Presidente E, Siciliano R, Tosti E. Cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity of a methanolic extract from the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis on malignant cell lines. Med Chem. 2008;4:106-9 pubmed
    ..we reported, for the first time, that a partially purified methanolic extract prepared from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis inhibited cell proliferation in human cell lines of different origin, including Caco2, HPB-ALL, U-937 and HL-..
  27. Davidson B, Shi W, Beh J, Christiaen L, Levine M. FGF signaling delineates the cardiac progenitor field in the simple chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2728-38 pubmed
    Comprehensive gene networks in Ciona intestinalis embryos provide a foundation for characterizing complex developmental processes, such as the initial phases of chordate heart development...
  28. Satou Y, Mineta K, Ogasawara M, Sasakura Y, Shoguchi E, Ueno K, et al. Improved genome assembly and evidence-based global gene model set for the chordate Ciona intestinalis: new insight into intron and operon populations. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R152 pubmed publisher
    The draft genome sequence of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, along with associated gene models, has been a valuable research resource...
  29. Kugler J, Passamaneck Y, Feldman T, Beh J, Regnier T, Di Gregorio A. Evolutionary conservation of vertebrate notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Genesis. 2008;46:697-710 pubmed publisher
    ..a minimum complement of notochord genes evolutionarily conserved across chordates, we scanned the Ciona intestinalis genome using the sequences of 182 genes reported to be expressed in the notochord of different vertebrates ..
  30. Satou Y, Kawashima T, Shoguchi E, Nakayama A, Satoh N. An integrated database of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis: towards functional genomics. Zoolog Sci. 2005;22:837-43 pubmed
    ..In this study, we update cDNA and genomic resources of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, and provide an integrated database of the genomic and cDNA data by extending a database published ..
  31. Azumi K, Sabau S, Fujie M, Usami T, Koyanagi R, Kawashima T, et al. Gene expression profile during the life cycle of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. Dev Biol. 2007;308:572-82 pubmed
    ..sequence tag (EST) analyses have identified most of the developmentally relevant genes in the urochordate, Ciona intestinalis. In this study, we made use of a large-scale oligo-DNA microarray to further investigate and identify genes ..
  32. Davidson B, Shi W, Levine M. Uncoupling heart cell specification and migration in the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis. Development. 2005;132:4811-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we employ the genetic and morphological simplicity of the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis to elucidate Mesp regulation and function...
  33. Stolfi A, Levine M. Neuronal subtype specification in the spinal cord of a protovertebrate. Development. 2011;138:995-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..VG neuronal precursors to label and identify morphologically distinct moto- and interneuron subtypes in the Ciona intestinalis tadpole larva...
  34. Chiba S, Jiang D, Satoh N, Smith W. Brachyury null mutant-induced defects in juvenile ascidian endodermal organs. Development. 2009;136:35-9 pubmed publisher
    We report the isolation of a recessive ENU-induced short-tailed mutant in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis that is the product of a premature stop in the brachyury gene...
  35. Horie T, Orii H, Nakagawa M. Structure of ocellus photoreceptors in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis larva as revealed by an anti-arrestin antibody. J Neurobiol. 2005;65:241-50 pubmed
    ..Here, the whole structure of the ocellus photoreceptors in the larvae of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis was revealed by using an anti-arrestin (anti-Ci-Arr) antibody...
  36. Noda T, Hamada M, Hamaguchi M, Fujie M, Satoh N. Early zygotic expression of transcription factors and signal molecules in fully dissociated embryonic cells of Ciona intestinalis: A microarray analysis. Dev Growth Differ. 2009;51:639-55 pubmed publisher
    ..study addressed a question of autonomous versus non-autonomous specification of embryonic cells by using the Ciona intestinalis embryo, in particular the genetic cascade of zygotic expression of transcription factor genes responsible ..
  37. José Edwards D, Kerner P, Kugler J, Deng W, Jiang D, Di Gregorio A. The identification of transcription factors expressed in the notochord of Ciona intestinalis adds new potential players to the brachyury gene regulatory network. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1793-805 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression patterns of seven transcription factor genes detected in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis at various stages of embryonic development...
  38. D Aniello S, D Aniello E, Locascio A, Memoli A, Corrado M, Russo M, et al. The ascidian homolog of the vertebrate homeobox gene Rx is essential for ocellus development and function. Differentiation. 2006;74:222-34 pubmed publisher
    The tadpole larvae prosencephalon of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis contains a single large ventricle, along the inner walls of which lie two sensory organs: the otolith (a gravity-sensing organ) and the ocellus (a photo-sensing organ ..
  39. Tokuoka M, Satoh N, Satou Y. A bHLH transcription factor gene, Twist-like 1, is essential for the formation of mesodermal tissues of Ciona juveniles. Dev Biol. 2005;288:387-96 pubmed
    ..the properties of mesenchyme cells are not uniform among the three lines in embryos of Ciona savignyi and Ciona intestinalis. After metamorphosis, the larval mesenchyme cells form the mesodermal tissues or organs of the adult body...
  40. Shimeld S, Levin M. Evidence for the regulation of left-right asymmetry in Ciona intestinalis by ion flux. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1543-53 pubmed
    ..Vertebrates share the chordate phylum with urochordates such as the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. We have explored the role of ion flux in regulating left-right asymmetry in Ciona, using an assay in which ..
  41. Alfano C, Teresa Russo M, Spagnuolo A. Developmental expression and transcriptional regulation of Ci-Pans, a novel neural marker gene of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Gene. 2007;406:36-41 pubmed
    A novel gene, named Ci-Pans, was isolated and characterized from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. It is an 885-bp cDNA, is thought to encode a protein with no sequence similarities to known proteins and shows a spatial and temporal ..
  42. Joly J, Kano S, Matsuoka T, Auger H, Hirayama K, Satoh N, et al. Culture of Ciona intestinalis in closed systems. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1832-40 pubmed
    ..here the effects of several closed-system conditions on the growth and survival of the solitary ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. In Shimoda, close to the sea, a small-tank system was used to ensure that tanks and systems were reasonably ..
  43. Inaba K, Nomura M, Nakajima A, Hozumi A. Functional proteomics in Ciona intestinalis: a breakthrough in the exploration of the molecular and cellular mechanism of ascidian development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1782-9 pubmed
    ..Recent progress in the genome sequencing of Ciona intestinalis has led to the development of a great tool for investigating the gene functions and expressions involved in ..
  44. Stolfi A, Gainous T, Young J, Mori A, Levine M, Christiaen L. Early chordate origins of the vertebrate second heart field. Science. 2010;329:565-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that heart progenitor cells of the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis also generate precursors of the atrial siphon muscles (ASMs)...
  45. Hamada M, Shimozono N, Ohta N, Satou Y, Horie T, Kawada T, et al. Expression of neuropeptide- and hormone-encoding genes in the Ciona intestinalis larval brain. Dev Biol. 2011;352:202-14 pubmed publisher
    Despite containing only approximately 330 cells, the central nervous system (CNS) of Ciona intestinalis larvae has an architecture that is similar to the vertebrate CNS...
  46. Ikuta T, Saiga H. Dynamic change in the expression of developmental genes in the ascidian central nervous system: revisit to the tripartite model and the origin of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. Dev Biol. 2007;312:631-43 pubmed
    ..Hox genes, in the CNS around the junction of the trunk and tail of three different tailbud-stage embryos of Ciona intestinalis, employing double-fluorescence in situ hybridization, followed by staining with DAPI to precisely locate ..
  47. Zhu L, Inaba K. Lipid rafts function in Ca2+ signaling responsible for activation of sperm motility and chemotaxis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:920-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, egg-derived sperm activating- and attracting-factor (SAAF) induces both activation of sperm motility and ..
  48. Hotta K, Mitsuhara K, Takahashi H, Inaba K, Oka K, Gojobori T, et al. A web-based interactive developmental table for the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, including 3D real-image embryo reconstructions: I. From fertilized egg to hatching larva. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1790-805 pubmed
    The ascidian chordate Ciona intestinalis is an established model organism frequently exploited to examine cellular development and a rapidly emerging model organism with a strong potential for developmental systems biology studies...
  49. Moret F, Christiaen L, Deyts C, Blin M, Joly J, Vernier P. The dopamine-synthesizing cells in the swimming larva of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis are located only in the hypothalamus-related domain of the sensory vesicle. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:3043-55 pubmed
    ..a high-resolution cellular analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive and dopamine-positive cells in Ciona intestinalis embryos and larvae...
  50. José Edwards D, Oda Ishii I, Nibu Y, Di Gregorio A. Tbx2/3 is an essential mediator within the Brachyury gene network during Ciona notochord development. Development. 2013;140:2422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This work sheds light on a large section of the notochord regulatory circuitry controlled by T-box factors, and reveals new components of the complement of genes required for the proper formation of this structure...
  51. Khalturin K, K rn U, Pinnow N, Bosch T. Towards a molecular code for individuality in the absence of MHC: screening for individually variable genes in the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2005;29:759-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Using suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) we surveyed Ciona intestinalis for individually variable genes...
  52. Norden Krichmar T, Holtz J, Pasquinelli A, Gaasterland T. Computational prediction and experimental validation of Ciona intestinalis microRNA genes. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:445 pubmed publisher
    This study reports the first collection of validated microRNA genes in the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis. MicroRNAs are processed from hairpin precursors to ~22 nucleotide RNAs that base pair to target mRNAs and inhibit expression...
  53. Yamada L, Kobayashi K, Satou Y, Satoh N. Microarray analysis of localization of maternal transcripts in eggs and early embryos of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Dev Biol. 2005;284:536-50 pubmed
    ..Using blastomere isolation, microarray and whole-mount in situ hybridization, the present study of Ciona intestinalis demonstrates that maternal transcripts of a total of 17 genes are localized at the posterior-most region of ..