urochordata

Summary

Summary: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.

Top Publications

  1. Lemaire P. Unfolding a chordate developmental program, one cell at a time: invariant cell lineages, short-range inductions and evolutionary plasticity in ascidians. Dev Biol. 2009;332:48-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The constraints on embryo anatomy thus appear stronger than those on the choice of individual regulatory molecules...
  2. Blunt J, Copp B, Keyzers R, Munro M, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2012;29:144-222 pubmed publisher
    ..Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included...
  3. Lambert C. Signaling pathways in ascidian oocyte maturation: the roles of cAMP/Epac, intracellular calcium levels, and calmodulin kinase in regulating GVBD. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:726-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased intracellular calcium subsequently activates calmodulin kinase, which causes an increase in cdc25 phosphatase activity, activating MPF and the progression of the oocyte into meiosis...
  4. Kugler J, Kerner P, Bouquet J, Jiang D, Di Gregorio A. Evolutionary changes in the notochord genetic toolkit: a comparative analysis of notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona and the larvacean Oikopleura. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:21 pubmed publisher
  5. Cima F, Manni L, Basso G, Fortunato E, Accordi B, Schiavon F, et al. Hovering between death and life: natural apoptosis and phagocytes in the blastogenetic cycle of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:272-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, results suggest the conservation of apoptosis induction mechanisms throughout chordate evolution...
  6. Tsagkogeorga G, Turon X, Galtier N, Douzery E, Delsuc F. Accelerated evolutionary rate of housekeeping genes in tunicates. J Mol Evol. 2010;71:153-67 pubmed publisher
  7. Hirose E, Ohtake S, Azumi K. Morphological characterization of the tunic in the edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche), with remarks on 'soft tunic syndrome' in aquaculture. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:433-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, soft tunic syndrome probably causes inhibition of bundle formation and degradation of tunic bundles, creating areas of low fibre density, although the causes remain unknown...
  8. Dumollard R, Levasseur M, Hebras C, Huitorel P, Carroll M, Chambon J, et al. Mos limits the number of meiotic divisions in urochordate eggs. Development. 2011;138:885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the power of urochordate eggs as a model to dissect the egg-to-embryo transition...
  9. Hosp J, Sagane Y, Danks G, Thompson E. The evolving proteome of a complex extracellular matrix, the Oikopleura house. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40172 pubmed publisher
    ..The subphylum Urochordata exemplifies the latter case, where animals are partially or completely enclosed in "houses" or "..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ben Shlomo R. The molecular basis of allorecognition in ascidians. Bioessays. 2008;30:1048-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Only a minute similarity was found in the structure of the genes involved. It appears that ascidian harbor two very separate types of labeling and recognition genetic systems: one for self and the other for non-self...
  2. Lemaire P, Smith W, Nishida H. Ascidians and the plasticity of the chordate developmental program. Curr Biol. 2008;18:R620-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we propose that the comparative analysis of the architecture of ascidian and vertebrate gene regulatory networks may provide critical insight into the origin of the chordate body plan...
  3. Lemaire P. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: the tunicates. Development. 2011;138:2143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Tunicates are thus a powerful system for exploring chordate evolution and how extreme variation in genome sequence and gene regulatory network architecture is compatible with the preservation of an ancestral chordate body plan...
  4. Tosti E. Dynamic roles of ion currents in early development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:856-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications for a role of ion currents in development, and their possible clinical and technological applications are discussed...
  5. Denoeud F, Henriet S, Mungpakdee S, Aury J, Da Silva C, Brinkmann H, et al. Plasticity of animal genome architecture unmasked by rapid evolution of a pelagic tunicate. Science. 2010;330:1381-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This rapidly evolving animal lineage thus offers unique perspectives on the level of genome plasticity. It also illuminates issues as fundamental as the mechanisms of intron gain...
  6. Tsukimoto M, Nagaoka M, Shishido Y, Fujimoto J, Nishisaka F, Matsumoto S, et al. Bacterial production of the tunicate-derived antitumor cyclic depsipeptide didemnin B. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:2329-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A favorable strategy for the production of such compounds is to use culturable microorganisms. Here we report that didemnin B, a tunicate-derived depsipeptide, has been isolated from a culturable bacterium, Tistrella mobilis YIT 12409...
  7. Kumagai A, Suto A, Ito H, Tanabe T, Takahashi K, Kamaishi T, et al. Mass mortality of cultured ascidians Halocynthia roretzi associated with softening of the tunic and flagellate-like cells. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;90:223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the mass mortalities of ascidians accompanied by abnormally softened tunics were caused by an infectious agent, and suggest the involvement of the flagellate-like cells in the disease...
  8. Stach T, Braband A, Podsiadlowski L. Erosion of phylogenetic signal in tunicate mitochondrial genomes on different levels of analysis. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;55:860-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore caution to rely on sequence analysis alone and recommend investigation into the signal content of molecular data sets in order to assess the strength of phylogenetic signal...
  9. Kitamura S, Ohtake S, Song J, Jung S, Oh M, Choi B, et al. Tunic morphology and viral surveillance in diseased Korean ascidians: Soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche), in aquaculture. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:153-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no viruses were isolated from diseased or non-diseased specimens using chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), flounder fin (FFN) or epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell lines...
  10. Riesenfeld C, Murray A, Baker B. Characterization of the microbial community and polyketide biosynthetic potential in the palmerolide-producing tunicate Synoicum adareanum. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:1812-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Sanges R, Hadzhiev Y, Guéroult Bellone M, Roure A, Ferg M, Meola N, et al. Highly conserved elements discovered in vertebrates are present in non-syntenic loci of tunicates, act as enhancers and can be transcribed during development. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3600-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We refer to the elements as 'Olfactores conserved non-coding elements'...
  12. Aiello A, Fattorusso E, Luciano P, Menna M, Calzado M, Munoz E, et al. Synthesis of structurally simplified analogues of aplidinone A, a pro-apoptotic marine thiazinoquinone. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This exemplifies the potential of a natural product to qualify as lead structure for medicinal chemistry campaigns, affording simplified analogues with better bioactivity and easier to synthesize...
  13. Kojima A, Hirose E. Transfer of prokaryotic algal symbionts from a tropical ascidian (Lissoclinum punctatum) colony to its larvae. Zoolog Sci. 2010;27:124-7 pubmed
    ..The intracellular symbiosis must be reestablished in each generation after larval settlement...
  14. Li J, Han S, Yoo E, Shin S, Hong J, Cui Z, et al. Anti-inflammatory amino acid derivatives from the ascidian Herdmania momus. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:1792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds were found to inhibit the mRNA expression of iNOS. The inhibitory activities on the production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 were evaluated...
  15. Khalil I, Barker D, Copp B. Biomimetic synthesis of thiaplidiaquinones A and B. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:2256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent reaction with hypotaurine yielded the title compounds and their dioxothiazino regioisomers...
  16. Shenkar N, Swalla B. Global diversity of Ascidiacea. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20657 pubmed publisher
    ..Our inventory is certainly incomplete as the ascidian fauna in many areas around the world is relatively poorly known, and many new species continue to be discovered and described each year...
  17. Pérez Portela R, Bishop J, Davis A, Turon X. Phylogeny of the families Pyuridae and Styelidae (Stolidobranchiata, Ascidiacea) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;50:560-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our molecular results indicate that there have been several independent acquisitions of coloniality in the Styelidae, and that viviparity may be a pre-adaptation for a colonial life-style...
  18. Hirose E, Oka A. A new species of photosymbiotic ascidian from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, with remarks on the stability of stigma number in photosymbiotic Diplosoma species. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:1261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ooru, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. Thus, the stigma number and its stability (or variability) seem to be important as characters for the taxonomy of the photosymbiotic Diplosoma species...
  19. Pineda M, López Legentil S, Turon X. The whereabouts of an ancient wanderer: global phylogeography of the solitary ascidian Styela plicata. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25495 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results confirmed that S. plicata has been present in all studied oceans for a long time, and that recurrent colonization events and occasional shuffling among populations have determined the actual genetic structure of this species...
  20. Choi H, Hwang H, Chin J, Kim E, Lee J, Nam S, et al. Tuberatolides, potent FXR antagonists from the Korean marine tunicate Botryllus tuberatus. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?M without significant effect on steroid receptors. Furthermore, they released the co-activator peptide from the CDCA-bound hFXR ligand binding domain in cell-free surface plasmon resonance experiments...
  21. Sorte C, Williams S, Zerebecki R. Ocean warming increases threat of invasive species in a marine fouling community. Ecology. 2010;91:2198-204 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the effects of climate change on communities can occur via both direct impacts on the diversity and abundance of native species and indirect effects due to increased dominance of introduced species...
  22. Chavali S, Morais D, Gough J, Babu M. Evolution of eukaryotic genome architecture: Insights from the study of a rapidly evolving metazoan, Oikopleura dioica: Non-adaptive forces such as elevated mutation rates may influence the evolution of genome architecture. Bioessays. 2011;33:592-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The knowledge of unique genomic features and splicing mechanisms in O. dioica may be exploited for synthetic biology applications, such as generation of orthogonal splicing systems...
  23. Cha I, Castillo C, Nho S, Hikima J, Aoki T, Jung T. Innate immune response in the hemolymph of an ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, showing soft tunic syndrome, using label-free quantitative proteomics. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:809-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that trypsin inhibitor, ficolin 3, and TTSP are probably involved in the innate immune response related to this tunic disease. Beside, Hr-29 could be suggested as a biomarker for soft tunic syndrome...
  24. Tosti E, Gallo A, Silvestre F. Ion currents involved in oocyte maturation, fertilization and early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2011;78:854-60 pubmed publisher
  25. Blunt J, Copp B, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2010;27:165-237 pubmed publisher
    ..Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included...
  26. Hirose E, Oka A, Hirose M. Two new species of photosymbiotic ascidians of the genus Diplosoma from the Ryukyu Archipelago, with partial sequences of the COI gene. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:362-8 pubmed publisher
    ..gumavirens sp. nov. posses 12-16 adhesive papillae. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene discriminated the new species from each other and from congeners...
  27. Campsteijn C, Ovrebø J, Karlsen B, Thompson E. Expansion of cyclin D and CDK1 paralogs in Oikopleura dioica, a chordate employing diverse cell cycle variants. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:487-502 pubmed publisher
  28. Kaneko N, Katsuyama Y, Kawamura K, Fujiwara S. Regeneration of the gut requires retinoic acid in the budding ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:457-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that RA triggers the transdifferentiation of the atrial epithelium into the gut in regenerating animals, as it does during asexual reproduction...
  29. Sagane Y, Hosp J, Zech K, Thompson E. Cytoskeleton-mediated templating of complex cellulose-scaffolded extracellular structure and its association with oikosins in the urochordate Oikopleura. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:1611-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Oikosins are incorporated into house compartments directly above their corresponding cellular field of expression and interact with the cellulose scaffold to a variable extent...
  30. Pennati R, Groppelli S, De Bernardi F, Mastrototaro F, Zega G. Immunohistochemical analysis of adhesive papillae of Clavelina lepadiformis (Müller, 1776) and Clavelina phlegraea (Salfi, 1929) (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Eur J Histochem. 2009;53:25-34 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these two neurons play different roles during settlement: the central ones may be chemo- or mechanoreceptors that sense the substratum, and the peripheral ones may be involved in the mechanism that triggers metamorphosis...
  31. Tsagkogeorga G, Turon X, Hopcroft R, Tilak M, Feldstein T, Shenkar N, et al. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:187 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, substantial uncertainty remains about the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic status of key groups such as the Aplousobranchia, Appendicularia, and Thaliacea...
  32. Carpenter M, Powell J, Ishizuka K, Palmeri K, Rendulic S, De Tomaso A. Growth and long-term somatic and germline chimerism following fusion of juvenile Botryllus schlosseri. Biol Bull. 2011;220:57-70 pubmed
    ..Finally, by using genetic markers that could retrospectively assign genotypes, we also found that the majority of individual testes in a chimera were clonally derived...
  33. Rinkevich B, Douek J, Rabinowitz C, Paz G. The candidate Fu/HC gene in Botryllusschlosseri (Urochordata) and ascidians' historecognition--an oxymoron?. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:718-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the molecular nature of the Fu/HC locus in botryllid ascidians is still awaiting elucidation...
  34. Tassy O, Dauga D, Daian F, Sobral D, Robin F, Khoueiry P, et al. The ANISEED database: digital representation, formalization, and elucidation of a chordate developmental program. Genome Res. 2010;20:1459-68 pubmed publisher
  35. Nydam M, Harrison R. Polymorphism and divergence within the ascidian genus Ciona. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;56:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..appears to be associated with Type B/C. roulei to the exclusion of Type A. Levels of polymorphism in natural populations are similar to levels reported in other organisms that are considered to be highly polymorphic...
  36. Singh T, Tsagkogeorga G, Delsuc F, Blanquart S, Shenkar N, Loya Y, et al. Tunicate mitogenomics and phylogenetics: peculiarities of the Herdmania momus mitochondrial genome and support for the new chordate phylogeny. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:534 pubmed publisher
    ..It illustrates the beneficial effects of an increased taxon sampling coupled with the use of more realistic amino acid substitution models for the reconstruction of animal phylogeny...
  37. Satoh N. An advanced filter-feeder hypothesis for urochordate evolution. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Urochordata or Tunicata comprises three classes, Ascidiacea (ascidians), Thaliacea (salps), and Appendicularia (larvaceans);..
  38. Okamura K, Matsumoto K, Nakai K. Gradual transition from mosaic to global DNA methylation patterns during deuterostome evolution. BMC Bioinformatics. 2010;11 Suppl 7:S2 pubmed publisher
    ..However, DNA methylation patterns and levels in vertebrates and invertebrates have not been analyzed in the same way...
  39. Lauzon R, Brown C, Kerr L, Tiozzo S. Phagocyte dynamics in a highly regenerative urochordate: insights into development and host defense. Dev Biol. 2013;374:357-73 pubmed publisher
    ..As botryllid ascidians represent invertebrate chordates capable of whole body regeneration in a non-embryonic scenario, we discuss the pivotal role that phagocytosis plays in homeostasis, tissue renewal and host defense...
  40. Tiozzo S, Murray M, Degnan B, De Tomaso A, Croll R. Development of the neuromuscular system during asexual propagation in an invertebrate chordate. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2081-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study provides the morphological framework to dissect the mechanisms underlying the ability to regenerate entire organ systems as an adult in a chordate model...
  41. Carroll A, Avery V. Leptoclinidamines A-C, indole alkaloids from the Australian ascidian Leptoclinides durus. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:696-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptoclinidamine C (3) and both enantiomers of leptoclinidamine A (1) were tested for antimalarial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic activity, but none of the compounds were bioactive...
  42. Silva N, Smith W. Inverse correlation of population similarity and introduction date for invasive ascidians. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2552 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show exceptions to the assumptions that invasive species start with a low level of genetic polymorphism that increases over time and that closely related species have similar levels of genetic polymorphism...
  43. Martinez Garcia M, Koblizek M, López Legentil S, Antón J. Epibiosis of oxygenic phototrophs containing chlorophylls a, b, c, and d on the colonial ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei. Microb Ecol. 2011;61:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, our data indicate that tropical ascidians and C. dellechiajei differ in their phototrophic communities, although Chl d-containing cells are present in both microenvironments...
  44. Hirose E, Nozawa A, Kumagai A, Kitamura S. Azumiobodo hoyamushi gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Euglenozoa, Kinetoplastea, Neobodonida): a pathogenic kinetoplastid causing the soft tunic syndrome in ascidian aquaculture. Dis Aquat Organ. 2012;97:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we propose a new genus in the order Neobodonida, i.e. Azumiobodo gen. nov., and Azumiobodo hoyamushi as the type species for the genus...
  45. Paix A, Yamada L, Dru P, Lecordier H, Pruliere G, Chenevert J, et al. Cortical anchorages and cell type segregations of maternal postplasmic/PEM RNAs in ascidians. Dev Biol. 2009;336:96-111 pubmed publisher
    ..11 cells. (2) vasa-like postplasmic/PEM RNAs associated with granules which in addition to B8.11 cells segregate into B8.12 germ cells...
  46. Voskoboynik A, Newman A, Corey D, Sahoo D, Pushkarev D, Neff N, et al. Identification of a colonial chordate histocompatibility gene. Science. 2013;341:384-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition. ..
  47. Dupont L, Viard F, Dowell M, Wood C, Bishop J. Fine- and regional-scale genetic structure of the exotic ascidian Styela clava (Tunicata) in southwest England, 50 years after its introduction. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:442-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Populations in enclosed marinas had higher self-recruitment rates than those in open sites. Some marinas might therefore function as reservoirs of propagules for subsequent spread, whereas others might be sinks for migrants...
  48. Sorek H, Rudi A, Goldberg I, Aknin M, Kashman Y. Saldedines A and B, dibromo proaporphine alkaloids from a Madagascan tunicate. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:784-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Both saldedines A and B were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp and showed moderate activity...
  49. Goldstien S, Dupont L, Viard F, Hallas P, Nishikawa T, Schiel D, et al. Global phylogeography of the widely introduced North West Pacific ascidian Styela clava. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16755 pubmed publisher
    ..These contrasting patterns create difficulties when attempting to manage and mitigate a species that continues to spread among ports and marinas around the world...
  50. López Rivera A, Pinto M, Insinilla A, Suárez Isla B, Uribe E, Alvarez G, et al. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure). Toxicon. 2009;54:754-62 pubmed publisher
    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an ..
  51. Prodon F, Chenevert J, Hebras C, Dumollard R, Faure E, Gonzalez Garcia J, et al. Dual mechanism controls asymmetric spindle position in ascidian germ cell precursors. Development. 2010;137:2011-21 pubmed publisher
  52. Appleton D, Chuen C, Berridge M, Webb V, Copp B. Rossinones A and B, biologically active meroterpenoids from the Antarctic ascidian, Aplidium species. J Org Chem. 2009;74:9195-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The absolute configuration of 1 was deduced by using the modified Mosher method. The rossinones exhibit anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antiproliferative activities...
  53. Hirose M, Hirose E. DNA barcoding in photosymbiotic species of Diplosoma (Ascidiacea: Didemnidae), with the description of a new species from the southern Ryukyus, Japan. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:564-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Diplosoma aggregatum sp. nov. forms mosaic-like aggregates of small colonies. Although the zooids of D. aggregatum are similar to those of D. virens, these species are differentiated by colony form and COI sequences...