hagfishes

Summary

Summary: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.

Top Publications

  1. Hearle J. An alternative model for the structural mechanics of hagfish slime threads. Int J Biol Macromol. 2008;42:420-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The behaviour of the total thread/mucus/water system is discussed and some speculations on the defensive mechanisms that have evolved are presented...
  2. Fudge D, Levy N, Chiu S, Gosline J. Composition, morphology and mechanics of hagfish slime. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:4613-25 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that hagfishes can produce remarkable quantities of the slime because it is almost three orders of magnitude more dilute than ..
  3. Mallatt J, Sullivan J. 28S and 18S rDNA sequences support the monophyly of lampreys and hagfishes. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1706-18 pubmed
    Resolving the interrelationships of three major extant lineages of vertebrates (hagfishes, lampreys, and gnathostomes) is a particularly important issue in evolution, because the basal resolution critically influences our understanding ..
  4. Wright G, Keeley F, Robson P. The unusual cartilaginous tissues of jawless craniates, cephalochordates and invertebrates. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;304:165-74 pubmed
    ..A least two types of non-collagenous cartilage matrix proteins are found in both the hagfishes and the lampreys, all of which are resistant to digestion by cyanogen bromide (CNBr)...
  5. Kuratani S, Ota K. Hagfish (cyclostomata, vertebrata): searching for the ancestral developmental plan of vertebrates. Bioessays. 2008;30:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the delaminating neural crest is a vertebrate synapomorphy that seems to have appeared from the beginning of their evolutionary history, before the splitting away of the hagfish lineage...
  6. Takezaki N, Figueroa F, Zaleska Rutczynska Z, Klein J. Molecular phylogeny of early vertebrates: monophyly of the agnathans as revealed by sequences of 35 genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:287-92 pubmed
    Extant vertebrates are divided into three major groups: hagfishes (Hyperotreti, myxinoids), lampreys (Hyperoartia, petromyzontids), and jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata)...
  7. Winegard T, Fudge D. Deployment of hagfish slime thread skeins requires the transmission of mixing forces via mucin strands. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:1235-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Hagfishes are benthic marine protovertebrates that secrete copious quantities of slime when threatened...
  8. Subramanian S, Ross N, MacKinnon S. Comparison of the biochemical composition of normal epidermal mucus and extruded slime of hagfish (Myxine glutinosa L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation of elevated levels of innate immune parameters in the extruded slime suggested that the extruded slime has a significant role in innate immunity of hagfish against infectious pathogens...
  9. Oisi Y, Ota K, Kuraku S, Fujimoto S, Kuratani S. Craniofacial development of hagfishes and the evolution of vertebrates. Nature. 2013;493:175-80 pubmed publisher
    Cyclostomes, the living jawless vertebrates including hagfishes and lampreys, represent the most basal lineage of vertebrates...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Clark A, Summers A. Morphology and kinematics of feeding in hagfish: possible functional advantages of jaws. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:3897-909 pubmed
    ..Hagfish gape cycle times are approximately 1 s, and are longer than those of gnathostomes, suggesting that a functional advantage of jaws is the speed that allows gnathostomes to exploit elusive prey...
  2. Herr J, Winegard T, O Donnell M, Yancey P, Fudge D. Stabilization and swelling of hagfish slime mucin vesicles. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:1092-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that some other mechanism such as the chemical microenvironment within gland mucous cells, or hydrostatic pressure is responsible for stabilization of the vesicles within the gland...
  3. Zhang G, Cohn M. Hagfish and lancelet fibrillar collagens reveal that type II collagen-based cartilage evolved in stem vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16829-33 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigate the origin of vertebrate cartilage, and we report that hagfishes, the sister group to lampreys, also have Col2alpha1-based cartilage, suggesting its presence in the common ..
  4. Mincarone M, Fernholm B. Review of the Australian hagfishes with description of two new species of Eptatretus (Myxinidae). J Fish Biol. 2010;77:779-801 pubmed publisher
    This paper revises and updates taxonomic and distributional information about hagfishes (Myxinidae) from Australia...
  5. Heimberg A, Cowper Sal lari R, Semon M, Donoghue P, Peterson K. microRNAs reveal the interrelationships of hagfish, lampreys, and gnathostomes and the nature of the ancestral vertebrate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19379-83 pubmed publisher
  6. Braun C. Schreiner organs: a new craniate chemosensory modality in hagfishes. J Comp Neurol. 1998;392:135-63 pubmed
    An extensive system of sensory organs resembling taste buds was previously known in the skin of hagfishes. These sensory organs, called here Schreiner organs, are found throughout the epidermis of both Eptatretus stoutii and Myxine ..
  7. Ota K, Kuraku S, Kuratani S. Hagfish embryology with reference to the evolution of the neural crest. Nature. 2007;446:672-5 pubmed
  8. Kishishita N, Matsuno T, Takahashi Y, Takaba H, Nishizumi H, Nagawa F. Regulation of antigen-receptor gene assembly in hagfish. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, all VLR-assembled lymphocytes contained at least one functional VLR gene. Together, these results indicate a feedback inhibition of VLR assembly and selection of VLR-positive lymphocytes...
  9. Nishiguchi Y. Evolutionary implications of lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) of hagfishes compared to lampreys: LDH cDNA sequences from Eptatretus burgeri, Paramyxine atami and Eptatretus okinoseanus. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:475-9 pubmed publisher
    Heart muscles of hagfishes Paramyxine atami and Eptatretus okinoseanus express the B4 isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase [L-LDH: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] (LDH-B4) whereas their skeletal muscles express LDH-A4...
  10. Kuraku S, Meyer A, Kuratani S. Timing of genome duplications relative to the origin of the vertebrates: did cyclostomes diverge before or after?. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:47-59 pubmed publisher
    ..During this interval, diverse agnathans (jawless fishes), including cyclostomes (hagfishes and lampreys), diverged...
  11. Ota K, Fujimoto S, Oisi Y, Kuratani S. Identification of vertebra-like elements and their possible differentiation from sclerotomes in the hagfish. Nat Commun. 2011;2:373 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the vertebra-like elements in the hagfish are homologous to gnathostome vertebrae, implying that this animal underwent secondary reduction of vertebrae in most of the trunk...
  12. Furlong R, Younger R, Kasahara M, Reinhardt R, Thorndyke M, Holland P. A degenerate ParaHox gene cluster in a degenerate vertebrate. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2681-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the mapping of a ParaHox gene cluster in 2 species of hagfishes. Unexpectedly, these basal vertebrates have lost a functional Xlox gene from this cluster, unlike every other ..
  13. Chiu K, Mok H. Study on the accumulation of heavy metals in shallow-water and deep-sea hagfishes. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;60:643-53 pubmed publisher
    ..At present, the amount of various pollutants present in hagfishes from bioaccumulation through the food chain is unknown...
  14. Kuraku S. Palaeophylogenomics of the vertebrate ancestor--impact of hidden paralogy on hagfish and lamprey gene phylogeny. Integr Comp Biol. 2010;50:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, as the most early-branching lineages in vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lampreys) have been used for comparative analyses of gene regulations and functions...
  15. Ota K, Kuratani S. The history of scientific endeavors towards understanding hagfish embryology. Zoolog Sci. 2006;23:403-18 pubmed
    Due to their curious phylogenetic position and anatomy, hagfishes have attracted the interest of zoologists, especially in the context of vertebrate evolution...
  16. Lim J, Fudge D, Levy N, Gosline J. Hagfish slime ecomechanics: testing the gill-clogging hypothesis. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:702-10 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the loose binding of water by the slime may be an optimal solution to the problem of delivering an expanding jet of flow-inhibiting material to the gills of would-be predators...
  17. Suzuki T, Shin I T, Kohara Y, Kasahara M. Transcriptome analysis of hagfish leukocytes: a framework for understanding the immune system of jawless fishes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2004;28:993-1003 pubmed
    ..In total, our work provides circumstantial evidence that adaptive immunity is unique to jawed vertebrates...
  18. Pancer Z, Saha N, Kasamatsu J, Suzuki T, Amemiya C, Kasahara M, et al. Variable lymphocyte receptors in hagfish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9224-9 pubmed
    ..The development of two very different strategies for receptor diversification at the dawn of vertebrate evolution approximately 500 million years ago attests to the fitness value of a lymphocyte-based system of anticipatory immunity...
  19. Kuraku S, Kuratani S. Time scale for cyclostome evolution inferred with a phylogenetic diagnosis of hagfish and lamprey cDNA sequences. Zoolog Sci. 2006;23:1053-64 pubmed
    The Cyclostomata consists of the two orders Myxiniformes (hagfishes) and Petromyzoniformes (lampreys), and its monophyly has been unequivocally supported by recent molecular phylogenetic studies...
  20. Inoue I, Tsutsui I, Bone Q. Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and caudal heart muscle of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri Girard. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:3535-41 pubmed
    b>Hagfishes are regarded as the most primitive living craniates. Excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling mechanisms were studied in skeletal and caudal heart muscle fibres of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri...
  21. Ota K, Kuratani S. Expression pattern of two collagen type 2 alpha1 genes in the Japanese inshore hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri) with special reference to the evolution of cartilaginous tissue. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2010;314:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..origin of Col2A1 has been studied at the biochemical and molecular levels in extant jawless vertebrates (hagfishes and lampreys)...
  22. Janvier P. Early jawless vertebrates and cyclostome origins. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:1045-56 pubmed publisher
    Undoubted fossil lampreys are recorded since the Late Devonian (358 Ma), and probable fossil hagfishes since the Late Carboniferous (300 Ma), but molecular clock data suggest a much earlier divergence times for the two groups...
  23. Ota K, Kuratani S. Developmental biology of hagfishes, with a report on newly obtained embryos of the Japanese inshore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:999-1011 pubmed publisher
    The apparently primitive features of hagfishes are recognized as a crucial problem in the study of vertebrate evolution, although the monophyletic relationship between these animals and lampreys has been confirmed by large amounts of ..
  24. Kuraku S. Insights into cyclostome phylogenomics: pre-2R or post-2R. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:960-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in accumulating genomic and transcriptomic sequence data for the earliest groups of extant vertebrates, namely, hagfishes (Myxiniformes) and lampreys (Petromyzontiformes)...
  25. Takechi M, Takeuchi M, Ota K, Nishimura O, Mochii M, Itomi K, et al. Overview of the transcriptome profiles identified in hagfish, shark, and bichir: current issues arising from some nonmodel vertebrate taxa. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2011;316:526-46 pubmed publisher
    Because of their crucial phylogenetic positions, hagfishes, sharks, and bichirs are recognized as key taxa in our understanding of vertebrate evolution...
  26. Janvier P. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R661-3 pubmed publisher
    In contrast to lampreys and jawed vertebrates, hagfishes were thought to lack vertebrae...
  27. Haruta C, Suzuki T, Kasahara M. Variable domains in hagfish: NICIR is a polymorphic multigene family expressed preferentially in leukocytes and is related to lamprey TCR-like. Immunogenetics. 2006;58:216-25 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicates that among known proteins, NICIR is most closely related to the lamprey molecule recently proposed to be a potential ancestor of T cell receptors...
  28. Janvier P. Evolutionary biology: born-again hagfishes. Nature. 2007;446:622-3 pubmed
  29. Delarbre C, Rasmussen A, Arnason U, Gachelin G. The complete mitochondrial genome of the hagfish Myxine glutinosa: unique features of the control region. J Mol Evol. 2001;53:634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The comparison of the mtDNAs of two M. glutinosa specimens, excluding the control region, shows a 0.6% divergence at the nucleotide level as a sample of intraspecies polymorphism...
  30. Fujimoto S, Oisi Y, Kuraku S, Ota K, Kuratani S. Non-parsimonious evolution of hagfish Dlx genes. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:15 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the Dlx genes in the hagfish, the other cyclostome group, mainly because the embryological analysis of this animal is difficult...
  31. Sansom R, Gabbott S, Purnell M. Decay of vertebrate characters in hagfish and lamprey (Cyclostomata) and the implications for the vertebrate fossil record. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:1150-7 pubmed publisher
  32. Near T. Conflict and resolution between phylogenies inferred from molecular and phenotypic data sets for hagfish, lampreys, and gnathostomes. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2009;312:749-61 pubmed publisher
    ..phylogenetics is the disagreement between phenotypic and molecular inferences regarding the relationships among hagfishes, lampreys, and gnathostomes...
  33. Fudge D, Gosline J. Molecular design of the alpha-keratin composite: insights from a matrix-free model, hagfish slime threads. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:291-9 pubmed
    ..We propose a general conceptual model of the structural mechanics of IF-based materials that predicts the effects of hydration and cross-linking on stiffness, yield stress and extensibility...
  34. McLeod R, Wing S. Hagfish in the New Zealand fjords are supported by chemoautotrophy of forest carbon. Ecology. 2007;88:809-16 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates a clear linkage between terrestrial and marine ecological processes...
  35. Wales N. Hormone studies in Myxine glutinosa: effects of the eicosanoids arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E1, E2, A2, F2 alpha, thromboxane B2 and of indomethacin on plasma cortisol, blood pressure, urine flow and electrolyte balance. J Comp Physiol B. 1988;158:621-6 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  36. Drazen J, Yeh J, Friedman J, Condon N. Metabolism and enzyme activities of hagfish from shallow and deep water of the Pacific Ocean. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011;159:182-7 pubmed publisher
    Although hagfishes are ecologically important members of benthic communities there has been little data available on their metabolism...
  37. Russell M, Pelaez N, Packer C, Forster M, Olson K. Intracellular and extracellular calcium utilization during hypoxic vasoconstriction of cyclostome aortas. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R1506-13 pubmed
    ..Multiple receptor types appear to mediate stored intracellular calcium release in lamprey DA, and L-type calcium channels do not contribute significantly to constriction in either cyclostome...
  38. BasaƱez G, Shinnar A, Zimmerberg J. Interaction of hagfish cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides with model lipid membranes. FEBS Lett. 2002;532:115-20 pubmed
    ..Such a membrane-permeabilizing function appears to be an evolutionarily conserved host-defense mechanism of antimicrobial peptides...
  39. Uzzell T, Stolzenberg E, Shinnar A, Zasloff M. Hagfish intestinal antimicrobial peptides are ancient cathelicidins. Peptides. 2003;24:1655-67 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this tissue organization provides local defense of the hagfish gastrointestinal tract via innate immunity and possibly served as the architectural plan upon which the adaptive immune system evolved...
  40. Grishanin A, Shekhovtsov A, Boikova T, Akif ev A, Zhimulev I. [Chromatin diminution at the border of the XX and XXI centuries]. Tsitologiia. 2006;48:379-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, a certain part of genome with a particular size and structure may serve for genetic isolation of species as shellfish or junk DNA are vital components rather than pieces of garbage...
  41. Uchida K, Moriyama S, Sower S, Nozaki M. Glycoprotein hormone in the pituitary of hagfish and its evolutionary implications. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2013;39:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hagfishes, which lack both jaws and vertebrae, are considered the most primitive vertebrate known, living or extinct...
  42. Tsutsui K, Osugi T. Evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;161:30-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings over the past decade, this paper summarizes the evolutionary origin and divergence of GnIH and its homologous peptides...
  43. Olson K, Forgan L, Dombkowski R, Forster M. Oxygen dependency of hydrogen sulfide-mediated vasoconstriction in cyclostome aortas. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments also provide additional support for the hypothesis that the metabolism of H(2)S is involved in oxygen sensing/signal transduction in vertebrate vascular smooth muscle...
  44. Upton Z, Francis G, Chan S, Steiner D, Wallace J, Ballard F. Evolution of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) function: production and characterization of recombinant hagfish IGF. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1997;105:79-90 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, we now have functional as well as structural evidence that the IGFs have a long evolutionary history...
  45. Sundt R, Beyer J, Vingen S, Sydnes M. High matrix interference affecting detection of PAH metabolites in bile of Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) used for biomonitoring of deep-water oil production. Mar Environ Res. 2011;71:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible background for the observed matrix interference and implications for detection of PAH metabolites in hagfish is discussed...
  46. Tait L, Simpson C, Takei Y, Forster M. Hagfish natriuretic peptide changes urine flow rates and vascular tensions in a hagfish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;150:45-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As marine osmoconformers, with plasma ionic concentrations similar to seawater, the actions of NPs on hagfishes may provide information on their primordial role...
  47. Foster J, Forster M. Effects of salinity manipulations on blood pressures in an osmoconforming chordate, the hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. J Comp Physiol B. 2007;177:31-9 pubmed
    Arterial and venous pressures were measured in hagfishes subjected to acute changes in salinity. The osmotic pressure of the seawater (SW) was increased or decreased by approximately 10%...
  48. Robert J, Menoret A, Cohen N. Cell surface expression of the endoplasmic reticular heat shock protein gp96 is phylogenetically conserved. J Immunol. 1999;163:4133-9 pubmed
    ..This selective surface expression of gp96 on some immune cells from different vertebrate classes is consistent with an ancestral immunological role of gp96 as danger-signaling molecule...
  49. Perry S, Vulesevic B, Braun M, Gilmour K. Ventilation in Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) during exposure to acute hypoxia or hypercapnia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009;167:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide compelling evidence for chemoreceptor-mediated control of breathing in hagfish and suggest that ventilatory responses to environmental hypoxia and hypercapnia in the vertebrates arose in the myxine lineage...
  50. Havird J, Miyamoto M, Choe K, Evans D. Gene duplications and losses within the cyclooxygenase family of teleosts and other chordates. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:2349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should examine the functional ramifications of these differential gene losses...
  51. Hecht J, Stricker S, Wiecha U, Stiege A, Panopoulou G, Podsiadlowski L, et al. Evolution of a core gene network for skeletogenesis in chordates. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000025 pubmed publisher
    ..The similarities in expression patterns of Runt genes support the view that teeth and placoid scales evolved from a homologous developmental module...
  52. Nishimiya O, Kunihiro Y, Hiramatsu N, Inagawa H, Todo T, Hara A. Biochemical and immunochemical characterization of two discrete vitellogenin proteins and their derived lipovitellins in the inshore hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri). Zoolog Sci. 2014;31:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..studied in oviparous vertebrates, including teleost fishes, while not much is known with regard to jawless hagfishes, modern representatives of the most primitive vertebrate class...
  53. Suzuki A, Endo K, Kitano T. Phylogenetic positions of RH blood group-related genes in cyclostomes. Gene. 2014;543:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the clear phylogenetic position of the RHBG-like gene could not be obtained. Probably some convergent events for cyclostome RHBG-like genes prevented the accurate identification of their phylogenetic positions. ..