nonvertebrate chordata

Summary

Summary: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.

Top Publications

  1. Holland N, Venkatesh T, Holland L, Jacobs D, Bodmer R. AmphiNk2-tin, an amphioxus homeobox gene expressed in myocardial progenitors: insights into evolution of the vertebrate heart. Dev Biol. 2003;255:128-37 pubmed
  2. Boore J. Animal mitochondrial genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:1767-80 pubmed
    ..This review compares and summarizes these gene arrangements and points out some of the questions that may be addressed by comparing mitochondrial systems...
  3. Minguillon C, Jimenez Delgado S, Panopoulou G, Garcia Fernandez J. The amphioxus Hairy family: differential fate after duplication. Development. 2003;130:5903-14 pubmed
    ..Amphioxus may resemble the ancestor of the vertebrates, but it is not the ancestor, only its closest living relative, a privileged position that should not assume the freezing of its genome...
  4. Castro L, Furlong R, Holland P. An antecedent of the MHC-linked genomic region in amphioxus. Immunogenetics. 2004;55:782-4 pubmed
    ..The composition of the MHC-linked genomic region, therefore, pre-dates vertebrate origins...
  5. Yu C, Dong M, Wu X, Li S, Huang S, Su J, et al. Genes "waiting" for recruitment by the adaptive immune system: the insights from amphioxus. J Immunol. 2005;174:3493-500 pubmed
    ..However our study further reveals the fact that AIS is in its twilight in amphioxus and the evolution of the molecules in amphioxus are waiting for recruitment by the emergence of AIS...
  6. Kon T, Nohara M, Yamanoue Y, Fujiwara Y, Nishida M, Nishikawa T. Phylogenetic position of a whale-fall lancelet (Cephalochordata) inferred from whole mitochondrial genome sequences. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:127 pubmed
    ..inferum and two coral-reef congeners...
  7. Satoh G, Wang Y, Zhang P, Satoh N. Early development of amphioxus nervous system with special reference to segmental cell organization and putative sensory cell precursors: a study based on the expression of pan-neuronal marker gene Hu/elav. J Exp Zool. 2001;291:354-64 pubmed
    ..Taking recent gene expression studies and anatomical studies into consideration, we discuss ontogenetic and phylogenetic features of the amphioxus nervous system...
  8. Yasui K, Tabata S, Ueki T, Uemura M, Zhang S. Early development of the peripheral nervous system in a lancelet species. J Comp Neurol. 1998;393:415-25 pubmed
    ..These characteristics of the peripheral nervous system in the lancelet indicate that this animal has a rather derived or primitive developmental system of peripheral nerves, making the analysis of homology with vertebrates difficult...
  9. Mazet F, Masood S, Luke G, Holland N, Shimeld S. Expression of AmphiCoe, an amphioxus COE/EBF gene, in the developing central nervous system and epidermal sensory neurons. Genesis. 2004;38:58-65 pubmed

More Information

Publications62

  1. Benito Gutiérrez E, Nake C, Llovera M, Comella J, Garcia Fernandez J. The single AmphiTrk receptor highlights increased complexity of neurotrophin signalling in vertebrates and suggests an early role in developing sensory neuroepidermal cells. Development. 2005;132:2191-202 pubmed
    ..We propose that the duplication and divergence of the Nt/Trk system, in tandem with recruitment of the PLCgamma pathway, may have provided the genetic basis for a key aspect of vertebrate evolution: the complexity of the nervous system...
  2. Gerhart J, Lowe C, Kirschner M. Hemichordates and the origin of chordates. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2005;15:461-7 pubmed
    ..The dorsoventral axis might have undergone extensive modification in the chordate line, including centralization of the nervous system, segregation of epidermis, derivation of the notochord, and an inversion of organization...
  3. Holland L, Albalat R, Azumi K, Benito Gutiérrez E, Blow M, Bronner Fraser M, et al. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology. Genome Res. 2008;18:1100-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the amphioxus genome is elemental to an understanding of the biology and evolution of nonchordate deuterostomes, invertebrate chordates, and vertebrates...
  4. Wada H, Satoh N. Patterning the protochordate neural tube. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11:16-21 pubmed
    ..We are entering a new era in the understanding of how the evolution of novel vertebrate structures is linked to genetic evolution...
  5. Baker C, Bronner Fraser M. The origins of the neural crest. Part II: an evolutionary perspective. Mech Dev. 1997;69:13-29 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss the various non-neuronal cell types produced by the neural crest in order to demonstrate that it is plausible that these different cell types evolved from an ancestral population that was neuronal in nature...
  6. Huang G, Xie X, Han Y, Fan L, Chen J, Mou C, et al. The identification of lymphocyte-like cells and lymphoid-related genes in amphioxus indicates the twilight for the emergence of adaptive immune system. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e206 pubmed
    ..Our findings in the amphioxus indicate the twilight for the emergence of AIS before the invertebrate-vertebrate transition during evolution...
  7. Nordström K, Fredriksson R, Schioth H. The amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) genome contains a highly diversified set of G protein-coupled receptors. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:9 pubmed publisher
    ..G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest families of genes in mammals. Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus) is one of the species most closely related species to vertebrates...
  8. Holland L, Laudet V, Schubert M. The chordate amphioxus: an emerging model organism for developmental biology. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:2290-308 pubmed
    ..This relative structural and genomic simplicity in a vertebrate-like organism makes amphioxus ideal as a model organism for understanding mechanisms of vertebrate development...
  9. Fuentes M, Schubert M, Dalfo D, Candiani S, Benito E, Gardenyes J, et al. Preliminary observations on the spawning conditions of the European amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) in captivity. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2004;302:384-91 pubmed
  10. Kaltenbach S, Yu J, Holland N. The origin and migration of the earliest-developing sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system of amphioxus. Evol Dev. 2009;11:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The discussion considers the possible homology of the type 1 receptor neurons of amphioxus with migrating lateral line primordia and hair cells of vertebrates...
  11. Ferrier D, Brooke N, Panopoulou G, Holland P. The Mnx homeobox gene class defined by HB9, MNR2 and amphioxus AmphiMnx. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:103-7 pubmed
    ..We propose a new homeobox class, Mnx, to include AmphiMnx, HB9, MNR2 and their Drosophila and echinoderm orthologues; we suggest that vertebrate HB9 is renamed Mnx1 and MNR2 be renamed Mnx2...
  12. Boorman C, Shimeld S. Pitx homeobox genes in Ciona and amphioxus show left-right asymmetry is a conserved chordate character and define the ascidian adenohypophysis. Evol Dev. 2002;4:354-65 pubmed
    ..This shows that asymmetrical Pitx gene expression, and by inference directional asymmetry, evolved before the radiation of living chordates and should be considered a chordate character. ..
  13. Winchell C, Sullivan J, Cameron C, Swalla B, Mallatt J. Evaluating hypotheses of deuterostome phylogeny and chordate evolution with new LSU and SSU ribosomal DNA data. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:762-76 pubmed
    ..Our rRNA-gene analysis refutes most of these hypotheses and thus advocates a rethinking of chordate and vertebrate origins...
  14. Minguillon C, Ferrier D, Cebrian C, Garcia Fernandez J. Gene duplications in the prototypical cephalochordate amphioxus. Gene. 2002;287:121-8 pubmed
  15. Castro L, Santos M, Reis Henriques M. The genomic environment around the Aromatase gene: evolutionary insights. BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:43 pubmed
    ..The distinction between these possibilities should help to clarify the timing of the CYP19 emergence and which taxa should be investigated...
  16. Meinertzhagen I, Okamura Y. The larval ascidian nervous system: the chordate brain from its small beginnings. Trends Neurosci. 2001;24:401-10 pubmed
    ..In addition to providing ways to study a working chordate brain in miniature, all these offer insights into the ancestral condition of the developing vertebrate brain...
  17. Kauffman J, Zinovyeva A, Yagi K, Makabe K, Raff R. Neural expression of the Huntington's disease gene as a chordate evolutionary novelty. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2003;297:57-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, neural expression of the Hd gene in deuterostomes may be a novel feature of the chordate lineage, and the original role(s) of HD in deuterostomes may have been non-neural...
  18. D Aniello S, Irimia M, Maeso I, Pascual Anaya J, Jimenez Delgado S, Bertrand S, et al. Gene expansion and retention leads to a diverse tyrosine kinase superfamily in amphioxus. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:1841-54 pubmed publisher
  19. D Aniello S, Garcia Fernandez J. D-aspartic acid and L-amino acids in the neural system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Amino Acids. 2007;32:21-6 pubmed
    ..Our data on free amino acids composition is in agreement with the intermediate phylogenetic position of cephalochordates, in terms of the evolutionary transition from simple to complex neural systems...
  20. Jackman W, Kimmel C. Coincident iterated gene expression in the amphioxus neural tube. Evol Dev. 2002;4:366-74 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the segmental patterning of neurons in the neural tube was present in the amphioxus/vertebrate ancestor, but the establishment of a bona fide segmented hindbrain may indeed have arisen in the vertebrate lineage...
  21. Yu J, Holland N, Holland L. Tissue-specific expression of FoxD reporter constructs in amphioxus embryos. Dev Biol. 2004;274:452-61 pubmed
  22. Holland N, Holland L. Stage- and tissue-specific patterns of cell division in embryonic and larval tissues of amphioxus during normal development. Evol Dev. 2006;8:142-9 pubmed
    ..In sum, these stage- and tissue-specific changes in cell proliferation intensity illustrate how the requirements of embryonic and larval natural history can shape developmental programs...
  23. Hernandez Prada J, Haire R, Allaire M, Jakoncic J, Stojanoff V, Cannon J, et al. Ancient evolutionary origin of diversified variable regions demonstrated by crystal structures of an immune-type receptor in amphioxus. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:875-82 pubmed
  24. Rychel A, Smith S, Shimamoto H, Swalla B. Evolution and development of the chordates: collagen and pharyngeal cartilage. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our evidence suggests that the deuterostome ancestor was a benthic worm with gill slits and acellular gill cartilages...
  25. Schubert M, Escriva H, Xavier Neto J, Laudet V. Amphioxus and tunicates as evolutionary model systems. Trends Ecol Evol. 2006;21:269-77 pubmed
    ..We also review the two major groups of invertebrate chordates and compare relative advantages (and disadvantages) of each as model systems for elucidating the origin of the vertebrates...
  26. Minguillon C, Garcia Fernandez J. Genesis and evolution of the Evx and Mox genes and the extended Hox and ParaHox gene clusters. Genome Biol. 2003;4:R12 pubmed
    ..We constructed phylogenetic trees with mouse, amphioxus and Drosophila extended Hox and other related Antennapedia-type homeobox gene sequences and analyzed the linkage data available for such genes...
  27. Burman C, Maqueira B, Coadwell J, Evans P. Eleven new putative aminergic G-protein coupled receptors from Amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae): identification, sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship. Invert Neurosci. 2007;7:87-98 pubmed
    ..Amphioxus also expresses receptors that resemble vertebrate histamine receptors. Several of the novel receptor sequences have been identified in amphioxus cDNA libraries from a number of tissues...
  28. Dai Z, Chen Z, Ye H, Zhou L, Cao L, Wang Y, et al. Characterization of microRNAs in cephalochordates reveals a correlation between microRNA repertoire homology and morphological similarity in chordate evolution. Evol Dev. 2009;11:41-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Yasui K, Zhang S, Uemura M, Saiga H. Left-right asymmetric expression of BbPtx, a Ptx-related gene, in a lancelet species and the developmental left-sidedness in deuterostomes. Development. 2000;127:187-95 pubmed
    ..Considering the development of the coelom in deuterostomes, however, left-right asymmetric development involving Pitx2-related genes is rather likely to be a primitive character shared among deuterostomes...
  30. Abi Rached L, Gilles A, Shiina T, Pontarotti P, Inoko H. Evidence of en bloc duplication in vertebrate genomes. Nat Genet. 2002;31:100-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, reconstruction of the pre-duplicated region indicates that one of the duplicated regions retains the ancestral organization...
  31. Castro L, Holland P. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation to amphioxus chromosomes. Zoolog Sci. 2002;19:1349-53 pubmed
    ..These methods have great potential for performing comparative genomics between amphioxus and vertebrates...
  32. Satoh G. Characterization of novel GPCR gene coding locus in amphioxus genome: gene structure, expression, and phylogenetic analysis with implications for its involvement in chemoreception. Genesis. 2005;41:47-57 pubmed
  33. Benito Gutiérrez E, Illas M, Comella J, Garcia Fernandez J. Outlining the nascent nervous system of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus) by the pan-neural marker AmphiElav. Brain Res Bull. 2005;66:518-21 pubmed
    ..Together with data from other neural markers, we discuss the evolutionary relevance of these neural precursors to the origin of some of the most dramatic vertebrate inventions, neural crests and placodes...
  34. Minguillon C, Garcia Fernandez J. The single amphioxus Mox gene: insights into the functional evolution of Mox genes, somites, and the asymmetry of amphioxus somitogenesis. Dev Biol. 2002;246:455-65 pubmed
    ..g., the vertebrae. Furthermore, AmphiMox expression adds new data into a long-standing debate on the extent of the asymmetry of amphioxus somitogenesis...
  35. Baker M. Amphioxus, a primitive chordate, is on steroids: evidence for sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3551-3 pubmed
  36. Koop D, Holland L. The basal chordate amphioxus as a simple model for elucidating developmental mechanisms in vertebrates. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2008;84:175-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, studies of amphioxus development can shed light on similar, but more complex, development of vertebrates. Such studies are especially interesting for their insights into the genetic basis of craniofacial birth defects in humans...
  37. Lowe C, Wu M, Salic A, Evans L, Lander E, Stange Thomann N, et al. Anteroposterior patterning in hemichordates and the origins of the chordate nervous system. Cell. 2003;113:853-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that the deuterostome ancestor may have had a diffuse nervous system, which was later centralized during the evolution of the chordate lineage...
  38. Schomerus C, Korf H, Laedtke E, Moret F, Zhang Q, Wicht H. Nocturnal behavior and rhythmic period gene expression in a lancelet, Branchiostoma lanceolatum. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The amphiPer mRNA levels fluctuated in a rhythmic manner, being high early in the day and low late at night. The authors' data suggest a homology of the amphiPer expessing cells to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of vertebrates...
  39. Rasmussen S, Holland L, Schubert M, Beaster Jones L, Holland N. Amphioxus AmphiDelta: evolution of Delta protein structure, segmentation, and neurogenesis. Genesis. 2007;45:113-22 pubmed
  40. Danchin E, Pontarotti P. Towards the reconstruction of the bilaterian ancestral pre-MHC region. Trends Genet. 2004;20:587-91 pubmed
    ..We also propose a new approach to reconstruct ancestral genomes, which combines both stringent statistical testing and phylogenetic analysis...
  41. Candiani S, Oliveri D, Parodi M, Bertini E, Pestarino M. Expression of AmphiPOU-IV in the developing neural tube and epidermal sensory neural precursors in amphioxus supports a conserved role of class IV POU genes in the sensory cells development. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:623-33 pubmed
  42. McLysaght A, Hokamp K, Wolfe K. Extensive genomic duplication during early chordate evolution. Nat Genet. 2002;31:200-4 pubmed
    ..Considering the incompleteness of the sequence data and the antiquity of the event, the results are compatible with at least one round of polyploidy...
  43. Zhang G, Cohn M. Hagfish and lancelet fibrillar collagens reveal that type II collagen-based cartilage evolved in stem vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16829-33 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that duplication and diversification of ColA genes at the chordate-vertebrate transition may underlie the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletal tissues...
  44. Ferrier D, Minguillon C, Cebrian C, Garcia Fernandez J. Amphioxus Evx genes: implications for the evolution of the Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary and the chordate tailbud. Dev Biol. 2001;237:270-81 pubmed
  45. Sempere L, Cole C, McPeek M, Peterson K. The phylogenetic distribution of metazoan microRNAs: insights into evolutionary complexity and constraint. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2006;306:575-88 pubmed
  46. Schubert M, Holland N, Laudet V, Holland L. A retinoic acid-Hox hierarchy controls both anterior/posterior patterning and neuronal specification in the developing central nervous system of the cephalochordate amphioxus. Dev Biol. 2006;296:190-202 pubmed
  47. Baumann D, Cook M, Ma L, Mushegian A, Sanders E, Schwartz J, et al. A family of GFP-like proteins with different spectral properties in lancelet Branchiostoma floridae. Biol Direct. 2008;3:28 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, an mRNA encoding a fluorescent GFP-like protein AmphiGFP, related to GFP from Pontellidae, has been isolated from the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, a cephalochordate (Deheyn et al., Biol Bull, 2007 213:95)...
  48. Mazet F, Shimeld S. The evolution of chordate neural segmentation. Dev Biol. 2002;251:258-70 pubmed
    ..A consequence of this would have been that segmentation of vertebrate head mesoderm would no longer have been required, paving the way for the evolution of the unsegmented head mesoderm seen in living vertebrates...
  49. Meulemans D, McCauley D, Bronner Fraser M. Id expression in amphioxus and lamprey highlights the role of gene cooption during neural crest evolution. Dev Biol. 2003;264:430-42 pubmed
    ..These observations support the idea that neural crest evolution was driven in large part by cooption of multipurpose transcriptional regulators from other tissues and cell types...
  50. Paris M, Escriva H, Schubert M, Brunet F, Brtko J, Ciesielski F, et al. Amphioxus postembryonic development reveals the homology of chordate metamorphosis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:825-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, TH-regulated metamorphosis, mediated by TR, is an ancestral feature of all chordates. This conservation of a regulatory network supports the homology of metamorphosis in the chordate lineage...
  51. Yu J, Wang M, Shin I T, Kohara Y, Holland L, Satoh N, et al. A cDNA resource for the cephalochordate amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae. Dev Genes Evol. 2008;218:723-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This Gene Collection and the original 140,000 individual cDNA clones are available to the research community upon request...
  52. Stricker S, Poustka A, Wiecha U, Stiege A, Hecht J, Panopoulou G, et al. A single amphioxus and sea urchin runt-gene suggests that runt-gene duplications occurred in early chordate evolution. Dev Comp Immunol. 2003;27:673-84 pubmed
  53. Schubert M, Meulemans D, Bronner Fraser M, Holland L, Holland N. Differential mesodermal expression of two amphioxus MyoD family members (AmphiMRF1 and AmphiMRF2). Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:199-202 pubmed
    ..These two MRF genes of amphioxus have partly overlapping patterns of mesodermal expression and evidently duplicated independent of the diversification of the vertebrate MRF family...