chordata

Summary

Summary: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).

Top Publications

  1. Cardoso J, Vieira F, Gomes A, Power D. The serendipitous origin of chordate secretin peptide family members. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:135 pubmed publisher
    ..Secretin-like family GPCR homologues have also been isolated in non-vertebrate genomes however their corresponding ligands have not been convincingly identified and their evolution remains enigmatic...
  2. Gissi C, Pesole G, Cattaneo E, Tartari M. Huntingtin gene evolution in Chordata and its peculiar features in the ascidian Ciona genus. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:288 pubmed publisher
    To gain insight into the evolutionary features of the huntingtin (htt) gene in Chordata, we have sequenced and characterized the full-length htt mRNA in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate emerging as new invertebrate model ..
  3. Onai T, Lin H, Schubert M, Koop D, Osborne P, Alvarez S, et al. Retinoic acid and Wnt/beta-catenin have complementary roles in anterior/posterior patterning embryos of the basal chordate amphioxus. Dev Biol. 2009;332:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the two pathways may both influence such things as specification of neuronal identity, interactions between them in A/P patterning appear to be minimal...
  4. Eirín López J, González Romero R, Dryhurst D, Ishibashi T, Ausio J. The evolutionary differentiation of two histone H2A.Z variants in chordates (H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2) is mediated by a stepwise mutation process that affects three amino acid residues. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:31 pubmed publisher
    ..Z generically as a single protein, in vertebrates it is a mixture of two protein forms H2A.Z-1 (previously H2A.Z) and H2A.Z-2 (previously H2A.F/Z or H2A.V) that differ by three amino acids...
  5. Sagane Y, Zech K, Bouquet J, Schmid M, Bal U, Thompson E. Functional specialization of cellulose synthase genes of prokaryotic origin in chordate larvaceans. Development. 2010;137:1483-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular cellulose microfibrils produced by the pre-metamorphic Od-CesA1 duplicate have a role in notochord and tail morphogenesis...
  6. Christiaen L, Jaszczyszyn Y, Kerfant M, Kano S, Thermes V, Joly J. Evolutionary modification of mouth position in deuterostomes. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2007;18:502-11 pubmed
    ..We illustrate these morphogenetic movements by means of morphological data obtained by the confocal imaging of ascidian tailbud embryos, and provide a table for determining the tailbud stages of this model organism...
  7. Kawashima T, Kawashima S, Tanaka C, Murai M, Yoneda M, Putnam N, et al. Domain shuffling and the evolution of vertebrates. Genome Res. 2009;19:1393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses shed new light on the role of domain shuffling, especially in the evolution of vertebrates and chordates...
  8. Mazet F, Amemiya C, Shimeld S. An ancient Fox gene cluster in bilaterian animals. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R314-6 pubmed
  9. Bocina I, Saraga Babic M. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus. Int J Biol Sci. 2006;2:73-8 pubmed
    ..Collagen type I was proven to be the key extracellular matrix protein that forms the amphioxus notochordal sheath...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bertrand S, Escriva H. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: amphioxus. Development. 2011;138:4819-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We also summarize the major findings made using amphioxus that have informed us about the evolution of vertebrate traits...
  2. Bertrand S, Camasses A, Somorjai I, Belgacem M, Chabrol O, Escande M, et al. Amphioxus FGF signaling predicts the acquisition of vertebrate morphological traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9160-5 pubmed publisher
  3. De Tomaso A. Allorecognition polymorphism versus parasitic stem cells. Trends Genet. 2006;22:485-90 pubmed
    ..This review outlines these traits and discusses some of the puzzling aspects of allorecognition in Botryllus that might contribute to understanding the evolution of these extraordinary polymorphisms...
  4. Sansom R, Gabbott S, Purnell M. Non-random decay of chordate characters causes bias in fossil interpretation. Nature. 2010;463:797-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary data suggest that this decay filter also affects other groups of organisms and that 'stem-ward slippage' may be a widespread but currently unrecognized bias in our understanding of the early evolution of a number of phyla...
  5. Yu J, Satou Y, Holland N, Shin I T, Kohara Y, Satoh N, et al. Axial patterning in cephalochordates and the evolution of the organizer. Nature. 2007;445:613-7 pubmed
    ..In light of recent phylogenetic analyses placing cephalochordates basally in the chordate lineage, we propose that separate signalling centres for patterning the D/V and A/P axes may be an ancestral chordate character...
  6. Chen L, Zhang Q, Wang W, Wang Y. Spatiotemporal expression of Pax genes in amphioxus: insights into Pax-related organogenesis and evolution. Sci China Life Sci. 2010;53:1031-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that duplicated Pax genes in vertebrates might maintain most of their ancestral functions and also expand their expression patterns after the divergence of protochordates and vertebrates...
  7. Kasahara M. The 2R hypothesis: an update. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007;19:547-52 pubmed
    ..The 2R hypothesis has important implications for understanding the evolution of the immune system, including the origin of the major histocompatibility complex and natural killer receptors...
  8. Canestro C, Albalat R. Transposon diversity is higher in amphioxus than in vertebrates: functional and evolutionary inferences. Brief Funct Genomics. 2012;11:131-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of TE diversity and content between amphioxus and vertebrates allows us to discuss whether or not a burst of TEs happened after the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during early vertebrate evolution...
  9. Peterson K. Isolation of Hox and Parahox genes in the hemichordate Ptychodera flava and the evolution of deuterostome Hox genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;31:1208-15 pubmed
    ..Most morphological studies have supported Hemichordata+Chordata, whereas molecular studies support Echinodermata+Hemichordata, a clade known as Ambulacraria...
  10. Meulemans D, Bronner Fraser M. Central role of gene cooption in neural crest evolution. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2005;304:298-303 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the recruitment of new genetic pathways conferred novel developmental potentials upon the migratory neural tube cells of the prevertebrate chordate...
  11. Hecht J, Stricker S, Wiecha U, Stiege A, Panopoulou G, Podsiadlowski L, et al. Evolution of a core gene network for skeletogenesis in chordates. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000025 pubmed publisher
    ..The similarities in expression patterns of Runt genes support the view that teeth and placoid scales evolved from a homologous developmental module...
  12. Takahashi T, Holland P. Amphioxus and ascidian Dmbx homeobox genes give clues to the vertebrate origins of midbrain development. Development. 2004;131:3285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the evolution of midbrain development in relation to the ancestry of the tripartite neural ground plan and the origin of the MHB organiser...
  13. Rogozin I, Wolf Y, Carmel L, Koonin E. Analysis of rare amino acid replacements supports the Coelomata clade. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2594-7 pubmed
    ..Direct estimation of the level of homoplasy, combined with taxon sampling with different sets of outgroup species, reinforces the support for Coelomata, whereas the effect of reversals is shown to be relatively minor...
  14. Tello J, Sherwood N. Amphioxus: beginning of vertebrate and end of invertebrate type GnRH receptor lineage. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2847-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to suggest that distinct invertebrate and vertebrate GnRHRs are present simultaneously in a basal chordate, amphioxus...
  15. Gwee P, Tay B, Brenner S, Venkatesh B. Characterization of the neurohypophysial hormone gene loci in elephant shark and the Japanese lamprey: origin of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone genes. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:47 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also analyzed the neurohypophysial hormone gene locus in an invertebrate chordate, the amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae)...
  16. Putnam N, Butts T, Ferrier D, Furlong R, Hellsten U, Kawashima T, et al. The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype. Nature. 2008;453:1064-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution...
  17. Postlethwait J. The zebrafish genome in context: ohnologs gone missing. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:563-77 pubmed
    ..apparent when considered in the context of genome duplication events that occurred during evolution of the phylum Chordata, including two rounds at about the origin of the subphylum Vertebrata (R1 and R2) and one round before the ..
  18. Bourlat S, Juliusdottir T, Lowe C, Freeman R, Aronowicz J, Kirschner M, et al. Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida. Nature. 2006;444:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, Xenoturbella is shown to be an independent phylum, Xenoturbellida, bringing the number of living deuterostome phyla to four...
  19. Ferrier D, Dewar K, Cook A, Chang J, Hill Force A, Amemiya C. The chordate ParaHox cluster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R820-2 pubmed
  20. Blair J, Hedges S. Molecular phylogeny and divergence times of deuterostome animals. Mol Biol Evol. 2005;22:2275-84 pubmed
    ..We found that most major lineages of deuterostomes arose prior to the Cambrian Explosion of fossils (approximately 520 MYA) and that several lineages had originated before periods of global glaciation in the Precambrian...
  21. Holland L. Non-neural ectoderm is really neural: evolution of developmental patterning mechanisms in the non-neural ectoderm of chordates and the problem of sensory cell homologies. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2005;304:304-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, similarities between the ectodermal sensory cells of any one species of tunicate and craniate hair cells may well represent convergent evolution rather than homology...
  22. Barta E, Sebestyén E, Pálfy T, Toth G, Ortutay C, Patthy L. DoOP: Databases of Orthologous Promoters, collections of clusters of orthologous upstream sequences from chordates and plants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:D86-90 pubmed
    ..were used as queries in BLAST searches to collect the most closely related orthologous first exon sequences from Chordata and Viridiplantae species...
  23. Rychel A, Swalla B. Development and evolution of chordate cartilage. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:325-35 pubmed
    ..Later the evolutionary origin of neural crest allowed co-option of the gene network for the secretion of pharyngeal cartilage matrix in the new migratory neural crest cell populations found in vertebrates...
  24. Tucker R, Drabikowski K, Hess J, Ferralli J, Chiquet Ehrismann R, Adams J. Phylogenetic analysis of the tenascin gene family: evidence of origin early in the chordate lineage. BMC Evol Biol. 2006;6:60 pubmed
  25. Oulion S, Bertrand S, Belgacem M, Le Pétillon Y, Escriva H. Sequencing and analysis of the Mediterranean amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum) transcriptome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36554 pubmed publisher
    ..To fill this need we used the pyrosequencing method to characterize the B. lanceolatum transcriptome and then compared our results with the published transcriptome of B. floridae...
  26. Durán I, Marí Beffa M, Santamaría J, Becerra J, Santos Ruiz L. Freeze substitution followed by low melting point wax embedding preserves histomorphology and allows protein and mRNA localization techniques. Microsc Res Tech. 2011;74:440-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, CryoWax has been tested for in situ hybridization application, obtaining positive results...
  27. Ohta N, Satou Y. Multiple signaling pathways coordinate to induce a threshold response in a chordate embryo. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003818 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these signaling pathways coordinate to evoke a threshold response that delineates a sharp expression boundary. ..
  28. Shook D, Keller R. Epithelial type, ingression, blastopore architecture and the evolution of chordate mesoderm morphogenesis. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2008;310:85-110 pubmed
    ..Finally, we propose a model for the evolutionary transitions from gastrulation through a urodele amphibian-type blastopore to gastrulation through a primitive streak, as in chick or mouse...
  29. McHardy A, Martin H, Tsirigos A, Hugenholtz P, Rigoutsos I. Accurate phylogenetic classification of variable-length DNA fragments. Nat Methods. 2007;4:63-72 pubmed
    ..The method requires no more than 100 kb of training sequence for the creation of accurate models of sample-specific populations and can assign fragments >or=1 kb with high specificity...
  30. Dong J, Xin M, Liu H, Zhang M, Pang Q, Chen L, et al. Identification, expression of a glycoprotein hormone receptor homolog in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri with implications for origin of vertebrate GpHRs. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;184:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Presumably, the amphioxus BbGpHR-like represents the ancestral form of the GpHR gene prior to its split to the vertebrate paralogs gonadotropin receptor and thyrotropin receptor...
  31. Hu J, Zhang S, Yang M. Concerted action between Ca2+ and hyperosmolality initiates sperm motility in amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense. Theriogenology. 2006;65:441-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we inferred that a concerted action between Ca(2+) and hyperosmolality was essential to initiate motility of amphioxus sperm, whereas K(+) and pH were indispensable to maintain motility...
  32. Osborne P, Luke G, Holland P, Ferrier D. Identification and characterisation of five novel miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). Int J Biol Sci. 2006;2:54-60 pubmed
  33. Li D, Li G, Wang K, Liu X, Li W, Chen X, et al. Isolation and functional analysis of the promoter of the amphioxus Hsp70a gene. Gene. 2012;510:39-46 pubmed publisher
  34. Prochnik S, Rokhsar D, Aboobaker A. Evidence for a microRNA expansion in the bilaterian ancestor. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:73-7 pubmed
    ..The dramatic expansion of the miRNA repertoire in bilaterians relative to sponges and cnidarians suggests that increased miRNA-mediated gene regulation accompanied the emergence of triploblastic organ-containing body plans...
  35. Briggs D. Palaeontology: Decay distorts ancestry. Nature. 2010;463:741-3 pubmed publisher
  36. Egertová M, Elphick M. Localization of CiCBR in the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis: evidence of an ancient role for cannabinoid receptors as axonal regulators of neuronal signalling. J Comp Neurol. 2007;502:660-72 pubmed
  37. Morris V. Early development of coelomic structures in an echinoderm larva and a similarity with coelomic structures in a chordate embryo. Dev Genes Evol. 2012;222:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..A dorsoventral axis inversion in chordates is not required in the proposed homology...
  38. Chambery A, Parente A, Topo E, Garcia Fernandez J, D Aniello S. Characterization and putative role of a type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the cephalochordate amphioxus. Endocrinology. 2009;150:812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The seasonal variations of amphioxus GnRH also suggest an ancient role of this peptide in the control of reproduction in chordates, even before the evolution of a proper pituitary gland...
  39. Kozmik Z, Holland N, Kreslova J, Oliveri D, Schubert M, Jonasova K, et al. Pax-Six-Eya-Dach network during amphioxus development: conservation in vitro but context specificity in vivo. Dev Biol. 2007;306:143-59 pubmed
    ..g. in the control of mitosis, apoptosis, and cell/tissue motility)...
  40. Zago C, da Silva T, da Silva M, Venancio L, Mendonça P, Junior L, et al. Morphological, morphometrical and ultrastructural characterization of Phrynops geoffroanus' (Testudines: Chelidae) blood cells, in different environments. Micron. 2010;41:1005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This P. geoffroanus study is the first one that makes a correlation between these environments and the description of turtle's blood cells, thus contributing to the identification of the hematological characteristics of this group...
  41. Wang D, Liu H. [A research on Ig heavy chain constant region of five Acipenseridae]. Yi Chuan. 2006;28:1247-53 pubmed
    ..This result can clearly explain the relations of taxonomic status, geographical distribution and evolution among the species studied...
  42. Zhao B, Zhang S, Wang Y, Liu Z, Kong D. Characterization and expression of p23 gene in the amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;145:10-5 pubmed
  43. Sauka Spengler T, Bronner Fraser M. Development and evolution of the migratory neural crest: a gene regulatory perspective. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:360-6 pubmed
    ..These in turn regulate other transcription factors termed neural crest-specifiers, which control genes involved in neural crest delamination, the generation of migratory cells and ultimately the acquisition of appropriate fates...
  44. Paixão Côrtes V, Salzano F, Bortolini M. Evolutionary history of chordate PAX genes: dynamics of change in a complex gene family. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73560 pubmed publisher
    ..This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory. ..
  45. Wakeham D, Abi Rached L, Towler M, Wilbur J, Parham P, Brodsky F. Clathrin heavy and light chain isoforms originated by independent mechanisms of gene duplication during chordate evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7209-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, independent mechanisms of gene duplication expanded clathrin functions, concomitant with development of neuromuscular sophistication in chordates...
  46. Barat A, Bravo S, Chandra S, Corrêa A, Giombini M, Guedes R, et al. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2012-31 July 2012. Mol Ecol Resour. 2012;12:1196-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Clarias dussumeri, Clarias gariepinus, Heteropneustus fossilis, Sitophilus granarius and Sitophilus oryzae...
  47. Green S, Norris R, Terasaki M, Lowe C. FGF signaling induces mesoderm in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Development. 2013;140:1024-33 pubmed publisher
  48. Kourakis M, Smith W. A conserved role for FGF signaling in chordate otic/atrial placode formation. Dev Biol. 2007;312:245-57 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest interactions required for formation of the atrial siphon and highlight the role of atrial ectoderm during gill slit morphogenesis...
  49. Wheeler B, Heimberg A, Moy V, Sperling E, Holstein T, Heber S, et al. The deep evolution of metazoan microRNAs. Evol Dev. 2009;11:50-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that miRNAs might be excellent phylogenetic markers, and suggest that the advent of morphological complexity might have its roots in miRNA innovation...
  50. Luo Y, Zhang S. Computational prediction of amphioxus microRNA genes and their targets. Gene. 2009;428:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some intergenic miRNAs could participate in the modulation of their neighboring gene expression...
  51. Satoh G. Exploring developmental, functional, and evolutionary aspects of amphioxus sensory cells. Int J Biol Sci. 2006;2:142-8 pubmed
  52. Burighel P, Caicci F, Zaniolo G, Gasparini F, Degasperi V, Manni L. Does hair cell differentiation predate the vertebrate appearance?. Brain Res Bull. 2008;75:331-4 pubmed publisher
  53. Candiani S, Lacalli T, Parodi M, Oliveri D, Pestarino M. The cholinergic gene locus in amphioxus: molecular characterization and developmental expression patterns. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Their later expression is primarily in the anterior nerve cord in several types of motoneurons, some of the interneurons and in the receptor cells of the larval ocellus...