inbred sencar mice


Summary: Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.

Top Publications

  1. Calautti E, Missero C, Stein P, Ezzell R, Dotto G. fyn tyrosine kinase is involved in keratinocyte differentiation control. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2279-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, at least two tyrosine kinase activities are induced in keratinocyte differentiation, one of which has been identified as fyn and shown to be specifically involved in this process...
  2. Liu M, Huang K, Yeung S, Chang A, Zhang S, Mei N, et al. Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-?B. ..
  3. Lin C, Ho C, Huang M. Mechanistic studies on the inhibitory action of dietary dibenzoylmethane, a beta-diketone analogue of curcumin, on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 2001;25:158-65 pubmed
    ..This study provides insight into the mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of DBM in mouse mammary tumorigenesis. ..
  4. Mitchel R, McCann R. Skin tumor promotion by Vitamin E in mice: amplification by ionizing radiation and Vitamin C. Cancer Detect Prev. 2003;27:102-8 pubmed
  5. Larcher F, Franco M, Bolontrade M, Rodriguez Puebla M, Casanova L, Navarro M, et al. Modulation of the angiogenesis response through Ha-ras control, placenta growth factor, and angiopoietin expression in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Mol Carcinog. 2003;37:83-90 pubmed
  6. Galvez A, Chen N, Macasieb J, de Lumen B. Chemopreventive property of a soybean peptide (lunasin) that binds to deacetylated histones and inhibits acetylation. Cancer Res. 2001;61:7473-8 pubmed
    ..These results point to the role of lunasin as a new chemopreventive agent that functions possibly via a chromatin modification mechanism. ..
  7. Watson R, Curtin G, Doolittle D, Goodman J. Progressive alterations in global and GC-rich DNA methylation during tumorigenesis. Toxicol Sci. 2003;75:289-99 pubmed
    ..Progressive alterations in global and GC-rich methylation appear to be mechanistically important during tumor promotion. ..
  8. Sarfaraz S, Siddiqui I, Syed D, Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Guggulsterone modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in SENCAR mice. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2011-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, GUG could be useful for delaying tumor growth in humans. ..
  9. Stavanja M, Ayres P, Meckley D, Bombick E, Borgerding M, Morton M, et al. Safety assessment of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as an ingredient added to cigarette tobacco. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2006;57:267-81 pubmed

More Information


  1. Chan K, Carbajal S, Kiguchi K, Clifford J, Sano S, DiGiovanni J. Epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated activation of Stat3 during multistage skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2004;64:2382-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, constitutive activation of Stat3 in both papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas suggest a role in both the development of autonomous growth and the progression of epithelial tumors in mouse skin. ..
  2. Kleiner H, Vulimiri S, Starost M, Reed M, DiGiovanni J. Oral administration of the citrus coumarin, isopimpinellin, blocks DNA adduct formation and skin tumor initiation by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in SENCAR mice. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:1667-75 pubmed
    ..There were no histopathological changes in lungs or kidneys. Overall, these data indicate that isopimpinellin (and imperatorin) have chemopreventive effects when administered orally on skin tumor initiation by DMBA. ..
  3. Kiguchi K, Beltran L, DuBowski A, DiGiovanni J. Analysis of the ability of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to induce epidermal hyperplasia, transforming growth factor-alpha, and skin tumor promotion in wa-1 mice. J Invest Dermatol. 1997;108:784-91 pubmed
    ..The current data indicate that wa-1 mice are relatively resistant to TPA promotion. Possible mechanisms for this resistance are discussed. ..
  4. DiGiovanni J, Johnston D, Rupp T, Sasser L, Anderson L, Morris J, et al. Lack of effect of a 60 Hz magnetic field on biomarkers of tumor promotion in the skin of SENCAR mice. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:685-9 pubmed
    ..Within the sensitivity limits of the biomarker methodology and the exposure parameters employed, no consistent, statistically significant effects indicative of promotion or co-promotion by the magnetic field were demonstrated. ..
  5. Stewart J, Koehler K, Jackson W, Hawley J, Wang W, Au A, et al. Prevention of mouse skin tumor promotion by dietary energy restriction requires an intact adrenal gland and glucocorticoid supplementation restores inhibition. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1077-84 pubmed
    ..However, CCS was more effective in preventing papillomas and carcinomas in DER/ADX mice than in AL/ADX mice, suggesting that other factors may also be involved in the DER prevention of tumor formation. ..
  6. Brochmann E, Duarte M, Zaidi H, Murray S. Effects of dietary restriction on total body, femoral, and vertebral bone in SENCAR, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice. Metabolism. 2003;52:1265-73 pubmed
    ..DR is beneficial in the trabeculae-rich vertebrae of animal models of high oxidant stress, and total/lean body mass determines BMD and BMC in the weight-bearing femur in DR and AL-fed mice. ..
  7. Affara N, Schanbacher B, Mihm M, Cook A, Pei P, Mallery S, et al. Activated Akt-1 in specific cell populations during multi-stage skin carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:2773-81 pubmed
  8. Singh R, Tyagi A, Zhao J, Agarwal R. Silymarin inhibits growth and causes regression of established skin tumors in SENCAR mice via modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induction of apoptosis. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:499-510 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that silymarin and/or its major active constituent silibinin could be an effective agent for both prevention and intervention of human skin cancer. ..
  9. Konoshima T, Takasaki M, Ichiishi E, Murakami T, Tokuda H, Nishino H, et al. Cancer chemopreventive activity of majonoside-R2 from Vietnamese ginseng, Panax vietnamensis. Cancer Lett. 1999;147:11-6 pubmed
    ..Further, MR2 exhibited the remarkable inhibitory effect on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin induced by nitric oxide (NO) donor/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or peroxynitrite/TPA. ..
  10. Roemer E, Ottmueller T, Zenzen V, Wittke S, Radtke F, Blanco I, et al. Cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and tumorigenicity of mainstream smoke from three reference cigarettes machine-smoked to the same yields of total particulate matter per cigarette. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..More intensive smoking conditions were associated with lower in vitro and in vivo activity per gram of TPM. The strongest decrease, and the tightest correlation, in this regard was observed for dermal tumorigenicity (tumor incidence). ..
  11. Konoshima T, Takasaki M, Tokuda H, Nishino H. Cancer chemopreventive activity of an iridoid glycoside, 8-acetylharpagide, from Ajuga decumbens. Cancer Lett. 2000;157:87-92 pubmed
    ..Further, 8-AcHarp exhibited potent anti-tumor-promoting activity on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse hepatic tumor using N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) as an initiator and phenobarbital (PB) as a promoter. ..
  12. Kleiner H, Xia X, Sonoda J, Zhang J, Pontius E, Abey J, et al. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;232:337-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure. ..
  13. Christensen L, Conti C, Fischer S, Vasquez K. Mutation frequencies in murine keratinocytes as a function of carcinogenic status. Mol Carcinog. 2004;40:122-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggested that a strong mutator phenotype was not required for progression to an advanced malignant phenotype in our model system. ..
  14. Birt D, Przybyszewski J, Wang W, Stewart J, Liu Y. Identification of molecular targets for dietary energy restriction prevention of skin carcinogenesis: an idea cultivated by Edward Bresnick. J Cell Biochem. 2004;91:258-64 pubmed
    ..Studies are ongoing to further assess the mechanism of DER modulation of skin cancer by assessing impacts on transcriptional regulation and expression of genes that are critical in skin carcinogenesis. ..
  15. Chakravarti D, Mailander P, Li K, Higginbotham S, Zhang H, Gross M, et al. Evidence that a burst of DNA depurination in SENCAR mouse skin induces error-prone repair and forms mutations in the H-ras gene. Oncogene. 2001;20:7945-53 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that E(2)-3,4-Q, a suspected endogenous carcinogen, is a genotoxic compound and could cause mutations. ..
  16. Dwivedi C, Guan X, Harmsen W, Voss A, Goetz Parten D, Koopman E, et al. Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol on skin tumor development in CD-1 and SENCAR mice. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:151-6 pubmed
    ..alpha-Santalol could be an effective chemopreventive agent for skin cancer. Additional experimental and clinical studies are needed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of alpha-santalol in skin cancer. ..
  17. Lin C, Tsai Y, Huang M, Lu Y, Ho C, Tseng S, et al. Inhibition of estradiol-induced mammary proliferation by dibenzoylmethane through the E2-ER-ERE-dependent pathway. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:131-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results strongly suggest that DBM plays an inhibitory role in E2-induced proliferations, which establishes DBM as a model molecule for studying the antiestrogenic drugs. ..
  18. Jacobs S, Lie D, DeCicco K, Shi Y, DeLuca L, Gage F, et al. Retinoic acid is required early during adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3902-7 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal RA as a crucial contributor to early stages of adult neurogenesis and survival in vivo. ..
  19. Segrelles C, Ruiz S, Perez P, Murga C, Santos M, Budunova I, et al. Functional roles of Akt signaling in mouse skin tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2002;21:53-64 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data provide evidence that Akt activation is one of the key elements during the different steps of mouse skin tumorigenesis. ..
  20. Rahman S, Bhatia K, Khan A, Kaur M, Ahmad F, Rashid H, et al. Topically applied vitamin E prevents massive cutaneous inflammatory and oxidative stress responses induced by double application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;172:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm the efficacy of vitamin E against early inflammatory and oxidative stress responses, which are hallmark of tumor promotion and provide rational basis for chemopreventive action of vitamin E in skin cancer. ..
  21. Yu M, King B, Ewert E, Su X, Mardiyati N, Zhao Z, et al. Exercise Activates p53 and Negatively Regulates IGF-1 Pathway in Epidermis within a Skin Cancer Model. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160939 pubmed publisher
  22. Bachman A, Curtin G, Doolittle D, Goodman J. Altered methylation in gene-specific and GC-rich regions of DNA is progressive and nonrandom during promotion of skin tumorigenesis. Toxicol Sci. 2006;91:406-18 pubmed
  23. Courter L, Musafia Jeknic T, Fischer K, Bildfell R, Giovanini J, Pereira C, et al. Urban dust particulate matter alters PAH-induced carcinogenesis by inhibition of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:63-73 pubmed
    ..These data further suggest that in addition to the levels of potent PAH, the effects of other mixture components must be considered when predicting human cancer risk. ..
  24. Phillips J, Goodman J. Inhalation of cigarette smoke induces regions of altered DNA methylation (RAMs) in SENCAR mouse lung. Toxicology. 2009;260:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, altered methylation might serve as a biomarker of CS exposure, and, in light of the fact that methylation changes are linked to CS-induced lung tumorigenesis, might also be useful as biomarkers of effect...
  25. Sutter C, Greenhalgh D, Ueda M, Abhyankar S, Ngai P, Hennings H, et al. SENCAR mouse skin tumors produced by promotion alone have A to G mutations in codon 61 of the c-rasHa gene. Carcinogenesis. 1994;15:1975-8 pubmed
    ..Only the wild-type c-rasHa gene codon 61 sequence was seen, suggesting that the constitutively initiated cell population, if present, is below the limit of detection by this method...
  26. Curtin G, Hanausek M, Walaszek Z, Zoltaszek R, Swauger J, Mosberg A, et al. Short-term biomarkers of cigarette smoke condensate tumor promoting potential in mouse skin. Toxicol Sci. 2006;89:66-74 pubmed
    ..These findings are particularly intriguing based on reports suggesting that ODC expression may be necessary for tumor promotion and that mouse skin tumors originate primarily within the perifollicular epidermis...
  27. Przybyszewski J, Yaktine A, Duysen E, Blackwood D, Wang W, Au A, et al. Inhibition of phorbol ester-induced AP-1-DNA binding, c-Jun protein and c-jun mRNA by dietary energy restriction is reversed by adrenalectomy in SENCAR mouse epidermis. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1421-7 pubmed
    ..05). Thus, dietary energy restriction may inhibit cancer mechanistically by reducing overall AP-1 transcription through a process that is mediated in part by glucocorticoid hormones...
  28. Virmani J, Johnson E, Klein Szanto A, Funk C. Role of 'platelet-type' 12-lipoxygenase in skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2001;162:161-5 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data suggest that the P-12LO pathway may contribute to tumor incidence and progression in two-stage, but not complete, carcinogenesis, depending on the genetic background...
  29. Hanausek M, Walaszek Z, Viaje A, LaBate M, Spears E, Farrell D, et al. Exposure of mouse skin to organic peroxides: subchronic effects related to carcinogenic potential. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:431-7 pubmed
    ..Neither TBPB nor TBIBHP produced detectable mutations in the c-Ha-ras protooncogene, indicating that they are not likely to possess tumor initiating or complete carcinogenic activity...
  30. Saeed M, Higginbotham S, Gaikwad N, Chakravarti D, Rogan E, Cavalieri E. Depurinating naphthalene-DNA adducts in mouse skin related to cancer initiation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:1075-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the same mechanism as other weak carcinogens, such as the natural and synthetic estrogens, and benzene...
  31. Palmieri M, Tasat D, Molinari B. Oxidative metabolism of lung macrophages exposed to sodium arsenite. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:1603-9 pubmed
    ..Arsenite modifies the metabolic and the oxidative status of AMs in vitro. When macrophages are in an As(3+) rich medium, they exhibit a reduction in respiratory burst levels and lose their intrinsic capacity to respond to toxicants...
  32. Ushiku C, Adams D, Jiang X, Wang L, Rowe D. Long bone fracture repair in mice harboring GFP reporters for cells within the osteoblastic lineage. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:1338-47 pubmed publisher
  33. Tang M, Vulimiri S, Viaje A, Chen J, Bilolikar D, Morris R, et al. Both (+/-)syn- and (+/-)anti-7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxides initiate tumors in mouse skin that possess -CAA- to -CTA- mutations at Codon 61 of c-H-ras. Cancer Res. 2000;60:5688-95 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that the adenine adducts induced by both bay-region diol epoxides of DMBA lead to the mutation at codon 61 of H-ras and, consequently, initiate tumorigenesis in mouse skin...
  34. Woodworth C, Michael E, Smith L, Vijayachandra K, Glick A, Hennings H, et al. Strain-dependent differences in malignant conversion of mouse skin tumors is an inherent property of the epidermal keratinocyte. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:1771-8 pubmed
    ..This predisposition is an intrinsic property of the target keratinocytes and as such should be amenable to further study in isolated cells...
  35. Hayes J, Meckley D, Stavanja M, Nelson P, Van Kampen K, Swauger J. Effect of a flue-curing process that reduces tobacco specific nitrosamines on the tumor promotion in SENCAR mice by cigarette smoke condensate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:419-30 pubmed
    ..In this assay, the dermal tumor-promotion potential of CSC from heat-exchange flue-cured tobacco did not differ from that of traditional direct-fire flue-cured tobacco CSC...
  36. Nelson D, Cao H, Zhu Y, Sunar Reeder B, Choi C, Faix J, et al. A noninvasive approach for assessing tumor hypoxia in xenografts: developing a urinary marker for hypoxia. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6151-8 pubmed
    ..The 5HRE beta-hCG reporter system described here enables serial, noninvasive monitoring of tumor hypoxia in a mouse model by measuring a urinary reporter protein...
  37. Santini M, Talora C, Seki T, Bolgan L, Dotto G. Cross talk among calcineurin, Sp1/Sp3, and NFAT in control of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression in keratinocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9575-80 pubmed
  38. Nickel K, Belury M. Inositol hexaphosphate reduces 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase independent of protein kinase C isoform expression in keratinocytes. Cancer Lett. 1999;140:105-11 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that InsP6 reduces TPA-induced ODC activity independent of PKC isoform expression...
  39. Kathman S, Potts R, Ayres P, Harp P, Wilson C, Garner C. A Bayesian statistical analysis of mouse dermal tumor promotion assay data for evaluating cigarette smoke condensate. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis presented here was developed as a statistical decision tool for differentiating between two or more prototype products based on the dermal tumorigenicity...
  40. Misner D, Jacobs S, Shimizu Y, de Urquiza A, Solomin L, Perlmann T, et al. Vitamin A deprivation results in reversible loss of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11714-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a major mental consequence for the hundreds of millions of adults and children who are vitamin A deficient...
  41. Lin C, Lu Y, Lou Y, Ho C, Newmark H, MacDonald C, et al. Inhibition by dietary dibenzoylmethane of mammary gland proliferation, formation of DMBA-DNA adducts in mammary glands, and mammary tumorigenesis in Sencar mice. Cancer Lett. 2001;168:125-32 pubmed
    ..These results may explain the strong inhibitory actions of dietary DBM on mammary carcinogenesis in mice...
  42. Larcher F, Robles A, Duran H, Murillas R, Quintanilla M, Cano A, et al. Up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor in mouse skin carcinogenesis correlates with malignant progression state and activated H-ras expression levels. Cancer Res. 1996;56:5391-6 pubmed
  43. Akihisa T, Nakamura Y, Tagata M, Tokuda H, Yasukawa K, Uchiyama E, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects of triterpene acids and sterols from the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:224-31 pubmed
    ..Further, 20-hydroxylucidenic acid N (18) exhibited inhibitory effects on skin-tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator, and with TPA as promoter...
  44. Kowalczyk M, Kowalczyk P, Tolstykh O, Hanausek M, Walaszek Z, Slaga T. Synergistic effects of combined phytochemicals and skin cancer prevention in SENCAR mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:170-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Przybyszewski J, Wang W, Au A, Perry C, Guetzko M, Koehler K, et al. Dietary energy restriction, in part through glucocorticoid hormones, mediates the impact of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on jun D and fra-1 in Sencar mouse epidermis. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:592-602 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study supports potential roles for jun D, jun B, and fra-1 in the DER regulation of AP-1 function in the Sencar mouse skin carcinogenesis model...
  46. Akihisa T, Tokuda H, Ukiya M, Kiyota A, Yasukawa K, Sakamoto N, et al. Anti-tumor-initiating effects of monascin, an azaphilonoid pigment from the extract of Monascus pilosus fermented rice (red-mold rice). Chem Biodivers. 2005;2:1305-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that compound 1 may be valuable as potential cancer chemopreventive agent in chemical and environmental carcinogenesis...
  47. Kumar A, Butler A. Enhanced Sp1 DNA-binding activity in murine keratinocyte cell lines and epidermal tumors. Cancer Lett. 1999;137:159-65 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that increased Sp1 DNA binding may augment the proliferative capacity of tumor cells through overexpression of Sp1-responsive genes, possibly including ODC...
  48. Benavides F, Gomez G, Venables Griffith A, Lambertz I, Flores M, Angel J, et al. Differential susceptibility to chemically induced thymic lymphomas in SENCARB and SSIN inbred mice. Mol Carcinog. 2006;45:543-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these SENCAR inbred strains constitute important new tools to study the genetic basis of resistance and susceptibility to chemically induced thymic lymphoma formation...
  49. Benavides F, Zamisch M, Flores M, Campbell M, Andrew S, Angel J, et al. Application of inter-simple sequence repeat PCR to mouse models: assessment of genetic alterations in carcinogenesis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;35:299-310 pubmed
    ..These PCR-based fingerprints provide a novel approach to assessing the number and onset of mutational events in mouse tumors and will help to understand better the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in mouse models...
  50. Khan G, Bhattacharya G, Mailander P, Meza J, Hansen L, Chakravarti D. Harvey-ras gene expression and epidermal cell proliferation in dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-treated early preneoplastic SENCAR mouse skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:567-74 pubmed
    ..As this proliferation occurs in the absence of any promoting treatment, we propose that this phenomenon is a tumor initiation event...
  51. McLean J, Thansandote A, McNamee J, Tryphonas L, Lecuyer D, Gajda G. A 60 Hz magnetic field does not affect the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas in SENCAR mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2003;24:75-81 pubmed
    ..The overall results add to previous animal studies that find no association between exposure to 60 Hz MF and the incidence of benign or malignant tumors...
  52. Liu Y, Wang W, Hawley J, Birt D. Adrenalectomy abrogates reduction of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activity in the epidermis of dietary energy-restricted SENCAR mice: implications of glucocorticoid hormone. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:299-304 pubmed
    ..05). These results provide strong evidence that intact adrenal glands are essential for the DER inhibition of ERK induction by TPA and that corticosterone plays a critical role in the DER blockage of ERK induction...
  53. Theophilus E, Pence D, Meckley D, Higuchi M, Bombick B, Borgerding M, et al. Toxicological evaluation of expanded shredded tobacco stems. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42:631-9 pubmed
    ..Collectively, data indicated that cigarettes with and without ESS had a similar toxicological profile in this test battery...
  54. Curtin G, Hanausek M, Walaszek Z, Mosberg A, Slaga T. Short-term in vitro and in vivo analyses for assessing the tumor-promoting potentials of cigarette smoke condensates. Toxicol Sci. 2004;81:14-25 pubmed
    ..e., > or = 0.95 after 8 or 12 weeks of promotion), may constitute reasonable end points for further investigation...
  55. Kuzin I, Ugine G, Barth R, Shultz L, Nahm M, Young F, et al. A new murine model of humoral immuno-deficiency specifically affects class switching to T-independent antigens. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:1807-16 pubmed
    ..This new mouse model will be of interest for the understanding of mechanisms involved in TI immune responses and may provide new insights into the molecular basis of human Ig deficiencies...
  56. Theophilus E, Poindexter D, Meckley D, Bombick B, Borgerding M, Higuchi M, et al. Toxicological evaluation of dry ice expanded tobacco. Toxicol Lett. 2003;145:107-19 pubmed
    ..Cigarettes containing DIET or Freon-11 expanded tobacco were similar in biological activity...
  57. Murray S, Duarte M, Brochmann E. The effects of dietary restriction on humeral and mandibular bone in SENCAR, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice. Metabolism. 2003;52:970-7 pubmed
    ..Mandibular BMC in 30% DR C57 (but not DBA or SENCAR) mice was lower than that observed in their AL-fed controls. Mandibular BMD and BMC increased versus t(0) values in 30% DR mice of all strains...
  58. Salgueiro M, Duran H, Palmieri M, Pirchio R, Nicolini J, Ughetti R, et al. Design and bioevaluation of a 32P-patch for brachytherapy of skin diseases. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:303-9 pubmed
    ..Tumor growth was arrest and complete regressions of tumors were seen in some other cases with 40 Gy applied in a single-dose scheme. In conclusion, the 32P-silicone-patch is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases...
  59. Hanausek M, Ganesh P, Walaszek Z, Arntzen C, Slaga T, Gutterman J. Avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham), suppress H-ras mutations and aneuploidy in a murine skin carcinogenesis model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11551-6 pubmed
  60. Syed Z, Cheepala S, Gill J, Stein J, Nathan C, DiGiovanni J, et al. All-trans retinoic acid suppresses Stat3 signaling during skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009;2:903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Stat3C mice, in which Stat3 activity is constitutive, it cannot suppress tumor formation...
  61. Calautti E, Grossi M, Mammucari C, Aoyama Y, Pirro M, Ono Y, et al. Fyn tyrosine kinase is a downstream mediator of Rho/PRK2 function in keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:137-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, these findings reveal a novel role of Fyn as a downstream mediator of Rho in control of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion and implicate the PRK2 kinase, a direct Rho effector, as a link between Rho and Fyn activation...
  62. Wurz G, Marchisano Karpman C, DeGregorio M. Ineffectiveness of American ginseng in the prevention of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumors in mice. Oncol Res. 2006;16:251-60 pubmed
  63. Fukuda Y, Sakai K, Matsunaga S, Tokuda H, Tanaka R. Cancer chemopreventive effect of orally administrated lupane-type triterpenoid on ultraviolet light B induced photocarcinogenesis of hairless mouse. Cancer Lett. 2006;240:94-101 pubmed
    ..Thus, compound 1 could act as a potent anti-tumor initiator in UVB radiation photocarcinogenesis...
  64. Stern M, Benavides F, LaCava M, Conti C. Genetic analyses of mouse skin tumor progression susceptibility using SENCAR inbred derived strains. Mol Carcinog. 2002;35:13-20 pubmed
    ..Our preliminary linkage analysis failed to identify one strong susceptibility locus to confirm this but provided some evidence for at least one possible susceptibility locus in mouse chromosome 14...
  65. Jensen P, Lavker R. Modulation of the plasminogen activator cascade during enhanced epidermal proliferation in vivo. Cell Growth Differ. 1996;7:1793-804 pubmed
  66. Affara N, Trempus C, Schanbacher B, Pei P, Mallery S, Bauer J, et al. Activation of Akt and mTOR in CD34+/K15+ keratinocyte stem cells and skin tumors during multi-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2805-20 pubmed
    ..The cell populations examined included mouse keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) within hair follicles and preneoplastic papilloma cells...
  67. Liu Y, Duysen E, Yaktine A, Au A, Wang W, Birt D. Dietary energy restriction inhibits ERK but not JNK or p38 activity in the epidermis of SENCAR mice. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:607-12 pubmed
  68. Ishikawa T, Yoshida N, Tokuda H, Ichiishi E, Kuchide M, Kokura S, et al. Tumor initiating activity of Helicobacter pylori water extract on mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 2003;191:41-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an initiating activity of HPE on two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis...
  69. Murray E, Murray S, Grisanti M, Duarte M, Urist M. Effect of low dietary calcium on bone metabolism in the SENCAR mouse. J Orthop Res. 1997;15:585-92 pubmed
    ..Detailed examinations of the histology and biochemistry of SENCAR mouse bone will provide insights into the mechanisms by which specific defects in the signal transduction of protein kinase C contribute to impaired bone metabolism...
  70. Birt D, Merrill A, Barnett T, Enkvetchakul B, Pour P, Liotta D, et al. Inhibition of skin carcinomas but not papillomas by sphingosine, N-methylsphingosine, and N-acetylsphingosine. Nutr Cancer. 1998;31:119-26 pubmed
    ..5 mumol of NAS. Thus low doses of sphingolipids that were not effective in inhibiting ODC activity, reducing hyperplasia, or preventing epidermal papilloma development were, nonetheless, effective in inhibiting carcinoma development...
  71. Wurz G, Read K, Marchisano Karpman C, Gregg J, Beckett L, Yu Q, et al. Ospemifene inhibits the growth of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumors in Sencar mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97:230-40 pubmed
    ..The results of these two studies suggest that women taking ospemifene for osteoporosis and/or urogenital atrophy may further benefit from ospemifene's breast cancer chemopreventive effects...
  72. Gaworski C, Heck J, Bennett M, Wenk M. Toxicologic evaluation of flavor ingredients added to cigarette tobacco: skin painting bioassay of cigarette smoke condensate in SENCAR mice. Toxicology. 1999;139:1-17 pubmed
  73. Werley M, Freelin S, Wrenn S, Gerstenberg B, Roemer E, Schramke H, et al. Smoke chemistry, in vitro and in vivo toxicology evaluations of the electrically heated cigarette smoking system series K. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;52:122-39 pubmed publisher
  74. Casale G, Cheng Z, Liu J, Cavalieri E, Singhal M. Profiles of cytokine mRNAs in the skin and lymph nodes of SENCAR mice treated epicutaneously with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene or dimethylbenz[a]anthracene reveal a direct correlation between carcinogen-induced contact hypersensitivity and epidermal hyperplasi. Mol Carcinog. 2000;27:125-40 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data support carcinogen-specific CHS as a mechanism by which the very potent carcinogen DB[a,l]P induces epidermal hyperplasia, a requirement for tumor promotion in mouse skin...
  75. Roomi M, Roomi N, Kalinovsky T, Ivanov V, Rath M, Niedzwiecki A. Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced skin tumors by a nutrient mixture. Med Oncol. 2008;25:333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NM has strong potential as a useful therapeutic regimen for skin cancer by significantly inhibiting the incidence and tumor multiplicity of DMBA-induced skin tumors...
  76. Meckley D, Hayes J, Van Kampen K, Mosberg A, Swauger J. A responsive, sensitive, and reproducible dermal tumor promotion assay for the comparative evaluation of cigarette smoke condensates. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004;39:135-49 pubmed
    ..These studies support the conclusion that the 1R4F cigarette is suitable for use as a reference standard and the protocol presented is an appropriate and standardized model suitable for the comparative evaluation of CSC...
  77. Collet A, Palmieri M, Molinari B, Schwint A, Itoiz M. Experimental study to test the potential tumor promotion effect of a tooth bleaching agent. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2001;14:30-4 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the lack of risk involved in the application of carbamide peroxide even in oral mucosa with a precancerous condition due to the action of initiation agents such as tobacco and alcohol...
  78. Stavanja M, Meckley D, Curtin G, Nelson P, Ayres P, Swauger J. DBA/2 mouse skin is unresponsive to dermal tumor promotion by cigarette smoke condensate. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2006;58:125-32 pubmed
    ..It is not possible, based on the study design employed, to determine the underlying basis for the apparent resistance exhibited by this mouse strain to CSC-induced tumor promotion...
  79. Bauer B, Riley L. Antemortem detection of mouse parvovirus and mice minute virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of faecal samples. Lab Anim. 2006;40:144-52 pubmed
    ..These findings confirm that faecal shedding occurs for a limited time and suggest that 5-9-week-old mice are the most appropriate age group in endemically infected mice for faecal testing by MMV and MPV PCR...
  80. Yagura T, Motomiya T, Ito M, Honda G, Iida A, Kiuchi F, et al. Anticarcinogenic compounds in the Uzbek medicinal plant, Helichrysum maracandicum. J Nat Med. 2008;62:174-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis showed that the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was suppressed by the administration of naringenin chalcone or isosalipurposide, which might be related to the anticarcinogenic activity...
  81. Mason P, Walters T, DiGiovanni J, Beason C, Jauchem J, Dick E, et al. Lack of effect of 94 GHz radio frequency radiation exposure in an animal model of skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1701-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that exposure to 94 GHz RFR under these conditions does not promote or co-promote papilloma development in this animal model of skin carcinogenesis...
  82. Theophilus E, Pence D, Meckley D, Keith Shreve W, Ayres P, Bombick B, et al. Toxicological evaluation of cigarettes with two banded cigarette paper technologies. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2007;59:17-27 pubmed
    ..Collectively, data indicated that cigarettes with and without BCPT had a similar toxicological profile in this test battery...
  83. Darwiche N, Ryscavage A, Perez Lorenzo R, Wright L, Bae D, Hennings H, et al. Expression profile of skin papillomas with high cancer risk displays a unique genetic signature that clusters with squamous cell carcinomas and predicts risk for malignant conversion. Oncogene. 2007;26:6885-95 pubmed
  84. Brochmann Murray E, Beamer W, Duarte M, Behnam K, Grisanti M, Murray S. Effects of dietary restriction on appendicular bone in the SENCAR mouse. Metabolism. 2001;50:436-42 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PKC or the downstream metabolic processes regulated by it appear to play previously unrecognized roles in the regulation of tibial trabecular BMD and serum calcitonin in SENCAR mice...