Summary: Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, Animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, Animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain EUKARYOTA.

Top Publications

  1. Paszek M, DuFort C, Rossier O, Bainer R, Mouw J, Godula K, et al. The cancer glycocalyx mechanically primes integrin-mediated growth and survival. Nature. 2014;511:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a bulky glycocalyx is a feature of tumour cells that could foster metastasis by mechanically enhancing cell-surface receptor function. ..
  2. Dunn S, Martello G, Yordanov B, Emmott S, Smith A. Defining an essential transcription factor program for naïve pluripotency. Science. 2014;344:1156-1160 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that propagation of ES cell identity is not determined by a vast interactome but rather can be explained by a relatively simple process of molecular computation. ..
  3. Florea V, Cohn J. The autonomic nervous system and heart failure. Circ Res. 2014;114:1815-26 pubmed publisher
  4. Ali F, Cheng K, Kirwan P, Metcalfe S, Livesey F, Barker R, et al. The phosphorylation status of Ascl1 is a key determinant of neuronal differentiation and maturation in vivo and in vitro. Development. 2014;141:2216-24 pubmed publisher
  5. Berger S, Kasparcova V, Hoffman S, Swift B, Dare L, Schaeffer M, et al. Cutting Edge: RIP1 kinase activity is dispensable for normal development but is a key regulator of inflammation in SHARPIN-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2014;192:5476-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, crossing Ripk1(K45A) mice with the cpdm strain protected against all cpdm-related pathology. Together, these data suggest that RIP1 kinase represents an attractive therapeutic target for TNF-driven inflammatory diseases. ..
  6. McKenney R, Huynh W, Tanenbaum M, Bhabha G, Vale R. Activation of cytoplasmic dynein motility by dynactin-cargo adapter complexes. Science. 2014;345:337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that dynein is largely inactive in the cytoplasm and that a variety of adapter proteins activate processive motility by linking dynactin to dynein only when the motor is bound to its proper cargo. ..
  7. Pearson J, Watson K, Platt M. Decision making: the neuroethological turn. Neuron. 2014;82:950-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that the existence of deep homologies in the neural circuits mediating choice may have profound implications for understanding human decision making in health and disease. ..
  8. Lee M, Cau A, Naish D, Dyke G. Dinosaur evolution. Sustained miniaturization and anatomical innovation in the dinosaurian ancestors of birds. Science. 2014;345:562-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Nguyen L, Ma D, Shui G, Wong P, Cazenave Gassiot A, Zhang X, et al. Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid. Nature. 2014;509:503-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an unexpected essential physiological role of plasma-derived LPCs in brain growth and function...

More Information


  1. Chivukula R, Shi G, Acharya A, Mills E, Zeitels L, Anandam J, et al. An essential mesenchymal function for miR-143/145 in intestinal epithelial regeneration. Cell. 2014;157:1104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide important insights into the regulation of epithelial wound healing and argue against a cell-autonomous tumor suppressor role for miR-143/145 in colon cancer...
  2. Florio M, Huttner W. Neural progenitors, neurogenesis and the evolution of the neocortex. Development. 2014;141:2182-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the diversity of neocortical neural progenitors, their interspecies variations and their roles in determining the evolutionary increase in neuron numbers and neocortex size. ..
  3. Denzler R, Agarwal V, Stefano J, Bartel D, Stoffel M. Assessing the ceRNA hypothesis with quantitative measurements of miRNA and target abundance. Mol Cell. 2014;54:766-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, modulation of miRNA target abundance is unlikely to cause significant effects on gene expression and metabolism through a ceRNA effect...
  4. Chin R, Fu X, Pai M, Vergnes L, Hwang H, Deng G, et al. The metabolite ?-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting ATP synthase and TOR. Nature. 2014;510:397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Endogenous ?-KG levels are increased on starvation and ?-KG does not extend the lifespan of dietary-restricted animals, indicating that ?-KG is a key metabolite that mediates longevity by dietary restriction...
  5. Shi J, Vakoc C. The mechanisms behind the therapeutic activity of BET bromodomain inhibition. Mol Cell. 2014;54:728-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the current understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie the promising therapeutic effects of BET bromodomain inhibition. ..
  6. Idzko M, Ferrari D, Eltzschig H. Nucleotide signalling during inflammation. Nature. 2014;509:310-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Ishimura R, Nagy G, Dotu I, Zhou H, Yang X, Schimmel P, et al. RNA function. Ribosome stalling induced by mutation of a CNS-specific tRNA causes neurodegeneration. Science. 2014;345:455-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results not only define GTPBP2 as a ribosome rescue factor but also unmask the disease potential of mutations in nuclear-encoded tRNA genes...
  8. Shalek A, Satija R, Shuga J, Trombetta J, Gennert D, Lu D, et al. Single-cell RNA-seq reveals dynamic paracrine control of cellular variation. Nature. 2014;510:363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the importance of cell-to-cell communication in controlling cellular heterogeneity and reveals general strategies that multicellular populations can use to establish complex dynamic responses. ..
  9. Zhang Z, Wang J, Schultz N, Zhang F, Parhad S, Tu S, et al. The HP1 homolog rhino anchors a nuclear complex that suppresses piRNA precursor splicing. Cell. 2014;157:1353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that Rhino anchors a nuclear complex that suppresses cluster transcript splicing and speculate that stalled splicing differentiates piRNA precursors from mRNAs...
  10. Ben Zvi A, Lacoste B, Kur E, Andreone B, Mayshar Y, Yan H, et al. Mfsd2a is critical for the formation and function of the blood-brain barrier. Nature. 2014;509:507-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Mfsd2a as a key regulator of BBB function that may act by suppressing transcytosis in CNS endothelial cells. Furthermore, our findings may aid in efforts to develop therapeutic approaches for CNS drug delivery...
  11. Ablasser A, Hemmerling I, Schmid Burgk J, Behrendt R, Roers A, Hornung V. TREX1 deficiency triggers cell-autonomous immunity in a cGAS-dependent manner. J Immunol. 2014;192:5993-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a key role of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase for the initiation of self-DNA-induced autoimmune disorders, thus providing important implications for novel therapeutic approaches. ..
  12. Mohn F, Sienski G, Handler D, Brennecke J. The rhino-deadlock-cutoff complex licenses noncanonical transcription of dual-strand piRNA clusters in Drosophila. Cell. 2014;157:1364-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Likely, this process involves 5' end protection of nascent RNAs and suppression of transcription termination. Our data provide key insight into the regulation and evolution of piRNA clusters...
  13. Villegas R, Martinez N, Lillo J, Pihan P, Hernandez D, Twiss J, et al. Calcium release from intra-axonal endoplasmic reticulum leads to axon degeneration through mitochondrial dysfunction. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a critical and early ER-dependent step during axonal degeneration, providing novel targets for axonal protection in neurodegenerative conditions. ..
  14. Cunningham J, Moreno M, Lodi A, Ronen S, Ruggero D. Protein and nucleotide biosynthesis are coupled by a single rate-limiting enzyme, PRPS2, to drive cancer. Cell. 2014;157:1088-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies identify a translationally anchored anabolic circuit critical for cancer cell survival and an unexpected vulnerability for "undruggable" oncogenes, such as Myc. PAPERFLICK:..
  15. Carpenter S, Ricci E, Mercier B, Moore M, Fitzgerald K. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014;14:361-76 pubmed publisher
  16. Bellis G, Dyce A, Gopurenko D, Yanase T, Garros C, Labuschagne K, et al. Revision of the Culicoides (Avaritia) Imicola complex Khamala & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Australasian region. Zootaxa. 2014;3768:401-27 pubmed publisher
    ..brevitarsis Kieffer and C. nudipalpis Delfinado and a description of C. asiatica Bellis sp. nov., are presented together with keys for their specific determination and molecular support for their status. ..
  17. Polishchuk E, Concilli M, Iacobacci S, Chesi G, Pastore N, Piccolo P, et al. Wilson disease protein ATP7B utilizes lysosomal exocytosis to maintain copper homeostasis. Dev Cell. 2014;29:686-700 pubmed publisher
  18. Martinez A, Ritter S, Doremus M, Russell J, Oliver K. Aphid-encoded variability in susceptibility to a parasitoid. BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:127 pubmed publisher
    Many animals exhibit variation in resistance to specific natural enemies. Such variation may be encoded in their genomes or derived from infection with protective symbionts...
  19. Yee C, Yang W, Hekimi S. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway mediates the pro-longevity response to mitochondrial ROS in C. elegans. Cell. 2014;157:897-909 pubmed publisher
    ..This results in extended longevity when mtROS generation is inappropriately elevated. These findings clarify the relationships between mitochondria, ROS, apoptosis, and aging...
  20. Martin A, Goldstein B. Apical constriction: themes and variations on a cellular mechanism driving morphogenesis. Development. 2014;141:1987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding both the common themes and the variations in apical constriction mechanisms promises to provide insight into the mechanics that underlie tissue morphogenesis...
  21. Soria Carrasco V, Gompert Z, Comeault A, Farkas T, Parchman T, Johnston J, et al. Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation. Science. 2014;344:738-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results advance understanding of biological diversification by providing convergent observational and experimental evidence for selection's role in driving repeatable genomic divergence. ..
  22. McKnight K, Hoang H, Prasain J, Brown N, Vibbert J, Hollister K, et al. Neurosensory perception of environmental cues modulates sperm motility critical for fertilization. Science. 2014;344:754-7 pubmed publisher
    ..prostaglandins are also synthesized in Cox knockout mice, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms exist in other animals. Our data indicate that environmental cues perceived by the female nervous system affect sperm function.
  23. Fowler S, Chiang A, Savjani R, Larson M, Sherman M, Schuler D, et al. Genetic modulation of soluble A? rescues cognitive and synaptic impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7871-85 pubmed publisher
  24. Conforti L, Gilley J, Coleman M. Wallerian degeneration: an emerging axon death pathway linking injury and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014;15:394-409 pubmed publisher
  25. Celiz A, Smith J, Langer R, Anderson D, Winkler D, Barrett D, et al. Materials for stem cell factories of the future. Nat Mater. 2014;13:570-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we consider the role of materials discovery, an emerging area of materials chemistry that is in large part driven by the challenges posed by biologists to materials scientists. ..
  26. van Deursen J. The role of senescent cells in ageing. Nature. 2014;509:439-46 pubmed publisher
  27. Ma Q, Zuo X, Yang F, Ubeda O, Gant D, Alaverdyan M, et al. Loss of MAP function leads to hippocampal synapse loss and deficits in the Morris Water Maze with aging. J Neurosci. 2014;34:7124-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in addition to microtubule-stabilizing therapeutic drugs, preserving or restoring compensatory MAP function may be a useful new prevention strategy. ..
  28. Hsieh C, Fei T, Chen Y, Li T, Gao Y, Wang X, et al. Enhancer RNAs participate in androgen receptor-driven looping that selectively enhances gene activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we report that an androgen-induced eRNA scaffolds the AR-associated protein complex that modulates chromosomal architecture and selectively enhances AR-dependent gene expression. ..
  29. Muñoz Espín D, Serrano M. Cellular senescence: from physiology to pathology. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014;15:482-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, antisenescent therapies may help to eliminate accumulated senescent cells and to recover tissue function. ..
  30. Song F, Chen P, Sun D, Wang M, Dong L, Liang D, et al. Cryo-EM study of the chromatin fiber reveals a double helix twisted by tetranucleosomal units. Science. 2014;344:376-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The asymmetric binding and the location of histone H1 in chromatin play a role in the formation of the 30-nanometer fiber. Our results provide mechanistic insights into how nucleosomes compact into higher-order chromatin fibers. ..
  31. Sanders D, Kaufman S, DeVos S, Sharma A, Mirbaha H, Li A, et al. Distinct tau prion strains propagate in cells and mice and define different tauopathies. Neuron. 2014;82:1271-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Tau thus demonstrates essential characteristics of a prion. This might explain the phenotypic diversity of tauopathies and could enable more effective diagnosis and therapy...
  32. Moon M, Kim H, Choi J, Oh H, Lee P, Ha S, et al. 6-Shogaol, an active constituent of ginger, attenuates neuroinflammation and cognitive deficits in animal models of dementia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;449:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..All these results suggest that 6-shogaol may play a role in inhibiting glial cell activation and reducing memory impairment in animal models of dementia. ..
  33. Takeichi M. Dynamic contacts: rearranging adherens junctions to drive epithelial remodelling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014;15:397-410 pubmed publisher
    ..RHO GTPases and their effectors regulate actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction at AJs during the epithelial reshaping processes. ..
  34. Schrode N, Saiz N, Di Talia S, Hadjantonakis A. GATA6 levels modulate primitive endoderm cell fate choice and timing in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Cell. 2014;29:454-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a framework for quantitative analyses of mammalian embryos and establishes GATA6 as a nodal point in the gene regulatory network driving ICM lineage specification. ..
  35. Holloway J, Sun X, Yokoo R, Villeneuve A, Cohen P. Mammalian CNTD1 is critical for meiotic crossover maturation and deselection of excess precrossover sites. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:633-41 pubmed publisher
  36. Durruthy Durruthy R, Gottlieb A, Hartman B, Waldhaus J, Laske R, Altman R, et al. Reconstruction of the mouse otocyst and early neuroblast lineage at single-cell resolution. Cell. 2014;157:964-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our bioinformatic modeling revealed spatial dynamics of different signaling pathways active during early neuroblast development and prosensory domain specification...
  37. Mayer Barber K, Andrade B, Oland S, Amaral E, Barber D, Gonzales J, et al. Host-directed therapy of tuberculosis based on interleukin-1 and type I interferon crosstalk. Nature. 2014;511:99-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish proof of concept for host-directed treatment strategies that manipulate the host eicosanoid network and represent feasible alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. ..
  38. Klein L, Kyewski B, Allen P, Hogquist K. Positive and negative selection of the T cell repertoire: what thymocytes see (and don't see). Nat Rev Immunol. 2014;14:377-91 pubmed publisher
  39. Pietrobon D, Moskowitz M. Chaos and commotion in the wake of cortical spreading depression and spreading depolarizations. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014;15:379-93 pubmed publisher
  40. Yu M, Bardia A, Aceto N, Bersani F, Madden M, Donaldson M, et al. Cancer therapy. Ex vivo culture of circulating breast tumor cells for individualized testing of drug susceptibility. Science. 2014;345:216-20 pubmed publisher
    ..With optimization of CTC culture conditions, this strategy may help identify the best therapies for individual cancer patients over the course of their disease. ..
  41. Goldman D. Müller glial cell reprogramming and retina regeneration. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014;15:431-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have revealed several important mechanisms underlying Müller glial cell reprogramming and retina regeneration in fish that may lead to new strategies for stimulating retina regeneration in mammals. ..
  42. Qiu Y, Nguyen K, Odegaard J, Cui X, Tian X, Locksley R, et al. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat. Cell. 2014;157:1292-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings have uncovered the efferent circuit controlling biogenesis of beige fat and provide support for its targeting to treat obesity. ..
  43. Okabe Y, Medzhitov R. Tissue-specific signals control reversible program of localization and functional polarization of macrophages. Cell. 2014;157:832-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that GATA6 in macrophages regulates gut IgA production through peritoneal B-1 cells. These results provide insight into the regulation of tissue-resident macrophage functional specialization by tissue-derived signals...
  44. Moroz L, Kocot K, Citarella M, Dosung S, Norekian T, Povolotskaya I, et al. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems. Nature. 2014;510:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our metabolomic and physiological data are consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.
  45. Riddell J, Gazit R, Garrison B, Guo G, Saadatpour A, Mandal P, et al. Reprogramming committed murine blood cells to induced hematopoietic stem cells with defined factors. Cell. 2014;157:549-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results raise the prospect that blood cell reprogramming may be a strategy for derivation of transplantable stem cells for clinical application...
  46. Blackledge N, Farcas A, Kondo T, King H, McGouran J, Hanssen L, et al. Variant PRC1 complex-dependent H2A ubiquitylation drives PRC2 recruitment and polycomb domain formation. Cell. 2014;157:1445-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide a surprising PRC1-dependent logic for PRC2 occupancy at target sites in vivo. ..
  47. Donath M. Targeting inflammation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: time to start. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2014;13:465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Future immunomodulatory treatments may not target a specific disease, but could instead act on a dysfunctional pathway that causes several conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome...
  48. Ginhoux F, Jung S. Monocytes and macrophages: developmental pathways and tissue homeostasis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014;14:392-404 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we discuss the evidence that has dramatically changed our understanding of monocyte and macrophage development, and the maintenance of these cells in the steady state...
  49. Beaty B, Wang Y, Bravo Cordero J, Sharma V, Miskolci V, Hodgson L, et al. Talin regulates moesin-NHE-1 recruitment to invadopodia and promotes mammary tumor metastasis. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:737-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings provide a novel understanding of how intracellular pH is regulated and a molecular mechanism by which talin enhances tumor cell invasion and metastasis...
  50. Wei H, Wang C, Croce C, Guan J. p62/SQSTM1 synergizes with autophagy for tumor growth in vivo. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1204-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies demonstrate that p62 and autophagy synergize to promote tumor growth, suggesting that inhibition of both pathways could be more effective than targeting either alone for cancer therapy...
  51. Cruickshank T, Hahn M. Reanalysis suggests that genomic islands of speciation are due to reduced diversity, not reduced gene flow. Mol Ecol. 2014;23:3133-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We instead present an alternative explanation for heterogeneous patterns of differentiation, one in which postspeciation selection generates patterns consistent with multiple aspects of the data...
  52. Azhar E, El Kafrawy S, Farraj S, Hassan A, Al Saeed M, Hashem A, et al. Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that this fatal case of human MERS-CoV infection was transmitted through close contact with an infected camel. ..
  53. Chen Y, Boland A, Kuzuoğlu Öztürk D, Bawankar P, Loh B, Chang C, et al. A DDX6-CNOT1 complex and W-binding pockets in CNOT9 reveal direct links between miRNA target recognition and silencing. Mol Cell. 2014;54:737-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data provide the missing physical links in a molecular pathway that connects miRNA target recognition with translational repression, deadenylation, and decapping. ..
  54. Joyce S, Macsharry J, Casey P, Kinsella M, Murphy E, Shanahan F, et al. Regulation of host weight gain and lipid metabolism by bacterial bile acid modification in the gut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we demonstrate that bacterial BSH activity significantly impacts the systemic metabolic processes and adiposity in the host and represents a key mechanistic target for the control of obesity and hypercholesterolemia. ..
  55. Sinha M, Jang Y, Oh J, Khong D, Wu E, Manohar R, et al. Restoring systemic GDF11 levels reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle. Science. 2014;344:649-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that GDF11 systemically regulates muscle aging and may be therapeutically useful for reversing age-related skeletal muscle and stem cell dysfunction. ..
  56. Zigmond E, Bernshtein B, Friedlander G, Walker C, Yona S, Kim K, et al. Macrophage-restricted interleukin-10 receptor deficiency, but not IL-10 deficiency, causes severe spontaneous colitis. Immunity. 2014;40:720-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results highlight IL-10 as a critical homeostatic macrophage-conditioning agent in the colon and define intestinal CX3CR1(hi) macrophages as a decisive factor that determines gut health or inflammation...
  57. McCall A, Cummings C, Bhave G, Vanacore R, Page McCaw A, Hudson B. Bromine is an essential trace element for assembly of collagen IV scaffolds in tissue development and architecture. Cell. 2014;157:1380-92 pubmed publisher
    Bromine is ubiquitously present in animals as ionic bromide (Br(-)) yet has no known essential function...
  58. Tsiantoulas D, Diehl C, Witztum J, Binder C. B cells and humoral immunity in atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2014;114:1743-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we will highlight potential therapeutic approaches focusing on B-cell depletion that could be used to translate experimental evidence to human disease...
  59. Del Re D, Matsuda T, Zhai P, Maejima Y, Jain M, Liu T, et al. Mst1 promotes cardiac myocyte apoptosis through phosphorylation and inhibition of Bcl-xL. Mol Cell. 2014;54:639-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate mitochondrial localization of Hippo signaling and identify Bcl-xL as a target that is directly modified to promote apoptosis. ..
  60. Yimlamai D, Christodoulou C, Galli G, Yanger K, Pepe Mooney B, Gurung B, et al. Hippo pathway activity influences liver cell fate. Cell. 2014;157:1324-38 pubmed publisher
  61. Koyano F, Okatsu K, Kosako H, Tamura Y, Go E, Kimura M, et al. Ubiquitin is phosphorylated by PINK1 to activate parkin. Nature. 2014;510:162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of both parkin and ubiquitin is sufficient for full activation of parkin E3 activity. These findings demonstrate that phosphorylated ubiquitin is a parkin activator...
  62. Jiang Y, Xie M, Chen W, Talbot R, Maddox J, Faraut T, et al. The sheep genome illuminates biology of the rumen and lipid metabolism. Science. 2014;344:1168-1173 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovis aries) are a major source of meat, milk, and fiber in the form of wool and represent a distinct class of animals that have a specialized digestive organ, the rumen, that carries out the initial digestion of plant material...
  63. Spires Jones T, Hyman B. The intersection of amyloid beta and tau at synapses in Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 2014;82:756-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These two key phenomena, synapse loss and the spread of pathology through the brain via synapses, make it critical to understand the physiological and pathological roles of amyloid beta and tau at the synapse. ..
  64. Khatri S, Edlund R, Groves A. Foxi3 is necessary for the induction of the chick otic placode in response to FGF signaling. Dev Biol. 2014;391:158-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The early expression but late requirement for Foxi3 in ear induction suggests it may have some of the properties associated with pioneer transcription factors...
  65. Holmström K, Finkel T. Cellular mechanisms and physiological consequences of redox-dependent signalling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014;15:411-21 pubmed publisher
  66. Hsu P, Lander E, Zhang F. Development and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome engineering. Cell. 2014;157:1262-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Derived from a remarkable microbial defense system, Cas9 is driving innovative applications from basic biology to biotechnology and medicine. ..
  67. Guemez Gamboa A, Coufal N, Gleeson J. Primary cilia in the developing and mature brain. Neuron. 2014;82:511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Important future questions will focus on structure-function relationships, their roles in signaling and disease and as areas of target for treatments. ..
  68. Easwaran H, Tsai H, Baylin S. Cancer epigenetics: tumor heterogeneity, plasticity of stem-like states, and drug resistance. Mol Cell. 2014;54:716-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the possible role of epigenetic abnormalities as well as genetic alterations in such dynamics and in the creation of cellular heterogeneity in cancers of all types. ..
  69. Zhang C. Essential functions of iron-requiring proteins in DNA replication, repair and cell cycle control. Protein Cell. 2014;5:750-60 pubmed publisher
  70. Bingol B, Tea J, Phu L, Reichelt M, Bakalarski C, Song Q, et al. The mitochondrial deubiquitinase USP30 opposes parkin-mediated mitophagy. Nature. 2014;510:370-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus USP30 inhibition is potentially beneficial for Parkinson's disease by promoting mitochondrial clearance and quality control...
  71. Ferrer C, Lynch T, Sodi V, Falcone J, Schwab L, Peacock D, et al. O-GlcNAcylation regulates cancer metabolism and survival stress signaling via regulation of the HIF-1 pathway. Mol Cell. 2014;54:820-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, O-GlcNAcylation regulates cancer cell metabolic reprograming and survival stress signaling via regulation of HIF-1?...
  72. Nauseef W, Borregaard N. Neutrophils at work. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:602-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We examine data on novel aspects of the activation of NADPH oxidase and the heterogeneity of phagosomes and, finally, consider the importance of two neutrophil-derived biological agents: neutrophil extracellular traps and ectosomes...
  73. Poelstra J, Vijay N, Bossu C, Lantz H, Ryll B, Muller I, et al. The genomic landscape underlying phenotypic integrity in the face of gene flow in crows. Science. 2014;344:1410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, localized genomic selection can cause marked heterogeneity in introgression landscapes while maintaining phenotypic divergence. ..
  74. Sandler V, Lis R, Liu Y, Kedem A, James D, Elemento O, et al. Reprogramming human endothelial cells to haematopoietic cells requires vascular induction. Nature. 2014;511:312-8 pubmed publisher
  75. Schwartz N, Temkin P, Jurado S, Lim B, Heifets B, Polepalli J, et al. Chronic pain. Decreased motivation during chronic pain requires long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens. Science. 2014;345:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a previously unknown pathological adaption in a key node of motivational neural circuitry that is required for one of the major sequela of chronic pain states and syndromes...