paramecium tetraurelia


Summary: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.

Top Publications

  1. Matsuda A, Forney J. The SUMO pathway is developmentally regulated and required for programmed DNA elimination in Paramecium tetraurelia. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:806-15 pubmed
    ..of ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (UBA2) that is upregulated at the onset of macronuclear development in Paramecium tetraurelia. Uba2 enzymes are known to activate the protein called small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) that is ..
  2. Lepère G, Nowacki M, Serrano V, Goût J, Guglielmi G, Duharcourt S, et al. Silencing-associated and meiosis-specific small RNA pathways in Paramecium tetraurelia. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:903-15 pubmed publisher
    Distinct small RNA pathways are involved in the two types of homology-dependent effects described in Paramecium tetraurelia, as shown by a functional analysis of Dicer and Dicer-like genes and by the sequencing of small RNAs...
  3. Sung W, Tucker A, Doak T, Choi E, Thomas W, Lynch M. Extraordinary genome stability in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..5 × 10(-10) and 5 × 10(-8) per site per generation, but here we report a genome-wide estimate for Paramecium tetraurelia that is more than an order of magnitude lower than any previous eukaryotic estimate...
  4. Matsuda A, Mayer K, Forney J. Identification of single nucleotide mutations that prevent developmentally programmed DNA elimination in Paramecium tetraurelia. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2004;51:664-9 pubmed
    ..In Paramecium tetraurelia, IESs show few conserved features with the exception of an invariant 5'-TA-3' dinucleotide that is part of ..
  5. Yano J, Rachochy V, Van Houten J. Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in chemosensory signaling: antisense manipulation of Paramecium tetraurelia PIG-A gene expression. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:1211-9 pubmed of the enzymes of a complex that catalyzes the first step in anchor synthesis, and we have cloned the Paramecium tetraurelia pPIG-A gene using homology PCR...
  6. Meyer E, Keller A. A Mendelian mutation affecting mating-type determination also affects developmental genomic rearrangements in Paramecium tetraurelia. Genetics. 1996;143:191-202 pubmed
    In Paramecium tetraurelia, mating type is determined during the differentiation of the somatic macronucleus from a zygotic nucleus genetically competent for both types, O and E...
  7. Ladenburger E, Sehring I, Korn I, Plattner H. Novel types of Ca2+ release channels participate in the secretory cycle of Paramecium cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3605-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analyses show that these Ca(2+) release channels (CRCs) can be subdivided into six groups (Paramecium tetraurelia CRC-I to CRC-VI), each one with features in part reminiscent of IP(3)Rs and RyRs...
  8. Salim H, Ring K, Cavalcanti A. Patterns of codon usage in two ciliates that reassign the genetic code: Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. Protist. 2008;159:283-98 pubmed publisher
    We used the recently sequenced genomes of the ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia to analyze the codon usage patterns in both organisms; we have analyzed codon usage bias, Gln codon usage, GC content and the ..
  9. Gogendeau D, Klotz C, Arnaiz O, Malinowska A, Dadlez M, de Loubresse N, et al. Functional diversification of centrins and cell morphological complexity. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:65-74 pubmed
    ..The tenth and most conserved centrin subfamily is present at three cortical locations (ICL, basal bodies and contractile vacuole pores) and might play a role in coordinating duplication and positioning of cortical organelles...

More Information


  1. Gogendeau D, Beisson J, de Loubresse N, Le Caer J, Ruiz F, Cohen J, et al. An Sfi1p-like centrin-binding protein mediates centrin-based Ca2+ -dependent contractility in Paramecium tetraurelia. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1992-2000 pubmed
    ..Williams, and J. V. Kilmartin, J. Cell Biol. 173:867-877, 2006). Such processes can be analyzed by using Paramecium tetraurelia, which harbors a large Ca2+ -dependent contractile cytoskeletal network, the infraciliary lattice (ICL)...
  2. Schilde C, Wassmer T, Mansfeld J, Plattner H, Kissmehl R. A multigene family encoding R-SNAREs in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Traffic. 2006;7:440-55 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a set of R-SNAREs from the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia consisting of seven families encoded by 12 genes that are expressed simultaneously...
  3. Amar L, Dubrana K. Epigenetic control of chromosome breakage at the 5' end of Paramecium tetraurelia gene A. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:1136-46 pubmed
    ..While Paramecium tetraurelia wild-type strain 51 and mutant strain d48 have the same micronuclear genome, qualitative differences ..
  4. Garnier O, Serrano V, Duharcourt S, Meyer E. RNA-mediated programming of developmental genome rearrangements in Paramecium tetraurelia. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7370-9 pubmed
  5. Arnaiz O, Sperling L. ParameciumDB in 2011: new tools and new data for functional and comparative genomics of the model ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D632-6 pubmed publisher
    ..model organism database built with the GMOD toolkit to integrate the genome and biology of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Over the last four years, post-genomic data from proteome and transcriptome studies has been incorporated ..
  6. Arnaiz O, Goût J, Bétermier M, Bouhouche K, Cohen J, Duret L, et al. Gene expression in a paleopolyploid: a transcriptome resource for the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:547 pubmed publisher
    The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, a unicellular model that belongs to the ciliate phylum, has been shaped by at least 3 successive whole genome duplications (WGD)...
  7. Minogue P, Thomas J. An alpha-tocopherol dose response study in Paramecium tetraurelia. Mech Ageing Dev. 2004;125:21-30 pubmed
    Vitamin E (D,L-alpha-tocopherol) was administered to Paramecium tetraurelia in doses of 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000mg/l throughout its clonal lifespan...
  8. Marker S, Carradec Q, Tanty V, Arnaiz O, Meyer E. A forward genetic screen reveals essential and non-essential RNAi factors in Paramecium tetraurelia. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:7268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, at least two RNA interference (RNAi) mechanisms coexist, involving distinct but overlapping sets of ..
  9. Zagulski M, Nowak J, Le Mouël A, Nowacki M, Migdalski A, Gromadka R, et al. High coding density on the largest Paramecium tetraurelia somatic chromosome. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1397-404 pubmed
    ..Extrapolation to the whole genome suggests that Paramecium has at least 30,000 genes...
  10. Krzywicka A, Beisson J, Keller A, Cohen J, Jerka Dziadosz M, Klotz C. KIN241: a gene involved in cell morphogenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia reveals a novel protein family of cyclophilin-RNA interacting proteins (CRIPs) conserved from fission yeast to man. Mol Microbiol. 2001;42:257-67 pubmed
    ..No Kin241-1 protein is present in mutant cells, suggesting that the C-terminal serine-rich region is responsible for protein stability...
  11. Bouhouche K, Goût J, Kapusta A, Bétermier M, Meyer E. Functional specialization of Piwi proteins in Paramecium tetraurelia from post-transcriptional gene silencing to genome remodelling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:4249-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report phylogenetic and functional analyses of the 15 Piwi genes from Paramecium tetraurelia. We show that four constitutively expressed proteins are involved in siRNA pathways that mediate gene ..
  12. Snoke M, Berendonk T, Barth D, Lynch M. Large global effective population sizes in Paramecium. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:2474-9 pubmed
    ..Drawing from observations on well-defined species within the genus Paramecium, we report exceptionally high levels of silent-site polymorphism, which appear to be a reflection of large N(e)...
  13. Nowacki M, Zagorski Ostoja W, Meyer E. Nowa1p and Nowa2p: novel putative RNA binding proteins involved in trans-nuclear crosstalk in Paramecium tetraurelia. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1616-28 pubmed
    ..In Paramecium tetraurelia, single-copy internal eliminated sequences (IESs) and multicopy transposons are eliminated, whereas ..
  14. Wassmer T, Kissmehl R, Cohen J, Plattner H. Seventeen a-subunit isoforms of paramecium V-ATPase provide high specialization in localization and function. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:917-30 pubmed
    In the Paramecium tetraurelia genome, 17 genes encoding the 100-kDa-subunit (a-subunit) of the vacuolar-proton-ATPase were identified, representing by far the largest number of a-subunit genes encountered in any organism investigated so ..
  15. Ladenburger E, Korn I, Kasielke N, Wassmer T, Plattner H. An Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor in Paramecium is associated with the osmoregulatory system. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:3705-17 pubmed publisher
    ..full sequence of the gene encoding a putative inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) receptor from Paramecium tetraurelia cells showing molecular characteristics of higher eukaryotic cells...
  16. Duret L, Cohen J, Jubin C, Dessen P, Goût J, Mousset S, et al. Analysis of sequence variability in the macronuclear DNA of Paramecium tetraurelia: a somatic view of the germline. Genome Res. 2008;18:585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The macronuclear genome of Paramecium tetraurelia was recently sequenced by a shotgun approach, providing access to the gene repertoire...
  17. Sehring I, Mansfeld J, Reiner C, Wagner E, Plattner H, Kissmehl R. The actin multigene family of Paramecium tetraurelia. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:82 pubmed
    A Paramecium tetraurelia pilot genome project, the subsequent sequencing of a Megabase chromosome as well as the Paramecium genome project aimed at gaining insight into the genome of Paramecium...
  18. Simon M, Marker S, Schmidt H. Posttranscriptional control is a strong factor enabling exclusive expression of surface antigens in Paramecium tetraurelia. Gene Expr. 2006;13:167-78 pubmed
  19. Simon M, Marker S, Schmidt H. Inefficient serotype knock down leads to stable coexistence of different surface antigens on the outer membrane in Paramecium tetraurelia. Eur J Protistol. 2006;42:49-53 pubmed
    ..With the RNAi feeding technology we induce serotype shifts in Paramecium tetraurelia which are demonstrated to be incomplete, meaning that the cells remain in a shifting state...
  20. Pomel S, Diogon M, Bouchard P, Pradel L, Ravet V, Coffe G, et al. The membrane skeleton in Paramecium: Molecular characterization of a novel epiplasmin family and preliminary GFP expression results. Protist. 2006;157:61-75 pubmed
    ..Using these two genes (EPI-1 and EPI-2), we have contributed to the annotation of the Paramecium tetraurelia macronuclear genome and identified 39 additional (paralogous) sequences...
  21. Sperling L, Dessen P, Zagulski M, Pearlman R, Migdalski A, Gromadka R, et al. Random sequencing of Paramecium somatic DNA. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:341-52 pubmed
    We report a random survey of 1 to 2% of the somatic genome of the free-living ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by single-run sequencing of the ends of plasmid inserts...
  22. Messaoudi C, de Loubresse N, Boudier T, Dupuis Williams P, Marco S. Multiple-axis tomography: applications to basal bodies from Paramecium tetraurelia. Biol Cell. 2006;98:415-25 pubmed
    ..This approach is being improved by dual-axis reconstructions and/or high-tilt devices (tilt angle>+/-60 degrees) on microscopes to compensate part of the information loss due to the 'missing wedge' phenomena...
  23. Chen C, Zhou H, Liao J, Qu L, Amar L. Genome-wide evolutionary analysis of the noncoding RNA genes and noncoding DNA of Paramecium tetraurelia. RNA. 2009;15:503-14 pubmed publisher
    The compact genome of the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia contains noncoding DNA (ncDNA) distributed into >39,000 intergenic sequences and >90,000 introns of 390 base pairs (bp) and 25 bp on average, respectively...
  24. Goût J, Duret L, Kahn D. Differential retention of metabolic genes following whole-genome duplication. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:1067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This is rationalized on the basis of the classical concave relationship relating metabolic fluxes with enzyme expression...
  25. de Ondarza J, Symington S, Van Houten J, Clark J. G-protein modulators alter the swimming behavior and calcium influx of Paramecium tetraurelia. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2003;50:349-55 pubmed
    To assess the potential role of G-proteins in chemokinesis, Paramecium tetraurelia was pre-incubated with the G-protein modulator pertussis toxin...
  26. Lepère G, Bétermier M, Meyer E, Duharcourt S. Maternal noncoding transcripts antagonize the targeting of DNA elimination by scanRNAs in Paramecium tetraurelia. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1501-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In Paramecium tetraurelia, single-copy internal eliminated sequences (IESs) are precisely excised from coding sequences and ..
  27. Aury J, Jaillon O, Duret L, Noel B, Jubin C, Porcel B, et al. Global trends of whole-genome duplications revealed by the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Nature. 2006;444:171-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive whole-genome ..
  28. Tavares S, Grotkjær T, Obsen T, Haslam R, Napier J, Gunnarsson N. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, using a novel {Delta}5-Desaturase from Paramecium tetraurelia. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1854-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel ?5-desaturases from the ciliate protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia and from the microalgae Ostreococcus tauri and Ostreococcus lucimarinus were identified via a BLAST search,..
  29. Bemm F, Schwarz R, Förster F, Schultz J. A kinome of 2600 in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3589-92 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of their genes for protein kinases. We analysed the genome of the single-celled ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia and identified 2606 kinases, about 6.6% of its genes, representing the largest kinome to date...
  30. Gratias A, Bétermier M. Processing of double-strand breaks is involved in the precise excision of paramecium internal eliminated sequences. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7152-62 pubmed
    ..residue of each overhang, we present a new model for the precise closure of macronuclear chromosomes in Paramecium tetraurelia, different from that previously proposed for tetrahymena...
  31. Schilde C, Schönemann B, Sehring I, Plattner H. Distinct subcellular localization of a group of synaptobrevin-like SNAREs in Paramecium tetraurelia and effects of silencing SNARE-specific chaperone NSF. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:288-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These SNAREs, named Paramecium tetraurelia synaptobrevins 8 to 12 (PtSyb8 to PtSyb12), showed mostly very restricted, specific localization, as they ..
  32. Robinette E, Gulley K, Cassity K, King E, Nielsen A, Rozelle C, et al. A comparison of the polycation receptors of Paramecium tetraurelia and Tetrahymena thermophila. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2008;55:86-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Polycation responses of both organisms are inhibited by neomycin sulfate. While PACAP is the most effective of the three chemorepellents in Tetrahymena, lysozyme is the most effective chemorepellent in Paramecium...
  33. Sehring I, Reiner C, Mansfeld J, Plattner H, Kissmehl R. A broad spectrum of actin paralogs in Paramecium tetraurelia cells display differential localization and function. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:177-90 pubmed
    ..Knock down of the actin found in the cleavage furrow abolishes cell division, whereas silencing of other actin genes alters vitality, cell shape and swimming behavior...
  34. Matsuda A, Forney J. Analysis of Paramecium tetraurelia A-51 surface antigen gene mutants reveals positive-feedback mechanisms for maintenance of expression and temperature-induced activation. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1613-9 pubmed
    In Paramecium tetraurelia, variable surface antigen loci show mutually exclusive expression which is controlled primarily at the transcriptional level...
  35. Hughes T, Ekman D, Ardawatia H, Elofsson A, Liberles D. Evaluating dosage compensation as a cause of duplicate gene retention in Paramecium tetraurelia. Genome Biol. 2007;8:213 pubmed
    The high retention of duplicate genes in the genome of Paramecium tetraurelia has led to the hypothesis that most of the retained genes have persisted because of constraints due to gene dosage...
  36. Marker S, Le Mouël A, Meyer E, Simon M. Distinct RNA-dependent RNA polymerases are required for RNAi triggered by double-stranded RNA versus truncated transgenes in Paramecium tetraurelia. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4092-107 pubmed publisher
    ..We have tested the functions of RdRP genes from the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia in experimentally induced and endogenous mechanisms of gene silencing...
  37. Saito Nakano Y, Nakahara T, Nakano K, Nozaki T, Numata O. Marked amplification and diversification of products of ras genes from rat brain, Rab GTPases, in the ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:389-99 pubmed publisher
    ..with multicellularity; however, we found that unicellular ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila (Tt) and Paramecium tetraurelia (Pt) possess many more Rab genes in their genome than the 64 HsRab genes in the human genome...
  38. Arnaiz O, Cain S, Cohen J, Sperling L. ParameciumDB: a community resource that integrates the Paramecium tetraurelia genome sequence with genetic data. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:D439-44 pubmed
    ..a new model organism database associated with the genome sequencing project of the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia. Built with the core components of the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project, ParameciumDB ..
  39. Baudry C, Malinsky S, Restituito M, Kapusta A, Rosa S, Meyer E, et al. PiggyMac, a domesticated piggyBac transposase involved in programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2478-83 pubmed publisher that PiggyMac (Pgm), a domesticated piggyBac transposase, is required for these rearrangements in Paramecium tetraurelia. A GFP-Pgm fusion localizes in developing macronuclei, where rearrangements take place, and RNAi-mediated ..
  40. Plattner H, Verkhratsky A. Ca2+ signalling early in evolution--all but primitive. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ciliated protozoan, Paramecium tetraurelia, 34 molecularly distinct Ca(2+)-release channels that can be grouped in six subfamilies, based on criteria ..
  41. Neeb Z, Zahler A. An expanding world of small RNAs. Dev Cell. 2014;28:111-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Sandoval et al. (2014) report in this issue of Developmental Cell the discovery of a class of Paramecium sRNAs, produced by a unique Dicer-like enzyme, that likely provides late stage quality control in this process. ..
  42. Allen S, Hug I, Pabian S, Rzeszutek I, Hoehener C, Nowacki M. Circular Concatemers of Ultra-Short DNA Segments Produce Regulatory RNAs. Cell. 2017;168:990-999.e7 pubmed publisher
    In the ciliated protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia, Piwi-associated small RNAs are generated upon the elimination of tens of thousands of short transposon-derived DNA segments as part of development...
  43. Buonanno F, Harumoto T, Ortenzi C. The defensive function of trichocysts in Paramecium tetraurelia against metazoan predators compared with the chemical defense of two species of toxin-containing ciliates. Zoolog Sci. 2013;30:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..and Eucypris sp.), while they seem ineffective against S. sphagnetorum. We also compared the defensive efficiency of the trichocysts of P. tetraurelia with that of toxin-containing extrusomes of two ciliates. ..
  44. Zaburannyi N, Grosser K, Gasparoni G, Muller R, Schrallhammer M, Simon M. Draft Genome Sequence and Annotation of the Obligate Bacterial Endosymbiont Caedibacter taeniospiralis, Causative Agent of the Killer Phenotype in Paramecium tetraurelia. Genome Announc. 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    i>Caedibacter taeniospiralis is an obligate endosymbiont living in the cytoplasm of Paramecium tetraureliaC...
  45. Ruiz F, Dupuis Williams P, Klotz C, Forquignon F, Bergdoll M, Beisson J, et al. Genetic evidence for interaction between eta- and beta-tubulins. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:212-20 pubmed
    The thermosensitive allelic mutations sm19-1 and sm19-2 of Paramecium tetraurelia cause defective basal body duplication: growth at the nonpermissive temperature yields smaller and smaller cells with fewer and fewer basal bodies...
  46. Haynes W, Kung C, Saimi Y, Preston R. An exchanger-like protein underlies the large Mg2+ current in Paramecium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15717-22 pubmed
    There are very few molecules known to transport Mg(2+) in eukaryotes. The membrane of Paramecium tetraurelia passes a large Mg(2+)-selective current and exhibits a corresponding backward swimming behavior...
  47. Creutz C, Mohanty S, DeFalco T, Kretsinger R. Purine composition of the crystalline cytoplasmic inclusions of Paramecium tetraurelia. Protist. 2002;153:39-45 pubmed
    Crystalline cytoplasmic inclusions were isolated by differential centrifugation from mass cultures of Paramecium tetraurelia feeding on Klebsiella pneumonia...
  48. Kato Y, Mogami Y, Baba S. Responses to hypergravity in proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia. Zoolog Sci. 2003;20:1373-80 pubmed
    ..To clear up uncertainties with regard to the effect of gravity, Paramecium tetraurelia was cultured axenically under hypergravity (20 x g) and the time course of the proliferation was ..
  49. Prajer M, Iftode F. Anomalies of autogamy in Paramecium tetraurelia temperature sensitive mutant induced by heat treatment. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2001;49:13-27 pubmed
    ..non-permissive temperature (35 degrees C) was studied and compared with this process in wild d4-2 stock of Paramecium tetraurelia. The effect of heat treatment on programmed nuclear and cortical events was investigated using cytological ..
  50. Schrallhammer M, Galati S, Altenbuchner J, Schweikert M, Görtz H, Petroni G. Tracing the role of R-bodies in the killer trait: absence of toxicity of R-body producing recombinant E. coli on paramecia. Eur J Protistol. 2012;48:290-6 pubmed publisher
    ..coli followed by a detailed analysis of its potential intrinsic toxic effect on feeding sensitive Paramecium tetraurelia. Using this approach, we can exclude any eventual effects of additional, unidentified factors produced by ..
  51. Matsuda A, Takahashi M. Stable maintenance of duplicated chromosomes carrying the mutant pwB gene in Paramecium tetraurelia. Genet Res. 2001;78:1-12 pubmed
  52. Anisimov V. Effects of exogenous melatonin--a review. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:589-603 pubmed
    ..Further studies and clinical trials are needed to verify that melatonin is both safe and has geroprotector efficacy for humans...
  53. Takahashi A, Kumatani T, Usui S, Tsujimura R, Seki T, Morimoto K, et al. Photoreactivation in Paramecium tetraurelia under conditions of various degrees of ozone layer depletion. Photochem Photobiol. 2005;81:1010-4 pubmed
    ..To simulate the increase of solar-UV radiation resulting from the ozone layer depletion, Paramecium tetraurelia was exposed to UVB and/or sunlight in clear summer weather...
  54. Bre M, Redeker V, Vinh J, Rossier J, Levilliers N. Tubulin polyglycylation: differential posttranslational modification of dynamic cytoplasmic and stable axonemal microtubules in paramecium. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:2655-65 pubmed
    ..These observations establish that polyglycylation is reversible and indicate that, in vivo, an equilibrium between glycylating and deglycylating enzymes might be responsible for the length of the oligoglycine side chains of tubulin...
  55. Crenshaw H, Ciampaglio C, McHenry M. Analysis of the three-dimensional trajectories of organisms: estimates of velocity, curvature and torsion from positional information. J Exp Biol. 2000;203:961-82 pubmed
    ..simulated trajectories and trajectories of freely swimming organisms (a flagellate, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; a ciliate, Paramecium tetraurelia; spermatozoa of a sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata; larvae of an ascidian, Botrylloides sp.).
  56. Meyer E, Garnier O. Non-Mendelian inheritance and homology-dependent effects in ciliates. Adv Genet. 2002;46:305-37 pubmed
    ..sexual generations, suggesting a molecular model for some of the long-known cases of non-Mendelian inheritance, and in particular for the developmental determination and maternal inheritance of mating types in Paramecium tetraurelia.
  57. Komala Z, Przybos E. Zooplankton in the ponds with tropical plants in the greenhouses of the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2001;49:225-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of P. tetraurelia was found in the pond in "The Palm-House" greenhouse...
  58. Muller A, Klöppel C, Smith Valentine M, VAN HOUTEN J, Simon M. Selective and programmed cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins from the surface membrane by phospholipase C. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..cleavage and release of different GPI-proteins by phospholipase C from the outer membrane of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Our data indicate that different GPI-proteins are not equally cleaved as proteins of the surface antigen ..
  59. Cheaib M, Simon M. Dynamic chromatin remodelling of ciliate macronuclear DNA as determined by an optimized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method for Paramecium tetraurelia. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:2661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..parameters for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of macronuclear DNA in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia. Optimized parameters include crosslinking conditions, chromatin sonication and antibody titration thus ..
  60. HINRICHSEN R, Peters C. A genetic dissection of the photophobic response of Paramecium tetraurelia. Protist. 2013;164:313-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Paramecium tetraurelia displayed two behavioral responses upon the initiation of a light stimulus at 7 x 10(4) lux...
  61. Chircorian A, Barrios A. Inhibition of lysosomal cysteine proteases by chrysotherapeutic compounds: a possible mechanism for the antiarthritic activity of Au(I). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004;14:5113-6 pubmed
  62. Sehgal A, Singh N, Chakraborty T, Sharma S. A protective merozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum shares an epitope with surface antigens of Paramecium. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:219-27 pubmed
    ..falciparum merozoites and gametocytes, as well as on the surface of Paramecium tetraurelia. The Pf9-peptide was able to induce proliferation of splenic lymphocytes obtained from mice infected with ..
  63. Chalker D, Stover N. Genome evolution: a double take for Paramecium. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R97-9 pubmed
    The surprising discovery of a whole-genome duplication in the otherwise compact genome of Paramecium tetraurelia displays the early forces driving gene retention and loss.
  64. Yang W, Braun C, Plattner H, Purvee J, Van Houten J. Cyclic nucleotides in glutamate chemosensory signal transduction of Paramecium. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 20):2567-72 pubmed
    Glutamate is an attractant stimulus to Paramecium tetraurelia. It causes a hyperpolarization of the cell and smooth, relatively fast swimming that is characteristic of hyperpolarizing stimuli...