paramecium

Summary

Summary: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.

Top Publications

  1. Klotz C, Garreau de Loubresse N, Ruiz F, Beisson J. Genetic evidence for a role of centrin-associated proteins in the organization and dynamics of the infraciliary lattice in Paramecium. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1997;38:172-86 pubmed
    ..In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, three centrin genes have been characterized, which may be part of a larger centrin gene family [..
  2. Ruiz F, Krzywicka A, Klotz C, Keller A, Cohen J, Koll F, et al. The SM19 gene, required for duplication of basal bodies in Paramecium, encodes a novel tubulin, eta-tubulin. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1451-4 pubmed
    ..The sm19-1 mutation of Paramecium specifically inhibits basal body duplication [5] and causes delocalisation of gamma-tubulin, which is also ..
  3. Catania F, Lynch M. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:129 pubmed publisher
    ..By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs,..
  4. Delmonte Corrado M, Ognibene M, Trielli F, Politi H, Passalacqua M, Falugi C. Detection of molecules related to the GABAergic system in a single-cell eukaryote, Paramecium primaurelia. Neurosci Lett. 2002;329:65-8 pubmed
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related molecules were identified in Paramecium primaurelia by immunocytochemical methods, and GABA(A) receptors by their histochemical BODIPY-binding sites...
  5. Kodama Y, Fujishima M. Cell division and density of symbiotic Chlorella variabilis of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria is controlled by the host's nutritional conditions during early infection process. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:2800-11 pubmed publisher
    The association of ciliate Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic Chlorella sp. is a mutualistic symbiosis...
  6. Galvani A, Sperling L. RNA interference by feeding in Paramecium. Trends Genet. 2002;18:11-2 pubmed
    RNA interference can be induced very efficiently by feeding the ciliate Paramecium with bacteria engineered to express double-stranded RNA, opening the possibility of large-scale functional screening in this unicell.
  7. Beisson J, Clérot J, Fleury Aubusson A, Garreau de Loubresse N, Ruiz F, Klotz C. Basal body-associated nucleation center for the centrin-based cortical cytoskeletal network in Paramecium. Protist. 2001;152:339-54 pubmed
    The infraciliary lattice, a contractile cortical cytoskeletal network of Paramecium, is composed of a small number of polypeptides including centrins...
  8. Libusova L, Draber P. Multiple tubulin forms in ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena and Paramecium species. Protoplasma. 2006;227:65-76 pubmed
    Tetrahymena and Paramecium species are widely used representatives of the phylum Ciliata...
  9. Hoshina R, Kamako S, Imamura N. Phylogenetic position of endosymbiotic green algae in Paramecium bursaria Ehrenberg from Japan. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2004;6:447-53 pubmed
    Endosymbiotic green algae of Japanese Paramecium bursaria were phylogenetically analyzed based on DNA sequences from the ribosomal DNA operon (18S rDNA, ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2)...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Noguchi M, Sawada T, Akazawa T. ATP-regenerating system in the cilia of Paramecium caudatum. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:1063-71 pubmed
    ..In this study, the energy-supplying system for the ciliary movement of Paramecium caudatum was examined. Arginine kinase and adenylate kinase activities were detected in the cilia...
  2. Kaltz O, Koella J. Host growth conditions regulate the plasticity of horizontal and vertical transmission in Holospora undulata, a bacterial parasite of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Evolution. 2003;57:1535-42 pubmed
    ..and horizontal transmission of Holospora undulata, a micronucleus-specific bacterial parasite of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum...
  3. Iftode F, Fleury Aubusson A. Structural inheritance in Paramecium: ultrastructural evidence for basal body and associated rootlets polarity transmission through binary fission. Biol Cell. 2003;95:39-51 pubmed
    ..imposed by its immediate environment at time of assembly? We have reinvestigated this problem using the Ciliate Paramecium, in which the pattern of basal body duplication is well known...
  4. Hoshina R, Shimizu M, Makino Y, Haruyama Y, Ueda S, Kato Y, et al. Isolation and characterization of a virus (CvV-BW1) that infects symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria in Lake Biwa, Japan. Virol J. 2010;7:222 pubmed publisher
    We performed an environmental study of viruses infecting the symbiotic single-celled algae of Paramecium bursaria (Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus, PBCV) in Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan...
  5. Jaillon O, Bouhouche K, Goût J, Aury J, Noel B, Saudemont B, et al. Translational control of intron splicing in eukaryotes. Nature. 2008;451:359-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the tiny introns of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia are under strong selective pressure to cause premature termination of mRNA translation in the event ..
  6. Guevorkian K, Valles J. Swimming Paramecium in magnetically simulated enhanced, reduced, and inverted gravity environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13051-6 pubmed
    ..We apply it to Paramecium caudatum, a single-cell protozoan that varies its swimming propulsion depending on its orientation with respect ..
  7. Snoke M, Berendonk T, Barth D, Lynch M. Large global effective population sizes in Paramecium. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:2474-9 pubmed
    ..Drawing from observations on well-defined species within the genus Paramecium, we report exceptionally high levels of silent-site polymorphism, which appear to be a reflection of large N(e).
  8. Libusova L, Sulimenko T, Sulimenko V, Janisch R, Hozak P, Draber P. Distinct localization of a beta-tubulin epitope in the Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium caudatum cortex. Protoplasma. 2005;225:157-67 pubmed
    ..In Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium caudatum, immunofluorescence microscopy with the monoclonal antibody TU-06, directed against beta-tubulin, ..
  9. Hoshina R, Imamura N. Phylogenetically close group I introns with different positions among Paramecium bursaria photobionts imply a primitive stage of intron diversification. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:1309-19 pubmed publisher
    ..the subgroup IE introns of two Chlorella species that are symbiotic green algae (photobionts) of a ciliate, Paramecium bursaria. One strain Chlorella sp. SW1-ZK (Csw...
  10. Gratias A, Betermier M. Developmentally programmed excision of internal DNA sequences in Paramecium aurelia. Biochimie. 2001;83:1009-22 pubmed
    The development of a new somatic nucleus (macronucleus) during sexual reproduction of the ciliate Paramecium aurelia involves reproducible chromosomal rearrangements that affect the entire germline genome...
  11. Semon M, Wolfe K. Consequences of genome duplication. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2007;17:505-12 pubmed
    ..We have a growing understanding of the relationship between whole genome duplication and speciation. Further, recent studies are providing insights into why some gene pairs survive in duplicate, whereas others do not...
  12. Wyroba E, Surmacz L, Osinska M, Wiejak J. Phagosome maturation in unicellular eukaryote Paramecium: the presence of RILP, Rab7 and LAMP-2 homologues. Eur J Histochem. 2007;51:163-72 pubmed
    ..and LAMP-2 (lysosomal membrane protein 2) as well as alpha7 subunit of the 26S proteasome were revealed in Paramecium phagolysosomal compartment...
  13. Garreau de Loubresse N, Ruiz F, Beisson J, Klotz C. Role of delta-tubulin and the C-tubule in assembly of Paramecium basal bodies. BMC Cell Biol. 2001;2:4 pubmed
    ..Delta-tubulin homologs have been identified in the genomes of mammals and protozoa, but their phylogenetic relationships are unclear and their function is not yet known...
  14. Nori V, Barry S. Toxic effects of antimalarial drugs in Paramecium: role of calcium channels. J Comp Physiol A. 1997;180:473-80 pubmed
    ..as the structurally-similar compound, W-7, inhibit calcium-dependent backward swimming and calcium currents in Paramecium calkinsi. These drugs are also toxic to paramecia at high concentrations...
  15. Fels D. Cellular communication through light. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5086 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum...
  16. Plattner H, Braun C, Klauke N, Lange S. Veratridine triggers exocytosis in Paramecium cells by activating somatic Ca channels. J Membr Biol. 1994;142:229-40 pubmed
    b>Paramecium tetraurelia wild-type (7S) cells respond to 2.5 mM veratridine by immediate trichocyst exocytosis, provided [Ca2+]o (extracellular Ca2+ concentration) is between about 10(-4) to 10(-3) M as in the culture medium...
  17. Delmonte Corrado M, Politi H, Trielli F, Angelini C, Falugi C. Evidence for the presence of a mammalian-like cholinesterase in Paramecium primaurelia (Protista, Ciliophora) developmental cycle. J Exp Zool. 1999;283:102-5 pubmed
    ..and immunohistochemical methods, the presence of cholinergic-like molecules has previously been demonstrated in Paramecium primaurelia, and their functional role in mating-cell pairing was suggested...
  18. Takenaka Y, Matsuura T, Haga N, Mitsui Y. Expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomere elongation during sexual maturation in Paramecium caudatum. Gene. 2001;264:153-61 pubmed
    b>Paramecium caudatum has a sexually immature period that lasts for about 60 fissions...
  19. Graziani S, Xia Y, Gurnon J, Van Etten J, Leduc D, Skouloubris S, et al. Functional analysis of FAD-dependent thymidylate synthase ThyX from Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54340-7 pubmed
    Sequence analysis of the 330-kb double-stranded DNA genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 revealed an open reading frame A674R that encodes a protein with up to 53% amino acid identity to a recently discovered new class of ..
  20. Weber J, Vishnyakov A, Hambach K, Schultz A, Schultz J, Linder J. Adenylyl cyclases from Plasmodium, Paramecium and Tetrahymena are novel ion channel/enzyme fusion proteins. Cell Signal. 2004;16:115-25 pubmed
    In Paramecium, cAMP formation is stimulated by a potassium conductance, which is an intrinsic property of the adenylyl cyclase...
  21. Dunigan D, Cerny R, Bauman A, Roach J, Lane L, Agarkova I, et al. Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 proteome reveals novel architectural and regulatory features of a giant virus. J Virol. 2012;86:8821-34 pubmed publisher
    The 331-kbp chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) genome was resequenced and annotated to correct errors in the original 15-year-old sequence; 40 codons was considered the minimum protein size of an open reading frame...
  22. Amaroli A, Ognibene M, Trielli F, Trombino S, Falugi C, Delmonte Corrado M. Detection of NADPH-diaphorase activity in Paramecium primaurelia. Eur J Protistol. 2006;42:201-8 pubmed
    Recently, we showed that Paramecium primaurelia synthesizes molecules functionally related to the cholinergic system and involved in modulating cell-cell interactions leading to the sexual process of conjugation...
  23. Bucci G, Ramoino P, Diaspro A, Usai C. A role for GABAA receptors in the modulation of Paramecium swimming behavior. Neurosci Lett. 2005;386:179-83 pubmed
    The presence in Paramecium of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-type receptors (GABA(A)) and the capability of the protozoon to synthesize and release the GABA neurotransmitter into the environment have already been demonstrated...
  24. Simon M, Schmidt H. Variety of serotypes of Paramecium primaurelia: single epitopes are responsible for immunological differentiation. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2005;52:319-27 pubmed
    b>Paramecium primaurelia expresses three major types of surface antigens. We report here the identification of the gene for serotype S, which completes the sequence data of expressed serotypes of P. primaurelia...
  25. Ramoino P, Usai C, Beltrame F, Fato M, Gallus L, Tagliafierro G, et al. GABAB receptor intracellular trafficking after internalization in Paramecium. Microsc Res Tech. 2005;68:290-5 pubmed
    ..Here we have studied constitutive GABAB receptor trafficking after internalization in Paramecium primaurelia by confocal laser scanning microscopy and multiple immunofluorescence analysis...
  26. Betermier M, Duharcourt S, Seitz H, Meyer E. Timing of developmentally programmed excision and circularization of Paramecium internal eliminated sequences. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:1553-61 pubmed
    b>Paramecium internal eliminated sequences (IESs) are short AT-rich DNA elements that are precisely eliminated from the germ line genome during development of the somatic macronucleus...
  27. Jerka Dziadosz M, Gogendeau D, Klotz C, Cohen J, Beisson J, Koll F. Basal body duplication in Paramecium: the key role of Bld10 in assembly and stability of the cartwheel. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2010;67:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Using fluorescent tagged proteins and RNAi to study the localization and function of these two proteins in Paramecium, we focused on the early effects of their depletion, the consequences of their overexpression and their ..
  28. Vayssie L, Garreau de Loubresse N, Sperling L. Growth and form of secretory granules involves stepwise assembly but not differential sorting of a family of secretory proteins in Paramecium. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:875-86 pubmed
    b>Paramecium trichocysts are voluminous secretory vesicles consisting of a spindle-shaped body surmounted by a tip that serves to anchor them at exocytotic sites in the plasma membrane...
  29. Wood C, Hennessey T. PPNDS is an agonist, not an antagonist, for the ATP receptor of Paramecium. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:627-36 pubmed
    b>Paramecium represents a simple, eukaryotic model system to study the cellular effects of some neuroactive drugs...
  30. Hoshina R, Imamura N. Multiple origins of the symbioses in Paramecium bursaria. Protist. 2008;159:53-63 pubmed
    Many organisms have symbioses with photosynthetic algae as typified by corals, clams, lichens, and some protozoa. Paramecium bursaria contains green algal symbionts and this unicellular ciliate is a textbook example used for microscopic ..
  31. Barth D, Krenek S, Fokin S, Berendonk T. Intraspecific genetic variation in Paramecium revealed by mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I sequences. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2006;53:20-5 pubmed
    ..for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and applied them for intraspecific investigations in Paramecium caudatum and Paramecium multimicronucleatum...
  32. Beier C, Horn M, Michel R, Schweikert M, Görtz H, Wagner M. The genus Caedibacter comprises endosymbionts of Paramecium spp. related to the Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) and to Francisella tularensis (Gammaproteobacteria). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:6043-50 pubmed
    ..have traditionally been grouped into the genus CAEDIBACTER: Of the six species described to date, only the Paramecium caudatum symbiont Caedibacter caryophilus has been phylogenetically characterized by its 16S rRNA gene sequence, ..
  33. Kissmehl R, Schilde C, Wassmer T, Danzer C, Nuehse K, Lutter K, et al. Molecular identification of 26 syntaxin genes and their assignment to the different trafficking pathways in Paramecium. Traffic. 2007;8:523-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the Paramecium genome project, we have identified a multigene family of at least 26 members encoding the t-SNARE syntaxin (..
  34. Husser M, Hardt M, Blanchard M, Hentschel J, Klauke N, Plattner H. One-way calcium spill-over during signal transduction in Paramecium cells: from the cell cortex into cilia, but not in the reverse direction. Cell Calcium. 2004;36:349-58 pubmed
    We asked to what extent Ca(2+) signals in two different domains of Paramecium cells remain separated during different stimulations...
  35. Summerer M, Sonntag B, Hörtnagl P, Sommaruga R. Symbiotic ciliates receive protection against UV damage from their algae: a test with Paramecium bursaria and Chlorella. Protist. 2009;160:233-43 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the photoprotective role of symbiotic Chlorella in the ciliate Paramecium bursaria by comparing their sensitivity to UV radiation (UVR) with Chlorella-reduced and Chlorella-free (aposymbiotic) cell lines of the same species...
  36. Preer J. Epigenetic mechanisms affecting macronuclear development in Paramecium and Tetrahymena. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2000;47:515-24 pubmed
    ..Ciliates, particularly Paramecium and Tetrahymena, undergo epigenetic changes to their macronuclei when they are formed at nuclear reorganization...
  37. Sperling L. Remembrance of things past retrieved from the Paramecium genome. Res Microbiol. 2011;162:587-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Paramecium and other ciliates are the only unicellular eukaryotes that separate germinal and somatic functions...
  38. Oami K, Takahashi M. K+-induced Ca2+ conductance responsible for the prolonged backward swimming in K+-agitated mutant of Paramecium caudatum. J Membr Biol. 2003;195:85-92 pubmed
    The K+-agitated (Kag) mutant of Paramecium caudatum shows prolonged backward swimming in K+-rich solution. To understand the regulation mechanisms of the ciliary motility in P...
  39. Le Mouël A, Butler A, Caron F, Meyer E. Developmentally regulated chromosome fragmentation linked to imprecise elimination of repeated sequences in paramecia. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:1076-90 pubmed
    ..In Paramecium aurelia, the process is imprecise and results in de novo telomere addition at locally heterogeneous positions...
  40. Dupuis Williams P, Fleury Aubusson A, de Loubresse N, Geoffroy H, Vayssie L, Galvani A, et al. Functional role of epsilon-tubulin in the assembly of the centriolar microtubule scaffold. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:1183-93 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the functional analysis in vivo of epsilon-tubulin, based on gene silencing in Paramecium, which demonstrates that this protein, which localizes at the basal bodies, is essential for the assembly and ..
  41. Ishida M, Allen R, Fok A. Phagosome formation in Paramecium: roles of somatic and oral cilia and of solid particles as revealed by video microscopy. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001;48:640-6 pubmed
    The roles of somatic and oral cilia and solid particles during digestive vacuole (DV) formation in Paramecium multimicronucleatum were investigated using video-enhanced and immunofluorescence microscopy...
  42. Galvani A, Sperling L. Transgene-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing is inhibited by 3' non-coding sequences in Paramecium. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:4387-94 pubmed
    Homology-dependent gene silencing is achieved in Paramecium by introduction of gene coding regions into the somatic nucleus at high copy number, resulting in reduced expression of all homologous genes...
  43. Kung C, Saimi Y, Haynes W, Ling K, Kissmehl R. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of Paramecium. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2000;47:11-4 pubmed
    b>Paramecium continues to be used to study motility, behavior, exocytosis, and the relationship between the germ and the somatic nuclei. Recent progress in molecular genetics is described...
  44. Przybos E, Tarcz S, Potekhin A, Rautian M, Prajer M. A two-locus molecular characterization of Paramecium calkinsi. Protist. 2012;163:263-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Paramecium calkinsi (Ciliophora, Protozoa) is a euryhaline species which was first identified in freshwater habitats, but subsequently several strains were also collected from brackish water...
  45. Kodama Y, Fujishima M. Cycloheximide induces synchronous swelling of perialgal vacuoles enclosing symbiotic Chlorella vulgaris and digestion of the algae in the ciliate Paramecium bursaria. Protist. 2008;159:483-94 pubmed publisher
    Cycloheximide is known to inhibit preferentially protein synthesis of symbiotic Chlorella of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria, but to hardly host protein synthesis...
  46. Boscaro V, Fokin S, Verni F, Petroni G. Survey of Paramecium duboscqui using three markers and assessment of the molecular variability in the genus Paramecium. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;65:1004-13 pubmed publisher
    The genus Paramecium (phylum Ciliophora) is one of the best-known among protozoa. Nevertheless, the knowledge on the diversity and distribution of species within this genus was remarkably scarce until recent times...
  47. Summerer M, Sonntag B, Sommaruga R. An experimental test of the symbiosis specificity between the ciliate Paramecium bursaria and strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:2117-22 pubmed
    The ciliate Paramecium bursaria living in mutualistic relationship with the unicellular green alga Chlorella is known to be easily infected by various potential symbionts/parasites such as bacteria, yeasts and other algae...
  48. Przybos E, Barth D, Berendonk T. The Paramecium aurelia species complex, frequency and co-occurrence across Europe. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2008;56:77-81 pubmed
    In Europe, 10 among the 15 known species of the Paramecium aurelia complex have been recorded including P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, P. tetraurelia, P. pentaurelia, P. sexaurelia, P. septaurelia, P. novaurelia, P...
  49. Hoshina R, Kato Y, Kamako S, Imamura N. Genetic evidence of "American" and "European" type symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria Ehrenberg. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2005;7:526-32 pubmed
    b>Paramecium bursaria is composed of a "host" ciliate and a "symbiont" green alga...
  50. Furukawa S, Karaki C, Kawano T. Micro-particle transporting system using galvanotactically stimulated apo-symbiotic cells of Paramecium bursaria. Z Naturforsch C. 2009;64:421-33 pubmed
    It is well known that Paramecium species including green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria) migrate towards the anode when exposed to an electric field in a medium. This type of a cellular movement is known as galvanotaxis...
  51. Ohkawa H, Hashimoto N, Furukawa S, Kadono T, Kawano T. Forced symbiosis between Synechocystis spp. PCC 6803 and apo-symbiotic Paramecium bursaria as an experimental model for evolutionary emergence of primitive photosynthetic eukaryotes. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:773-6 pubmed
    Single-cell green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria) is a swimming vehicle that carries several hundred cells of endo-symbiotic green algae...
  52. Takenaka Y, Haga N, Harumoto T, Matsuura T, Mitsui Y. Transformation of Paramecium caudatum with a novel expression vector harboring codon-optimized GFP gene. Gene. 2002;284:233-40 pubmed
    We have developed a novel expression vector, pTub-tel3, for transformation in Paramecium caudatum. The vector was constructed by cloning P. caudatum alpha-tubulin 5' and 3' non-coding regions...
  53. Bell W, Preston R, Yano J, Van Houten J. Genetic dissection of attractant-induced conductances in Paramecium. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:357-65 pubmed
    b>Paramecium tetraurelia is attracted to acetate and biotin by swimming smoothly and fast up gradients of these attractants, and turning immediately and slowing down when leaving these stimuli...
  54. Hori M, Fujishima M. The endosymbiotic bacterium Holospora obtusa enhances heat-shock gene expression of the host Paramecium caudatum. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2003;50:293-8 pubmed
    The bacterium Holospora obtusa is a macronuclear-specific symbiont of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. H. obtusa-bearing paramecia could survive even after the cells were quickly heated from 25 degrees C to 35 degrees C...
  55. Tonetti M, Zanardi D, Gurnon J, Fruscione F, Armirotti A, Damonte G, et al. Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 encodes two enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of GDP-L-fucose and GDP-D-rhamnose. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21559-65 pubmed
    At least three structural proteins in Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1) are glycosylated, including the major capsid protein Vp54...
  56. Oami K, Takahashi M. Identification of the Ca2+ conductance responsible for K+-induced backward swimming in Paramecium caudatum. J Membr Biol. 2002;190:159-65 pubmed
    Membrane potential responses of Paramecium caudatum to an application of K+-rich solution were examined to understand the mechanisms underlying K+-induced backward swimming...
  57. Kissmehl R, Froissard M, Plattner H, Momayezi M, Cohen J. NSF regulates membrane traffic along multiple pathways in Paramecium. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3935-46 pubmed
    ..In the ciliated protozoon Paramecium, complex but well-defined transport routes exist, constitutive and regulated exocytosis, endocytosis, ..
  58. Iwadate Y, Nakaoka Y. Calcium regulates independently ciliary beat and cell contraction in Paramecium cells. Cell Calcium. 2008;44:169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..How can Ca(2+) regulate these functions independently? In Paramecium cells, the contractile cytoskeletal network and cilia are located close to each other near the cell surface...
  59. Wassmer T, Sehring I, Kissmehl R, Plattner H. The V-ATPase in Paramecium: functional specialization by multiple gene isoforms. Pflugers Arch. 2009;457:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing of the whole genome of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia enabled the identification of virtually all the genes encoding V-ATPase subunits in this organism ..
  60. Fokin S, Skovorodkin I, Schweikert M, Görtz H. Co-infection of the macronucleus of Paramecium caudatum by free-living bacteria together with the infectious Holospora obtusa. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2004;51:417-24 pubmed
    Infection experiments were performed incubating Paramecium caudatum with non-infectious free-living bacteria or weakly infectious intracellular bacteria together with the infectious Holospora obtusa...
  61. Plattner H. My favorite cell--Paramecium. Bioessays. 2002;24:649-58 pubmed
    A Paramecium cell has a stereotypically patterned surface, with regularly arranged cilia, dense-core secretory vesicles and subplasmalemmal calcium stores...
  62. Yamagishi T, Kai A, Kawai H. Trichocyst ribbons of a cryptomonads are constituted of homologs of R-body proteins produced by the intracellular parasitic bacterium of Paramecium. J Mol Evol. 2012;74:147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The biochemical makeup of the trichocyst constituents has been studied in the ciliate Paramecium, but there have been no investigations of cryptomonads and dinoflagellates...
  63. Arnaiz O, Mathy N, Baudry C, Malinsky S, Aury J, Denby Wilkes C, et al. The Paramecium germline genome provides a niche for intragenic parasitic DNA: evolutionary dynamics of internal eliminated sequences. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002984 pubmed publisher
    ..In Paramecium, these rearrangements include precise excision of unique-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IES) from the ..
  64. Eschbach E, Pfannkuchen M, Schweikert M, Drutschmann D, Brümmer F, Fokin S, et al. "Candidatus Paraholospora nucleivisitans", an intracellular bacterium in Paramecium sexaurelia shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of its host. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2009;32:490-500 pubmed publisher
    An intracellular bacterium was discovered in two isolates of Paramecium sexaurelia from an aquarium with tropical fish in Münster (Germany) and from a pond in the Wilhelma zoological-botanical garden, Stuttgart (Germany)...
  65. Krause M, Braucker R, Hemmersbach R. Graviresponses of Paramecium biaurelia during parabolic flights. Protoplasma. 2006;229:109-16 pubmed
    The thresholds of graviorientation and gravikinesis in Paramecium biaurelia were investigated during the 5th DLR (German Aerospace Center) parabolic-flight campaign at Bordeaux in June 2003...
  66. Takahashi T, Yoshii M, Kawano T, Kosaka T, Hosoya H. A new approach for the assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a green paramecium. Toxicol In Vitro. 2005;19:99-105 pubmed
    ..The present study aims to evaluate acrylamide toxicity to a green paramecium, Paramecium bursaria, bearing many endosymbiotic algae, because some chemicals are highly toxic to paramecia or ..
  67. Plattner H, Kissmehl R. Molecular aspects of membrane trafficking in paramecium. Int Rev Cytol. 2003;232:185-216 pubmed
    Results achieved in the molecular biology of Paramecium have shed new light on its elaborate membrane trafficking system...
  68. Lekomtsev S, Kolosov P, Bidou L, Frolova L, Rousset J, Kisselev L. Different modes of stop codon restriction by the Stylonychia and Paramecium eRF1 translation termination factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10824-9 pubmed
    ..In some ciliates, like Stylonychia and Paramecium, eRF1s exhibit UGA-only decoding specificity, whereas UAG and UAA are reassigned as sense codons...
  69. Iwamoto M, Allen R. Uptake and rapid transfer of fluorescent ceramide analogues to acidosomes (late endosomes) in Paramecium. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:557-65 pubmed
    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium incorporates sphingolipids into its cell membranes...
  70. Haynes W, Ling K, Saimi Y, Kung C. PAK paradox: Paramecium appears to have more K(+)-channel genes than humans. Eukaryot Cell. 2003;2:737-45 pubmed
    K(+)-selective ion channels (K(+) channels) have been found in bacteria, archaea, eucarya, and viruses. In Paramecium and other ciliates, K(+) currents play an essential role in cilia-based motility...
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    Molecular search for the homologues of the mammalian proteins in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium involved in endocytosis and membrane trafficking is discussed...