hymenostomatida

Summary

Summary: An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a ventral oral area and a well-defined buccal cavity. It comprises three suborders: TETRAHYMENINA, Ophryoglenina, and PENICULINA.

Top Publications

  1. Matthews R. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet and Ichthyophthiriosis in Freshwater Teleosts. Adv Parasitol. 2005;59:159-241 pubmed
    ..The current status of methods for the control of ichthyophthiriosis is discussed, together with new approaches in combating this important disease...
  2. Xu D, Klesius P, Shoemaker C. Cutaneous antibodies from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), immune to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) may induce apoptosis of Ich theronts. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:213-20 pubmed
    ..The study indicated that antibody reaction with theronts (immobilization) played an important role in theront apoptosis, but it could not be excluded that other components released from the excised skin had effects on theronts...
  3. Wahli T, Matthews R. Ichthyophthiriasis in carp Cyprinus carpio: infectivity of trophonts prematurely exiting both the immune and non-immune host. Dis Aquat Organ. 1999;36:201-7 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in relation to theront transformation and evasion of the host immune response...
  4. Dickerson H, Clark T. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis: a model of cutaneous infection and immunity in fishes. Immunol Rev. 1998;166:377-84 pubmed
    ..The development of Ichthyophthirius as an experimental system and how it might be used to address these issues are discussed in this review...
  5. Lin T, Clark T, Dickerson H. Passive immunization of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by use of murine monoclonal antibodies. Infect Immun. 1996;64:4085-90 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for the development of a vaccine against I. multifiliis and immunity against surface pathogens of fish are discussed...
  6. Clark T, Lin T, Dickerson H. Surface antigen cross-linking triggers forced exit of a protozoan parasite from its host. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6825-9 pubmed
    ..These findings represent a novel instance among protists in which protective immunity (and evasion of the host response) result from an effect of antibody on parasite behavior...
  7. Xu D, Klesius P, Panangala V. Induced cross-protection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against different immobilization serotypes of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:131-8 pubmed
    ..Sonicated trophont antigens in aqueous solution by i.p. injection could stimulate an immune response in fish, but the immunity was of short duration...
  8. Jousson O, Di Bello D, Donadio E, Felicioli A, Pretti C. Differential expression of cysteine proteases in developmental stages of the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;269:77-84 pubmed
    ..They represented the major proteolytic activity of the trophont stage at pH 5-7, suggesting that cysteine proteases play an important role in the infection process...
  9. von Gersdorff Jørgensen L, Heinecke R, Skjødt K, Rasmussen K, Buchmann K. Experimental evidence for direct in situ binding of IgM and IgT to early trophonts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) in the gills of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2011;34:749-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that antibodies play an important part in the protection of immune fish against Ich although additional humoral and cellular factors may contribute to this reaction...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Cassidy Hanley D, Cordonnier Pratt M, Pratt L, Devine C, Mozammal Hossain M, Dickerson H, et al. Transcriptional profiling of stage specific gene expression in the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;178:29-39 pubmed publisher
  2. Lin T, Dickerson H. Purification and partial characterization of immobilization antigens from Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. J Protozool. 1992;39:457-63 pubmed
    ..Individual MAb reactive on Western blots recognized both the 48- and 60-kDa proteins indicating the presence of common epitopes. Affinity purified Ag elicited immobilizing antisera when injected into rabbits, mice, and channel catfish...
  3. Xu D, Klesius P, Shelby R. Immune responses and host protection of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis after immunization with live theronts and sonicated trophonts. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:135-41 pubmed
    ..p. injection or with sonicated trophonts by i.p. injection. There was a positive correlation between higher levels of anti-Ich antibodies and host survival in the immunized fish...
  4. Wang X, Clark T, Noe J, Dickerson H. Immunisation of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis immobilisation antigens elicits serotype-specific protection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2002;13:337-50 pubmed
    ..The utility of i-antigens, as well as the existence of other potential vaccine candidates for the prevention of 'white-spot' disease, are discussed...
  5. Abernathy J, Xu P, Li P, Xu D, Kucuktas H, Klesius P, et al. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:176 pubmed
    ..Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs...
  6. Lin Y, Lin T, Wang C, Wang X, Stieger K, Klopfleisch R, et al. Variation in primary sequence and tandem repeat copy number among i-antigens of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;120:93-106 pubmed
    ..Analysis at the protein level using 2-D SDS-PAGE would further suggest that multiple i-antigens are expressed within the same serotype at any given time...
  7. Van Den Bussche R, Hoofer S, Drew C, Ewing M. Characterization of histone H3/H4 gene region and phylogenetic affinity of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis based on H4 DNA sequence variation. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2000;14:461-8 pubmed
    ..The single shortest neighbor-joining tree depicted a sister-group relationship of Ichthyophthirius with taxa of Tetrahymenina, thereby supporting monophyly of Oligohymenophorea...
  8. Xu D, Klesius P, Shoemaker C. Effect of immunization of channel catfish with inactivated trophonts on serum and cutaneous antibody titers and survival against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..859, p < 0.01). These results indicate that doses of sonicated trophonts, but not formalin-inactivated or freeze-thawed trophonts provided both serum and cutaneous antibody responses and survival to live trophont challenge...
  9. Clark T, McGraw R, Dickerson H. Developmental expression of surface antigen genes in the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:6363-7 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that genes encoding i-antigens of I. multifiliis are developmentally regulated, and they suggest the existence of alternative mechanisms for the control of surface antigen expression in ciliates...
  10. Wright A, Lynn D. Phylogeny of the fish parasite Ichthyophthirius and its relatives Ophryoglena and Tetrahymena (Ciliophora, Hymenostomatia) inferred from 18S ribosomal RNA sequences. Mol Biol Evol. 1995;12:285-90 pubmed
    ..Tetrahymenids formed a monophyletic group that was divided into main lineages: T. corlissi diverged from the base of the lineage that included T. thermophila...
  11. Yi Y, Lu C, Hu X, Ling F, Wang G. Antiprotozoal activity of medicinal plants against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1771-8 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggested that the methanol extracts of M. officinalis and S. alopecuroides have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of I. multifiliis. ..
  12. Yin F, Dan X, Sun P, Shi Z, Gao Q, Peng S, et al. Growth, feed intake and immune responses of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to low infectious doses of ectoparasite (Cryptocaryon irritans). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;36:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To sum up, low-dose infection by C. irritans can induce the fish's immunity, but at the cost of decreasing food intake, decreased food conversion, and lagged growth. ..
  13. Sigh J, Lindenstrøm T, Buchmann K. The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis induces expression of immune relevant genes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2004;27:409-17 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that complement is involved in immune reactions against I. multifiliis and that mucosal antibodies might be produced at the site of infection...
  14. Liu Y, Lu C. Role of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in the Infection of Aeromonas hydrophila. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2004;51:222-4 pubmed
    ..multifiliis might act as a portal of entry for A. hydrophila present in the water, thereby facilitating the invasion of bacteria. The ectoparasite might also serve as a vector and reservoir of pathogenic bacteria. ..
  15. Wei J, Li H, Yu H. Ichthyophthiriasis: emphases on the epizootiology. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2013;57:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The susceptibility and stress reaction of fish to I. multifiliis infection are stated. Also, the pathogenicity and diagnosis of ichthyophthiriasis were covered, and an overall assessment is finally made on ichthyophthiriasis control. ..
  16. Xu D, Pridgeon J, Klesius P, Shoemaker C. Parasitism by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of Aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..hydrophila (9400-188,300 GEs/mg) than non-parasitized fish (4700-42,100 GEs/mg) after exposure to A. hydrophila. This study provides evidence that parasite infections enhance bacterial invasion and cause high fish mortality. ..
  17. Xu D, Klesius P, Bosworth B, Chatakondi N. Susceptibility of three strains of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes), to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. J Fish Dis. 2012;35:887-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that there are differences among strains of blue catfish for susceptibility to Ich, and these differences will be useful in the development of improved catfish germplasm for commercial aquaculture. ..
  18. Ling F, Lu C, Tu X, Yi Y, Huang A, Zhang Q, et al. Antiprotozoal screening of traditional medicinal plants: evaluation of crude extract of Psoralea corylifolia against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis tomont exited from the fish after in-bath treatment, and it is indicated that P. corylifolia methanol extract had a potential detrimental effect on I. multifiliis trophont in situ...
  19. Chi H, Taik P, Foley E, Racicot A, Gray H, Guzzetta K, et al. High genetic diversities between isolates of the fish parasite Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora) suggest multiple cryptic species. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;112:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the C. irritans species may consists of many subspecies and/or syngens. Further work is needed to determine if there is reproductive isolation between the groups we have defined. ..
  20. Everett K, Knight J, Dickerson H. Comparing tolerance of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Tetrahymena thermophila for new cryopreservation methods. J Parasitol. 2002;88:41-6 pubmed
    ..Understanding the effects of these reagents may lead to both a cryopreservation method for I. multifiliis and to improved understanding of the biology of ciliates. ..
  21. Xu D, Zhang Q, Zhang D. Two in vitro methods for screening potential parasiticides against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis using Tetrahymena thermophila. J Fish Dis. 2016;39:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..thermophila and Ich tomonts. The parasiticides that killed T. thermophila have been demonstrated to kill theronts or tomonts. These in vitro methods using T. thermophila can be used to screen novel parasiticides against Ich. ..
  22. Rintamäki Kinnunen P, Rahkonen M, Mykrä H, Valtonen E. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis after malachite green. II. Earth ponds at salmonid farms. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;66:15-20 pubmed
    ..multifiliis between fish species. It was also evident that the chemicals and their concentrations must be planned carefully to suit the conditions at each farm. ..
  23. Xu D, Klesius P. Two year study on the infectivity of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;59:131-4 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The results of the present study indicate that the infectivity of I. multifiliis started to decrease after 25 infection cycles and was predominant in the single Ich isolate at 61-90 and 91-105 cycles. ..
  24. Abdel Hafez G, Lahnsteiner F, Mansour N. Possibilities to control Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation with medicated feed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus). Parasitol Res. 2014;113:1119-26 pubmed publisher
    ..5 (50-100 trophonts). In L. cephalus, the mortality rate was decreased from 100 to 39 ± 5 % and the infestation level from grades 4 to 2 (ten to 50 trophonts) after 10 days...
  25. Yee W, Anderson J. Free flight of Lambornella clarki-infected, blood-fed, and gravid Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1995;32:407-12 pubmed
    ..There was an increase in flight that corresponded to increased parasite presence inside the ovaries in young, but not older, females. ..
  26. Meinelt T, Richert I, Stuber A, Bräunig I. [Application of peracetic acid for the treatment of juvenile sander (Sander lucioperca) during Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2007;114:244-51 pubmed
    ..We speculate that a successful therapy of I. m. with PAA is, as known e.g. for malachite green, only possible while fighting the free living stages theronts and tomonts. This will be part of our subsequent investigations. ..
  27. Olsen M, Kania P, Heinecke R, Skjoedt K, Rasmussen K, Buchmann K. Cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections: molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis...
  28. Yao J, Zhou Z, Li X, Yin W, Ru H, Pan X, et al. Antiparasitic efficacy of dihydrosanguinarine and dihydrochelerythrine from Macleaya microcarpa against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in richadsin (Squaliobarbus curriculus). Vet Parasitol. 2011;183:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 18.2mg/l, respectively. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of dihydrosanguinarine and dihydrochelerythrine in the therapy of serious infection caused by I. multifiliis...
  29. Zhao F, Li Y, Pan H, Wu S, Shi C, Luo X, et al. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) TRAF6 and TAK1: molecular cloning and expression analysis after Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:1514-23 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis...
  30. Golding G, Tsao N, Pearlman R. Evidence for intron capture: an unusual path for the evolution of proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7506-9 pubmed
    ..Via this path a truly unique sequence can be incorporated into an existing protein, leading in time to the evolution of a new, functionally distinct protein...
  31. Woo P. Immunization against parasitic diseases of fish. Dev Biol Stand. 1997;90:233-41 pubmed
    ..A vaccine against fish lice is plausible, and the efficacy of about 20 candidate antigens in protecting fish is being tested...
  32. Coyne R, Hannick L, Shanmugam D, Hostetler J, Brami D, Joardar V, et al. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R100 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, it is closely related to the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Genomic studies represent a promising strategy to reduce the impact of this disease and to understand the evolutionary transition to parasitism...
  33. Xu Z, Parra D, Gómez D, Salinas I, Zhang Y, von Gersdorff Jørgensen L, et al. Teleost skin, an ancient mucosal surface that elicits gut-like immune responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13097-102 pubmed publisher
  34. Xu D, Shoemaker C, Klesius P. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a potential vector of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;329:160-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluorescent E. ictaluri were observed on trophonts in skin and gill wet mounts of dead fish. This study demonstrated that Ich could vector E. ictaluri to channel catfish...
  35. Clark T, Lin T, Jackwood D, Sherrill J, Lin Y, Dickerson H. The gene for an abundant parasite coat protein predicts tandemly repetitive metal binding domains. Gene. 1999;229:91-100 pubmed
  36. Rintamäki Kinnunen P, Rahkonen M, Mannermaa Keränen A, Suomalainen L, Mykrä H, Valtonen E. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis after malachite green. I. Concrete tanks at salmonid farms. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;64:69-76 pubmed
    ..It was also evident that the chemicals and their concentrations must be planned carefully to suit the conditions on each farm...
  37. Yin F, Sun P, Tang B, Gong H, Ke Q, Li A. Anti-parasitic effects of Leptomycin B isolated from Streptomyces sp. CJK17 on marine fish ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. Vet Parasitol. 2016;217:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..By spectrum analysis (EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR), the compound SFrD was identified as Leptomycin B. This study firstly demonstrated that Leptomycin B has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against ciliates in cultured marine fish. ..
  38. Xu D, Shoemaker C, Martins M, Pridgeon J, Klesius P. Enhanced susceptibility of channel catfish to the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri after parasitism by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Vet Microbiol. 2012;158:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ich infection enhanced the susceptibility of channel catfish to bacterial invasion and increased fish mortality...
  39. Houghton G, Healey L, Matthews R. The cellular proliferative response, humoral antibody response, and cross reactivity studies of Tetrahymena pyriformis with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Dev Comp Immunol. 1992;16:301-12 pubmed
    ..pyriformis, showed little evidence in support of protection using this strain of T. pyriformis. Further, antisera raised in either carp, rabbits, or rats failed to show any cross antigenicity between these two species of protozoa...
  40. Ullal A, Noga E. Antiparasitic activity of the antimicrobial peptide HbbetaP-1, a member of the beta-haemoglobin peptide family. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:657-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that HbbetaP-1 or related AMPs might function in protecting marine as well as freshwater fish and that HbbetaP-1 has highly selective activity against specific life stages of important fish ectoparasites...
  41. Ling F, Wang J, Liu Q, Li M, Ye L, Gong X. Prevention of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by potassium ferrate(VI) treatment. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:212-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05), but also the prevalence of ichthyophthiriasis (P<0.05). Potassium ferrate(VI) at a concentration of 4.80mg/L was considered to be the lowest effective dose to prevent infestation of I. multifiliis in goldfish...
  42. Bourland W. Redescription and neotypification of a poorly known freshwater ectocommensal ciliate, Larvulina variabilis (Penard, 122), and consideration of its systematic position. Eur J Protistol. 2009;45:219-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The systematic position of this unusual ciliate remains obscure. Possibly, it belongs to the Pleuronematida or the Thigmotrichida...
  43. Buchmann K, Lindenstrøm T, Sigh J. Partial cross protection against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in Gyrodactylus derjavini immunized rainbow trout. J Helminthol. 1999;73:189-95 pubmed
    ..multifiliis infection. This will suggest that non-specific factors including complement could be partly responsible for the host response against infections with this ciliate...
  44. Buchmann K, Nielsen M. Chemoattraction of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora) theronts to host molecules. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:1415-23 pubmed
    ..multifiliis and suggests that serum factors in mucus could be involved in host finding of the parasite. Society for Parasitology Inc...
  45. Pieters N, Brunt J, Austin B, Lyndon A. Efficacy of in-feed probiotics against Aeromonas bestiarum and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis skin infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:723-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of in-feed probiotics as a preventive measure against skin infections caused by Aeromonas bestiarum and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) in rainbow trout...
  46. Yao J, Shen J, Li X, Xu Y, Hao G, Pan X, et al. Effect of sanguinarine from the leaves of Macleaya cordata against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the studied plant extracts, as well as sanguinarine might be potential sources of new antiparasitic drug for the control of I. multifiliis...
  47. Fu Y, Wang B, Zhang Q, Xu D, Lin D, Yang X, et al. Combined effects of Chinese medicine feed and ginger extract bath on co-infection of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid in grass carp. Parasitol Res. 2017;116:2017-2025 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis and D. ctenopharyngodonid, then the two parasites were eliminated by oral administration of the medicated feed with an immunostimulant (Chinese medicine compound). ..
  48. Yee W, Anderson J. Tethered flight capabilities and survival of Lambornella clarki-infected, blood-fed, and gravid Aedes sierrensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1995;32:153-60 pubmed
    ..These results and results of glycogen analyses of mosquito thoraces indicate that the parasite primarily affected resources needed by the mosquito for survival and not those for flight...
  49. Lobo da Cunha A, Azevedo C. Processing of food vacuoles in the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis after exit from the host. Parasitol Res. 1993;79:272-8 pubmed
    ..Food-vacuole egestion was observed only 20 h after exit from the host. At the theront stage, food vacuoles were not evident, but small vacuoles with acid phosphatase activity were observed...
  50. Lobo da Cunha A, Azevedo C. Ultrastructural and cytochemical identification of peroxisomes in the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1993;40:169-71 pubmed
    ..Peroxisomal vesicles and tubular structures were selectively impregnated with osmium tetroxide. Catalase was detected by cytochemical techniques in I. multifiliis peroxisomes...
  51. von Gersdorff Jørgensen L, Sigh J, Kania P, Holten Andersen L, Buchmann K, CLARK T, et al. Approaches towards DNA vaccination against a skin ciliate parasite in fish. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48129 pubmed publisher
    ..This might suggest an insufficiency of DNA vaccination alone to trigger protective mechanisms against I. multifiliis or that other or additional parasite antigens are required for such a vaccine to be successful...
  52. Xu D, Klesius P, Shoemaker C. Apoptosis in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is associated with expression of the Fas receptor of theronts. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:225-32 pubmed
    ..The data indicated that theront apoptosis induced by immune cutaneous antibody appears to be positively correlated with the expression of Fas on the surface of Ich theronts...
  53. Picon Camacho S, Marcos López M, Beljean A, Debeaume S, Shinn A. In vitro assessment of the chemotherapeutic action of a specific hydrogen peroxide, peracetic, acetic, and peroctanoic acid-based formulation against the free-living stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora). Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1029-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The demonstrated in vitro efficacy of the peracetic acid-based product tested on the present study suggests its great potential to control I. multifiliis infections in commercial aquacultural systems...
  54. Misumi I, Lewis T, Takemura A, Leong J. Elicited cross-protection and specific antibodies in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) against two different immobilization serotypes of Cryptocaryon irritans isolated in Hawaii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, despite the fact that the immobilization assays and ELISA detected two serotypes in vitro, challenge assays provided evidence for only one type of C. irritans...
  55. Ling F, Wang J, Wang G, Gong X. Effect of potassium ferrate(VI) on survival and reproduction of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis tomonts. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1423-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This study demonstrated that a bath with potassium ferrate(VI) possibly was an effective method to treat ichthyophthiriasis...
  56. Xu D, Klesius P, Shoemaker C. Protective immunity of Nile tilapia against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis post-immunization with live theronts and sonicated trophonts. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:124-7 pubmed publisher
    ..At 180 days post-immunization, serum antibody titers had declined in immunized fish yet they were still able to survive challenge. The protection appears not to be solely depending on serum antibody response against Ich...
  57. Molloy D, Lynn D, Giamberini L. Ophryoglena hemophaga n. sp. (Ciliophora: Ophryoglenidae): a parasite of the digestive gland of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;65:237-43 pubmed
    ..This is the first ophryoglenine species (order Hymenostomatida, suborder Ophryoglenina) recorded as a molluscan parasite...
  58. Lahnsteiner F, Weismann T. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics. J Aquat Anim Health. 2007;19:186-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the number of treatment repetitions played a minor role, and parasites were eliminated with five treatments in all experiments when the type of chemical and treatment interval were optimal...
  59. Sigh J, Buchmann K. Associations between epidermal thionin-positive cells and skin parasitic infections in brown trout Salmo trutta. Dis Aquat Organ. 2000;41:135-9 pubmed
    ..The possible implications of these cells in host-parasite interactions are suggested and discussed...
  60. Jousson O, Pretti C, Di Bello D, Cognetti Varriale A. Non-invasive detection and quantification of the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by real-time PCR. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;65:251-5 pubmed
    ..An alignment of 18S rDNA sequences of I. multifiliis and related species of the ciliate order Hymenostomatida was used to design amplification primers specifically targeting the I. multifiliis 18S rDNA gene...
  61. Swennes A, Noe J, Findly R, Dickerson H. Differences in virulence between two serotypes of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;69:227-32 pubmed
    ..This report represents the first experimental evidence for differences in virulence between serotypes of I. multifiliis...
  62. Sutili F, Gressler L, Vargas A, Zeppenfeld C, Baldisserotto B, Cunha M. The use of nitazoxanide against the pathogens Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Aeromonas hydrophila in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:522-6 pubmed publisher
    ..NTZ did not show in vitro activity against A. hydrophila at concentrations tested, but showed a probable preventive activity in vivo. However, these results are preliminary and more studies should be conducted...
  63. Schmahl G, Schmidt H, Ritter G. The control of ichthyophthiriasis by a medicated food containing quinine: efficacy tests and ultrastructure investigations. Parasitol Res. 1996;82:697-705 pubmed
    ..From the toxicological as well as the ecological and economical point of view the feeding of flakes containing quinine has considerable advantages as compared with conventional bath treatment...
  64. Xu D, Shoemaker C, Klesius P. Effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on survival and reproduction of the fish ectoparasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:979-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of the current study demonstrated that TM had no adverse effect on I. multifiliis survival and reproduction when used at concentrations and exposure times required for fish anesthetization...
  65. Bhattacharyya A, Blackburn E. Architecture of telomerase RNA. EMBO J. 1994;13:5721-31 pubmed
  66. Shoemaker C, Martins M, Xu D, Klesius P. Effect of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to Edwardsiella ictaluri. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:2223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial clearance was probably influenced by the stress of parasitism and/or the mucosal response induced by ectoparasitic Ich that resulted in the higher mortality seen in the co-infected treatment...
  67. Xueqin J, Kania P, Buchmann K. Comparative effects of four feed types on white spot disease susceptibility and skin immune parameters in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2012;35:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Beta-glucan was the single component, when used in combination with other feed ingredients, which was found associated with increased parasite resistance, increased lysozyme and immune gene up-regulation...
  68. Russell S, Hayes M, Lumsden J. Immunohistochemical localization of rainbow trout ladderlectin and intelectin in healthy and infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings represent one of the few examples of in vivo association of defence lectins and infectious agents...
  69. Schmahl G, Ruider S, Mehlhorn H, Schmidt H, Ritter G. Treatment of fish parasites. 9. Effects of a medicated food containing malachite green on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora) in ornamental fish. Parasitol Res. 1992;78:183-92 pubmed
    ..The feeding of flakes medicated with malachite green provides and easy-to-handle and highly effective treatment of I. multifiliis in ornamental fish...