ciliophora

Summary

Summary: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.

Top Publications

  1. Jiang J, Song W. Two new Diophrys-like genera and their type species, Apodiophrys ovalis n. g., n. sp. and Heterodiophrys zhui n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora: Euplotida), with notes on their molecular phylogeny. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The new genus Heterodiophrys is basal to the sister group of Diophrys-Diophryopsis, hence belongs to the "core"Diophrys-complex. ..
  2. Vdačný P, Orsi W, Foissner W. Molecular and morphological evidence for a sister group relationship of the classes Armophorea and Litostomatea (Ciliophora, Intramacronucleata, Lamellicorticata infraphyl. nov.), with an account on basal litostomateans. Eur J Protistol. 2010;46:298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose an evolutionary scenario, explaining both the sister relationship of the Armophorea and Litostomatea, as well as the basal position of the morphologically complex dileptids. ..
  3. Dunthorn M, Klier J, Bunge J, Stoeck T. Comparing the hyper-variable V4 and V9 regions of the small subunit rDNA for assessment of ciliate environmental diversity. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2012;59:185-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, studies that use the V4 will estimate similar values of phylotype richness and community structure as would have been estimated using the full-length SSU-rDNA. ..
  4. Gómez Gutiérrez J, Robinson C, Kawaguchi S, Nicol S. Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) along the northwestern coast of Mexico. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;88:249-66 pubmed publisher
    ..simplex individuals. Collinia spp. endoparasitoids must occasionally have a significant influence on population mortality with potential epizootic events...
  5. Yi Z, Song W. Evolution of the order Urostylida (Protozoa, Ciliophora): new hypotheses based on multi-gene information and identification of localized incongruence. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17471 pubmed publisher
  6. Foissner W, Stoeck T. Morphology of Bromeliophrya quadristicha n. spec., an inhabitant of tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae), and phylogeny of the Bromeliophryidae (Ciliophora, Tetrahymenida). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2013;60:223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..long and C-shaped) adoral membranelle 3. Both the morphological and molecular phylogenies show Bromeliophrya and Glaucomides as sister group of the Glaucomidae. Thus, they should have the same (family) rank...
  7. Bourland W, Vdačný P, Davis M, Hampikian G. Morphology, morphometrics, and molecular characterization of Bryophrya gemmea n. sp. (Ciliophora, Colpodea): implications for the phylogeny and evolutionary scenario for the formation of oral ciliature in the order Colpodida. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:22-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the molecular data, an evolutionary scenario for the formation of colpodid oral structures from a cyrtolophosidid ancestor through a bryophryid intermediate is proposed. ..
  8. Funadani R, Suetomo Y, Matsuoka T. Emergence of the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus from a resting cyst: rupture of the cyst wall by active expansion of an excystment vacuole. Microbes Environ. 2013;28:149-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the active uptake of water may be responsible for the expansion of the excystment vacuole required for the ectocyst to rupture...
  9. Song W, Wilbert N, Li L, Zhang Q. Re-evaluation on the diversity of the polyphyletic genus Metaurostylopsis (Ciliophora, Hypotricha): ontogenetic, morphologic, and molecular data suggest the establishment of a new genus Apourostylopsis n. g. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..2008 should be excluded from the genus and represents a distinct type, and, thus, a new genus Apourostylopsis n. g. with it as the type specie, i.e. Apourostylopsis sinica (Shao et al., 2008) n. comb...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Weisse T, Scheffel U, Stadler P, Foissner W. Bromeliothrix metopoides, a boom and bust ciliate (Ciliophora, Colpodea) from tank bromeliads. Eur J Protistol. 2013;49:406-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that B. metopoides is a boom and bust ciliate that is specifically adapted to its peculiar habitat but virtually unviable in other environments...
  2. Buosi P, Pauleto G, Lansac Tôha F, Velho L. Ciliate community associated with aquatic macrophyte roots: effects of nutrient enrichment on the community composition and species richness. Eur J Protistol. 2011;47:86-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to our expectations, species richness in the fertilized treatment was significantly higher than that in the control, refuting our hypothesis that species richness decreases under eutrophic conditions...
  3. Pan H, Hu X, Gong J, Lin X, Al Rasheid K, Al Farraj S, et al. Morphological redescriptions of four marine ciliates (Ciliophora: Cyrtophorida: Dysteriidae) from Qingdao, China. Eur J Protistol. 2011;47:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..A population of D. derouxi with eight or nine right kineties is also briefly described. The current investigation further demonstrates high diversity and cosmopolitan distribution of this highly specialized group of benthic ciliates...
  4. Bachy C, Dolan J, López García P, Deschamps P, Moreira D. Accuracy of protist diversity assessments: morphology compared with cloning and direct pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA genes and ITS regions using the conspicuous tintinnid ciliates as a case study. ISME J. 2013;7:244-55 pubmed publisher
  5. Yi Z, Dunthorn M, Song W, Stoeck T. Increasing taxon sampling using both unidentified environmental sequences and identified cultures improves phylogenetic inference in the Prorodontida (Ciliophora, Prostomatea). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:937-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach to increasing taxon sampling using unidentified environmental sequences can be used in other ciliate clades in which there is also low taxon sampling...
  6. Wylezich C, Jürgens K. Protist diversity in suboxic and sulfidic waters of the Black Sea. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:2939-56 pubmed publisher
  7. Ponce Gordo F, Fonseca Salamanca F, Martínez Díaz R. Genetic heterogeneity in internal transcribed spacer genes of Balantidium coli (Litostomatea, Ciliophora). Protist. 2011;162:774-94 pubmed publisher
    ..coli which could be present in the same cell and they are common to the mammal and avian hosts studied. These data do not support B. suis and B. struthionis as distinct species...
  8. Doherty M, Tamura M, Costas B, Ritchie M, McManus G, Katz L. Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island Sound, USA. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:886-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses suggest that, with the exception of one cosmopolitan species, the oligotrich and choreotrich communities at these stations may be distributed in a neutral manner...
  9. Sweet M, Bythell J. Ciliate and bacterial communities associated with White Syndrome and Brown Band Disease in reef-building corals. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:2184-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong similarity in bacterial and ciliate community composition of these diseases suggests that they are actually the same syndrome...
  10. Li L, Khan S, Ji D, Shin M, Berger H. Morphology and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the new brackish water ciliate Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Bakuellidae) and SSU rRNA gene sequences of six additional hypotrichs from Korea. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Sterkiella cavicola, type of Sterkiella, clusters within the stylonychines and is obviously closely related with S. histriomuscorum...
  11. Omar A, Foissner W. Neotypification and ontogenesis of Leptopharynx costatus costatus Mermod, 1914. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2012;59:268-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations require changes in the descriptive morphology, support the classification of Leptopharynx into the Microthoracidae, and sustain the nonmonophyly of the Nassophorea...
  12. Shao C, Pan X, Jiang J, Ma H, Al Rasheid K, Warren A, et al. A redescription of the oxytrichid Tetmemena pustulata (Müller, 1786) Eigner, 1999 and notes on morphogenesis in the marine urostylid Metaurostylopsis salina Lei et al., 2005 (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia). Eur J Protistol. 2013;49:272-82 pubmed publisher
  13. McManus G, Xu D, Costas B, Katz L. Genetic identities of Cryptic species in the Strombidium stylifer/apolatum/oculatum cluster, including a description of Strombidium rassoulzadegani n. sp. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the apparent high degree of cryptic diversity of ribotypes in the Strombidiidae, we recommend that no new species descriptions be made without accompanying genetic information...
  14. Utz L, Simão T, Safi L, Eizirik E. Expanded phylogenetic representation of genera Opercularia and Epistylis sheds light on the evolution and higher-level taxonomy of peritrich ciliates (Ciliophora: Peritrichia). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that characters used to define this genus may be plesiomorphic for Peritrichia, so that Epistylis may in fact represent an assemblage of basal species retaining ancestral features...
  15. Müller H, Achilles Day U, Day J. Tolerance of the resting cysts of Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Colpodea) and Meseres corlissi (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) to desiccation and freezing. Eur J Protistol. 2010;46:133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..3) In the absence of soil, Colpoda inflata cysts had greater tolerance to desiccation and freezing than Meseres corlissi cysts. Possible consequences for the distribution of natural populations are discussed...
  16. Yi Z, Katz L, Song W. Assessing whether alpha-tubulin sequences are suitable for phylogenetic reconstruction of Ciliophora with insights into its evolution in euplotids. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40635 pubmed publisher
    ..estimators of species trees, and SSU-rDNA genealogies are not useful for resolution of some branches within Ciliophora. Since congruence between multiple loci is the best tool to determine evolutionary history, we assessed the ..
  17. Limberger R, Wickham S. Competition-colonization trade-offs in a ciliate model community. Oecologia. 2011;167:723-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that temporal effects and differential resource use are alternative mechanisms of coexistence for the species that were both slow colonizers and poor competitors...
  18. Foissner W, Stoeck T. Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties. Eur J Protistol. 2011;47:29-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates...
  19. Miltko R, Bełzecki G, Kwiatkowska E, Michałowski T. The ability of the rumen protozoan Eudiplodinium maggii to utilize chitin. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2010;55:349-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The production rate of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) by ciliates incubated with and without chitin was 45.0 and 30.5 pmol VFA per protozoan, respectively, the molar proportion of particular acids remaining unchanged...
  20. Orsi W, Edgcomb V, Faria J, Foissner W, Fowle W, Hohmann T, et al. Class Cariacotrichea, a novel ciliate taxon from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:1425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this specific feature and the molecular phylogenies, we propose a novel ciliate class, Cariacotrichea nov. cl...
  21. He Y, Xu K. Morphology and small subunit rDNA phylogeny of a new soil ciliate, Bistichella variabilis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Stichotrichia). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:332-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5-99.7%. Nonetheless, it is still premature to assign Bistichella together with Uroleptoides to the family Orthoamphisiellidae because of the taxonomic uncertainties and undersampling...
  22. Drzewicki A, Kulikowska D. Limitation of sludge biotic index application for control of a wastewater treatment plant working with shock organic and ammonium loadings. Eur J Protistol. 2011;47:287-94 pubmed publisher
  23. Foissner W. Schmidingerothrix extraordinaria nov. gen., nov. spec., a secondarily oligomerized hypotrich (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Schmidingerotrichidae nov. fam.) from hypersaline soils of Africa. Eur J Protistol. 2012;48:237-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Possibly, the simple ciliature is an adaptation to highly saline habitats, where competition is low and bacterial food abundant...
  24. Bellec L, Katz L. Analyses of chromosome copy number and expression level of four genes in the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata reveal a complex pattern that suggests epigenetic regulation. Gene. 2012;504:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implication of our findings, which suggest that epigenetic mechanisms maintain chromosome copy number in C. uncinata...
  25. Dubber D, Gray N. The effect of anoxia and anaerobia on ciliate community in biological nutrient removal systems using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Water Res. 2011;45:2213-26 pubmed publisher
    ..It is recommended that anoxic/anaerobic periods should be optimised to sustain the protozoan community while achieving maximum performance and nutrient removal...
  26. Landers S. The fine structure of the hypertrophont of the parasitic apostome Synophrya (Ciliophora, Apostomatida). Eur J Protistol. 2010;46:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The massive reticulate macronucleus had globular and elongated chromatin bodies, and was the most distinctive organelle within the cell...
  27. da Silva Neto I, da Silva Paiva T, Pedroso Dias R, Alexandre Campos C, Migotto A. Redescription of Licnophora chattoni Villeneuve-Brachon, 1939 (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), associated with Zyzzyzus warreni Calder, 1988 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Eur J Protistol. 2012;48:48-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine to twelve macronuclear nodules connected by isthmuses are distributed in the cytoplasm, plus two nodules located in the adhesive disc and between those there is an ovate micronucleus...
  28. Chen X, Dong J, Lin X, Al Rasheid K. Morphology and phylogeny of a new urostylid ciliate, Monocoronella carnea n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Daya Bay, Southern China. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..sp. [Basionym: Holosticha (Keronopsis) monilata (Kahl 1928) sensu Dragesco (1970) et sensu Dragesco and Dragesco-Kernéis (1986), non sensu Kahl (1928)], was suggested...
  29. Pan H, Gao F, Li J, Lin X, Al Farraj S, Al Rasheid K. Morphology and phylogeny of two new pleurostomatid ciliates, Epiphyllum shenzhenense n. sp. and Loxophyllum spirellum n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from a mangrove wetland, South China. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..spirellum n. sp. falls well into the Loxophyllum clade, which has a close relationship with Litonotus and Spiroloxophyllum...
  30. Nowacki M, Haye J, Fang W, Vijayan V, Landweber L. RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of DNA copy number. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that maternal RNA, in addition to controlling gene expression or DNA processing, can also program DNA amplification levels...
  31. Bachy C, Gomez F, López García P, Dolan J, Moreira D. Molecular phylogeny of tintinnid ciliates (Tintinnida, Ciliophora). Protist. 2012;163:873-87 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the phylogeny of tintinnids (Ciliophora, Tintinnida) with 62 new SSU-rDNA sequences from single cells of 32 marine and freshwater species in 20 genera, including the first SSU-rDNA sequences for Amphorides, Climacocylis, ..
  32. Medinger R, Nolte V, Pandey R, Jost S, Ottenwälder B, Schlotterer C, et al. Diversity in a hidden world: potential and limitation of next-generation sequencing for surveys of molecular diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms. Mol Ecol. 2010;19 Suppl 1:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we studied the diversity and the seasonal community turnover of alveolates (Ciliophora and Dinophyceae) in an oligotrophic freshwater lake by SSU amplicon sequencing with NGS as well as by classical ..
  33. Agatha S. Updated hypothesis on the evolution of oligotrichid ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Oligotrichida) based on somatic ciliary patterns and ontogenetic data. Eur J Protistol. 2011;47:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The somatic ciliary pattern of the latter genus probably gave rise to the patterns of Apostrombidium and Varistrombidium...
  34. Liu W, Yi Z, Lin X, Al Rasheid K. Morphologic and molecular data suggest that Lynnella semiglobulosa n. g., n. sp. represents a new family within the subclass Choreotrichia (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular evidence of L. semiglobulosa, it is confirmed that the open AZM should be a plesiomorphic character of oligotrichs s. lat. as suggested previously...
  35. Limberger R, Wickham S. Disturbance and diversity at two spatial scales. Oecologia. 2012;168:785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The disturbance-diversity relationship was negative for both scales of diversity. The flat competitive hierarchy and absence of a trade-off between competition and colonization ability are a likely explanation for this pattern...
  36. Bełzecki G, Miltko R, Kwiatkowska E, Michałowski T. Mureinolytic ability of the rumen ciliate Diploplastron affine. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2010;55:312-4 pubmed publisher
  37. Qiu D, Huang L, Huang H, Yang J, Lin S. Two functionally distinct ciliates dwelling in Acropora corals in the South China Sea near Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:5639-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These two ciliates may serve contrasting functions (competitor versus "cleaner") in the coral-ciliate-Symbiodinium triangular relationship...
  38. Agatha S. Global diversity of aloricate Oligotrichea (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotricha) in marine and brackish sea water. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22466 pubmed publisher
    ..The huge challenge to discover all these species can only be managed by combining the expertises of morphological taxonomists, molecular biologists, ecologists, and physiologists. ..
  39. Sogame Y, Kojima K, Takeshita T, Kinoshita E, Matsuoka T. EF-1? and mitochondrial ATP synthase ? chain: alteration of their expression in encystment-induced Colpoda cucullus. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2012;59:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that p50 is mitochondrial ATP synthase ? chains, and that p49 is elongation factor 1?...
  40. Shao C, Gao F, Hu X, Al Rasheid K, Warren A. Ontogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new marine urostylid ciliate, Anteholosticha petzi n. sp. (Ciliophora, Urostylida). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:254-65 pubmed publisher
    ..39% to 8.62%. Phylogenetic trees based on the SSU rRNA gene sequence were constructed, indicating the nonmonophyly of the genus Anteholosticha, as supported by the approximately unbiased test...
  41. Omar A, Foissner W. Description of Leptopharynx brasiliensis nov. spec. and Leptopharynx costatus gonohymen nov. subspec. (Ciliophora, Microthoracida). Eur J Protistol. 2012;48:30-47 pubmed publisher
    ..As yet, we know four morphs of L. costatus that differ by body size (small vs. large), the oral basket (narrow vs. wide), membranelle 1 (present vs. absent), and the arrangement of the membranelles (flat vs. angled)...
  42. Dunthorn M, Foissner W, Katz L. Expanding character sampling for ciliate phylogenetic inference using mitochondrial SSU-rDNA as a molecular marker. Protist. 2011;162:85-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstration of the efficacy of the mtSSU-rDNA will enable phylogenetic reconstructions of deep nodes in the ciliate tree of life to move from a single-locus to a multi-locus approach...
  43. Vdačný P, Orsi W, Bourland W, Shimano S, Epstein S, Foissner W. Morphological and molecular phylogeny of dileptid and tracheliid ciliates: resolution at the base of the class Litostomatea (Ciliophora, Rhynchostomatia). Eur J Protistol. 2011;47:295-313 pubmed publisher
    ..The Trichostomatia originated from a microaerophylic haptorian by further simplification of the oral ciliature, possibly due to an endosymbiotic lifestyle...
  44. Quintela Alonso P, Nitsche F, Arndt H. Molecular characterization and revised systematics of Microdiaphanosoma arcuatum (Ciliophora, Colpodea). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..arcuatum within the order Cyrtolophosidida instead of the order Bryometopida. The analysis also suggested a sister relationship between this species and species from the family Cyrtolophosididae...
  45. Gao S, Huang J, Li J, Song W. Molecular phylogeny of the cyrtophorid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33198 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, three group I introns of SS rRNA gene were discovered in Aegyriana oliva, among which Aol.S516 is the first IE group intron reported in ciliates...
  46. Fokin S. Frequency and biodiversity of symbionts in representatives of the main classes of Ciliophora. Eur J Protistol. 2012;48:138-48 pubmed publisher
    Representatives of all classes of Ciliophora have been studied for the detection and investigation of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic (not algal) endo- (EnS) and ectosymbionts (EcS)...
  47. Shen Z, Yi Z, Warren A. The morphology, ontogeny, and small subunit rRNA gene sequence analysis of Diophrys parappendiculata n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Euplotida), a new marine ciliate from coastal waters of southern China. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:242-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e. structural similarity was 99.94%). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that D. parappendiculata n. sp. falls into the Diophrys clade and is most closely related to the well-known D. appendiculata...
  48. Limberger R, Wickham S. Predator dispersal determines the effect of connectivity on prey diversity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29071 pubmed publisher
    ..When connections enable the spread of a generalist predator, positive effects of connectivity on prey species richness are outweighed by regional extinctions through predation. ..
  49. Miao M, Shao C, Chen X, Song W. Evolution of discocephalid ciliates: molecular, morphological and ontogenetic data support a sister group of discocephalids and pseudoamphisiellids (Protozoa, Ciliophora) with establishment of a new suborder Pseudoamphisiellina subord. n. Sci China Life Sci. 2011;54:634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The validity of the suborder Pseudoamphisiellina is firmly supported by molecular data...
  50. Lee E, Kim K. Identification of differentially expressed genes in parasitic phase Miamiensis avidus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatia) using suppression subtractive hybridization. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;94:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..avidus. The differential gene expression may be needed for the ciliates to survive in the host fish, and the corresponding proteins might be used as antigen candidates for development of scuticociliatosis vaccines...
  51. Lobban C, Raymundo L, Montagnes D. Porpostoma guamensis n. sp., a philasterine scuticociliate associated with brown-band disease of corals. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Cysts formed around daughter cells within cysts. We provide some observations on the complex division pattern of the ciliate (i.e. tomont-trophont-cyst) and propose a possible complete pattern that requires further validation...
  52. Chen X, Hu X, Gong J, Al Rasheid K, Al Farraj S, Song W. Morphology and infraciliature of two new marine ciliates, Paracyrtophoron tropicum nov. gen., nov. spec. and Aegyria rostellum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Cyrtophorida), isolated from tropical waters in southern China. Eur J Protistol. 2012;48:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, two new combinations were proposed...
  53. Foissner W, Wolf K, Yashchenko V, Stoeck T. Description of Leptopharynx bromelicola n. sp. and characterization of the genus Leptopharynx Mermod, 1914 (Protista, Ciliophora). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:134-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptopharynx forms thin-walled, non-kinetosome-resorbing resting cysts maintaining most of the trophic organelles...
  54. Paiva T, Borges B, da Silva Neto I, Harada M. Morphology and 18S rDNA phylogeny of Hemicycliostyla sphagni (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Brazil with redefinition of the genus Hemicycliostyla. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:229-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rDNA marker unambiguously placed H. sphagni as sister group of Pseudourostyla franzi Foissner, 1987, which is herein transferred to Hemicycliostyla as Hemicycliostyla franzi comb. nov...
  55. Ntougias S, Tanasidis S, Melidis P. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor. J Hazard Mater. 2011;186:1862-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0...
  56. Kittelmann S, Janssen P. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011;75:468-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand...
  57. Li L, Thorsten S, Kyoon S, Al Rasheid Khaled A, Al Khedhairy Bdulaziz A, Song W. Protocruzia, a highly ambiguous ciliate (Protozoa; Ciliophora): very likely an ancestral form for Heterotrichea, Colpodea or Spirotrichea? With reevaluation of its evolutionary position based on multigene analyses. Sci China Life Sci. 2010;53:131-138 pubmed publisher
  58. Chen X, Shao C, Lin X, Clamp J, Song W. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of two new brackish-water species of Amphisiella (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia), with notes on morphogenesis. Eur J Protistol. 2013;49:453-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results further demonstrate that two isolates identified as Amphisiella annulata (DQ832260 and GU170843) are very likely cryptic species, and a sequence identified as A. milnei (DQ845293) may belong to a genus other than Amphisiella...
  59. Doherty M, Tamura M, Vriezen J, McManus G, Katz L. Diversity of oligotrichia and choreotrichia ciliates in coastal marine sediments and in overlying plankton. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:3924-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Clustering of phylogenetic types indicates that benthic assemblages of oligotrichs and choreotrichs appear to be more like those from spatially remote benthic communities than the ciliate communities sampled in the water above them...
  60. Behnke A, Barger K, Bunge J, Stoeck T. Spatio-temporal variations in protistan communities along an O/HS gradient in the anoxic Framvaren Fjord (Norway). FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2010;72:89-102 pubmed publisher