theileria annulata

Summary

Summary: A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.

Top Publications

  1. Shiels B, Langsley G, Weir W, Pain A, McKellar S, Dobbelaere D. Alteration of host cell phenotype by Theileria annulata and Theileria parva: mining for manipulators in the parasite genomes. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:9-21 pubmed
    The apicomplexan parasites Theileria annulata and Theileria parva cause severe lymphoproliferative disorders in cattle...
  2. Ahmed J, Schnittger L, Mehlhorn H. Review: Theileria schizonts induce fundamental alterations in their host cells. Parasitol Res. 1999;85:527-38 pubmed
    The sporozoites of Theileria annulata and T. parva invade bovine leukocytes, where they differentiate into schizonts. The latter can immortalize and induce fundamental changes in their host cells. T...
  3. Katzer F, McKellar S, Ben Miled L, D Oliveira C, Shiels B. Selection for antigenic diversity of Tams1, the major merozoite antigen of Theileria annulata. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;849:96-108 pubmed
    Tams1, the major merozoite/piroplasm surface antigen of Theileria annulata has the potential to be a component of a diagnostic ELISA test and be included in a recombinant subunit vaccine...
  4. Glass E, Crutchley S, Jensen K. Living with the enemy or uninvited guests: functional genomics approaches to investigating host resistance or tolerance traits to a protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata, in cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;148:178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..at risk from one of the most debilitating tick-borne diseases of cattle, caused by the protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata. The parasite mainly infects cells of the myeloid lineage which are also the main producers of inflammatory ..
  5. Almeria S, Castella J, Ferrer D, Ortuño A, Estrada Pena A, Gutierrez J. Bovine piroplasms in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain): a comparison of PCR-based and light microscopy detection. Vet Parasitol. 2001;99:249-59 pubmed
    ..and of those, 41.3% were positive for the presence of Theileria annulata. These results indicate that the prevalence of Mediterranean theileriosis caused by T...
  6. Dobbelaere D, Heussler V. Transformation of leukocytes by Theileria parva and T. annulata. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1999;53:1-42 pubmed
    ..This, in turn, leads to the activation of transcription factors, including nuclear factor-kappa B, which appear to be essential for the survival of Theileria-transformed T cells...
  7. Weir W, Ben Miled L, Karagenc T, Katzer F, Darghouth M, Shiels B, et al. Genetic exchange and sub-structuring in Theileria annulata populations. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;154:170-80 pubmed
    Tropical theileriosis, caused by the tick-transmitted protozoan Theileria annulata, is a major disease of cattle in many regions of the developing world...
  8. Manuja A, Malhotra D, Sikka V, Sangwan A, Sharma R, Kumar B, et al. Isolates of Theileria annulata collected from different parts of India show phenotypic and genetic diversity. Vet Parasitol. 2006;137:242-52 pubmed
    Phenotypic and genetic polymorphism was studied amongst four Theileria annulata isolates collected from three different parts of India...
  9. Oura C, McKellar S, Swan D, Okan E, Shiels B. Infection of bovine cells by the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata modulates expression of the ISGylation system. Cell Microbiol. 2006;8:276-88 pubmed
    The apicomplexan parasite, Theileria annulata, dedifferentiates and induces continuous division of infected bovine myeloid cells...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Weir W, Sunter J, Chaussepied M, Skilton R, Tait A, de Villiers E, et al. Highly syntenic and yet divergent: a tale of two Theilerias. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Species-specific expansion and diversification at this critical locus is discussed with reference to the availability, in the near future, of genomic datasets which are based on non-transforming Theileria species...
  2. Bakheit M, Latif A. The innate resistance of Kenana cattle to tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) in the Sudan. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;969:159-63 pubmed
    ..assess the innate resistance of the indigenous Kenana breed of cattle in the Sudan to tropical theileriosis, Theileria annulata infection of cattle...
  3. Shkap V, Frank M, Fish L, Pipano E. Theileria annulata: in vitro cultivation of schizont-infected bovine lymphocytes. Vet Parasitol. 1996;65:11-20 pubmed
    Experimental parameters of optimization of the in vitro growth conditions for Theileria annulata schizont-infected bovine lymphoid cells are presented...
  4. Glass E, Preston P, Springbett A, Craigmile S, Kirvar E, Wilkie G, et al. Bos taurus and Bos indicus (Sahiwal) calves respond differently to infection with Theileria annulata and produce markedly different levels of acute phase proteins. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:337-47 pubmed
    ..more resistant than European Bos taurus (Holstein) dairy breed calves to tick-borne tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection). Following experimental infection with T...
  5. Bilgic H, Karagenc T, Shiels B, Tait A, Eren H, Weir W. Evaluation of cytochrome b as a sensitive target for PCR based detection of T. annulata carrier animals. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:341-7 pubmed publisher
    Bovine tropical theileriosis, caused by the tick-borne protozoan Theileria annulata, imposes a serious constraint upon breed improvement programmes and livestock production in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world...
  6. Ros García A, Nicolàs A, Garcia Perez A, Juste R, Hurtado A. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of Theileria annulata in cattle. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:171 pubmed publisher
    The tick-borne apicomplexan bovine parasite Theileria annulata is endemic in many tropical and temperate areas, including Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)...
  7. Preston P, Darghouth M, Boulter N, Hall F, Tall R, Kirvar E, et al. A dual role for immunosuppressor mechanisms in infection with Theileria annulata: well-regulated suppressor macrophages help in recovery from infection; profound immunosuppression promotes non-healing disease. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:522-34 pubmed
    ..in the pathogenesis of many parasitic infections, including infections with the tick-borne protozoan Theileria annulata. The initial stages of tropical theileriosis are characterised by the induction of a non-specific ..
  8. Aysul N, Karagenc T, Eren H, Aypak S, Bakirci S. [Prevalence of tropical theileriosis in cattle in the Aydin Region and determination of efficacy of attenuated Theileria annulata vaccine]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32:322-7 pubmed
    ..of tropical theileriosis in the Aydin region and to determine immune status of cattle vaccinated with Theileria annulata schizont vaccine using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) during and after the disease season...
  9. Heussler V, Küenzi P, Fraga F, Schwab R, Hemmings B, Dobbelaere D. The Akt/PKB pathway is constitutively activated in Theileria-transformed leucocytes, but does not directly control constitutive NF-kappaB activation. Cell Microbiol. 2001;3:537-50 pubmed
    The intracellular protozoan parasites Theileria parva and Theileria annulata transform leucocytes by interfering with host cell signal transduction pathways...
  10. Biermann R, Schnittger L, Beyer D, Ahmed J. Initiation of translation and cellular localization of Theileria annulata casein kinase IIalpha: implication for its role in host cell transformation. J Cell Physiol. 2003;196:444-53 pubmed
    b>Theileria annulata and T. parva are protozoa that infect bovine leukocytes which leads to subsequent transformation and uncontrolled proliferation of these cells. It has been proposed that the CKIIalpha subunit of T...
  11. Sayin F, Dincer S, Karaer Z, Cakmak A, Inci A, Yukari B, et al. Studies on the epidemiology of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) in cattle in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2003;35:521-39 pubmed
    An epidemiological survey for Theileria annulata infection was conducted in 12 selected villages around Ankara in Central Anatolia, Turkey, during the period April 1990 to January 1993...
  12. Katzer F, McKellar S, Ferguson M, d Oliveira C, Shiels B. A role for tertiary structure in the generation of antigenic diversity and molecular association of the Tams1 polypeptide in Theileria annulata. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;122:55-67 pubmed
    The major merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen (mMPSA) of Theileria annulata, Tams1, is known to be antigenically diverse...
  13. Aktas M, Dumanli N, Cetinkaya B, Cakmak A. Field evaluation of PCR in detecting Theileria annulata infection in cattle in eastern Turkey. Vet Rec. 2002;150:548-9 pubmed
  14. Gubbels M, Katzer F, Shiels B, Jongejan F. Study of Theileria annulata population structure during bovine infection and following transmission to ticks. Parasitology. 2001;123:553-61 pubmed
    Tams1 is the polymorphic immunodominant merozoite-piroplasm surface protein of Theileria annulata. Evidence for selection of divergent forms of Tams1 has been obtained recently...
  15. Jensen K, Paxton E, Waddington D, Talbot R, Darghouth M, Glass E. Differences in the transcriptional responses induced by Theileria annulata infection in bovine monocytes derived from resistant and susceptible cattle breeds. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:313-25 pubmed
    ..theileriosis is a cattle disease of global economic importance, caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. Conventional control strategies are failing to contain the disease and an attractive alternative is the use ..
  16. McKeever D. Bovine immunity - a driver for diversity in Theileria parasites?. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:269-76 pubmed publisher
    Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are tick-borne parasites of cattle that infect and transform leukocytes, causing severe and often fatal parasitic leukoses. Both species provoke strong immunity against subsequent infection...
  17. Gubbels M, Katzer F, Hide G, Jongejan F, Shiels B. Generation of a mosaic pattern of diversity in the major merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen of Theileria annulata. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000;110:23-32 pubmed
    ..The polypeptide Tams1 is an immunodominant major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen of the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. Generation and selection of divergent antigenic types has implications for the inclusion of the Tams1 ..
  18. Baumgartner M. Theileria annulata promotes Src kinase-dependent host cell polarization by manipulating actin dynamics in podosomes and lamellipodia. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:538-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Theileria annulata is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects B cells and macrophages of ruminants. Macrophages infected with T. annulata are de-differentiated and display tumour cell properties and a metastatic behaviour...
  19. Preston P, Hall F, Glass E, Campbell J, Darghouth M, Ahmed J, et al. Innate and adaptive immune responses co-operate to protect cattle against Theileria annulata. Parasitol Today. 1999;15:268-74 pubmed
    For many years it was assumed that Theileria annulata resembled T. parva, parasitizing lymphocytes and causing lymphoproliferative disease, with the two species being controlled by similar protective immune responses...
  20. Bilgic H, Karagenc T, Simuunza M, Shiels B, Tait A, Eren H, et al. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle. Exp Parasitol. 2013;133:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study describes development and evaluation of multiplex and single PCR assays for simultaneous detection of Theileria annulata, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale in cattle...
  21. Ghosh S, Azhahianambi P. Laboratory rearing of Theileria annulata-free Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks. Exp Appl Acarol. 2007;43:137-46 pubmed
    Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum is a three-host tick which transmits Theileria annulata infection in Indian cattle...
  22. Ma M, Baumgartner M. Filopodia and membrane blebs drive efficient matrix invasion of macrophages transformed by the intracellular parasite Theileria annulata. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75577 pubmed publisher
    ..We used macrophages infected with the intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria annulata, which causes Tropical Theileriosis in susceptible ruminants such as domestic cattle. T...
  23. Mhadhbi M, Naouach A, Boumiza A, Chaabani M, BenAbderazzak S, Darghouth M. In vivo evidence for the resistance of Theileria annulata to buparvaquone. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..post-buparvaquone treatment, showed an absence of the usual effect of buparvaquone treatment on the parasite Theileria annulata, such as the rapid decline of schizont index and parasitaemia and a rapid recovery from the disease...
  24. Pain A, Renauld H, Berriman M, Murphy L, Yeats C, Weir W, et al. Genome of the host-cell transforming parasite Theileria annulata compared with T. parva. Science. 2005;309:131-3 pubmed
    b>Theileria annulata and T. parva are closely related protozoan parasites that cause lymphoproliferative diseases of cattle. We sequenced the genome of T. annulata and compared it with that of T...
  25. Durrani Z, Weir W, Pillai S, Kinnaird J, Shiels B. Modulation of activation-associated host cell gene expression by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1434-54 pubmed publisher
    Infection of bovine leucocytes by Theileria annulata results in establishment of transformed, infected cells...
  26. Witschi M, Xia D, Sanderson S, Baumgartner M, Wastling J, Dobbelaere D. Proteomic analysis of the Theileria annulata schizont. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:173-80 pubmed publisher
    The apicomplexan parasite, Theileria annulata, is the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, a devastating lymphoproliferative disease of cattle...
  27. Dumanli N, Aktas M, Cetinkaya B, Cakmak A, Koroglu E, Saki C, et al. Prevalence and distribution of tropical theileriosis in eastern Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2005;127:9-15 pubmed
    ..b>Theileria annulata piroplasm DNA extracted from cattle blood was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-..
  28. Shiels B, McKellar S, Katzer F, Lyons K, Kinnaird J, Ward C, et al. A Theileria annulata DNA binding protein localized to the host cell nucleus alters the phenotype of a bovine macrophage cell line. Eukaryot Cell. 2004;3:495-505 pubmed
    The apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata is the only intracellular eukaryote that is known to induce the proliferation of mammalian cells...
  29. Campbel J, Spooner R. Macrophages behaving badly: infected cells and subversion of immune responses to Theileria annulata. Parasitol Today. 1999;15:10-6 pubmed
    The protozoan parasite Theileria annulata is the causative agent of the tick-borne disease tropical theileriosis, responsible for morbidity and mortality of cattle in many developing countries...
  30. Adamson R, Logan M, Kinnaird J, Langsley G, Hall R. Loss of matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity in Theileria annulata-attenuated cells is at the transcriptional level and is associated with differentially expressed AP-1 species. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000;106:51-61 pubmed
    The schizont stage of the protozoan parasite Theileria annulata reversibly transforms bovine monocytes into an immortalised and metastatic state. We have been studying T...
  31. Martin Sanchez J, Viseras J, Adroher F, Garcia Fernandez P. Nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of Theileria annulata and comparison with conventional diagnostic techniques: its use in epidemiology studies. Parasitol Res. 1999;85:243-5 pubmed
    In this work we studied the ability of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of Mediterranean theileriosis, in blood samples obtained from cattle on farms in different Spanish regions ..
  32. Singh S, Khatri N, Manuja A, Sharma R, Malhotra D, Nichani A. Impact of field vaccination with a Theileria annulata schizont cell culture vaccine on the epidemiology of tropical theileriosis. Vet Parasitol. 2001;101:91-100 pubmed
    Tropical theileriosis, caused by Theileria annulata, is an important tick-borne disease of cattle...
  33. Swan D, Stern R, McKellar S, Phillips K, Oura C, Karagenc T, et al. Characterisation of a cluster of genes encoding Theileria annulata AT hook DNA-binding proteins and evidence for localisation to the host cell nucleus. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:2747-54 pubmed
    Infection of bovine leukocytes by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata results in alteration of host cell gene expression and stimulation of host cell proliferation...
  34. Guergnon J, Dessauge F, Traincard F, Cayla X, Rebollo A, Bost P, et al. A PKA survival pathway inhibited by DPT-PKI, a new specific cell permeable PKA inhibitor, is induced by T. annulata in parasitized B-lymphocytes. Apoptosis. 2006;11:1263-73 pubmed
    ..annulata-infected B cells from apoptosis. These results also indicate that DPT-PKI could be a powerful tool to inhibit PKA pathways in other cell types...
  35. Gharbi M, Sassi L, Dorchies P, Darghouth M. Infection of calves with Theileria annulata in Tunisia: Economic analysis and evaluation of the potential benefit of vaccination. Vet Parasitol. 2006;137:231-41 pubmed
    ..into four groups: non infected animals, diseased animals with clinical tropical theileriosis, sub-clinical Theileria annulata infected animals with anaemia and sub-clinical T. annulata infected animals without anaemia...
  36. Khan M, He L, Hussain A, Azam S, Zhang W, Wang L, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Theileria annulata and identification of 18S rRNA gene and ITS regions sequences variants in apparently healthy buffaloes and cattle in Pakistan. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;13:124-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study may address the new insights into the epidemiology of theileriosis which will help researches in designing control strategies and developing various molecular diagnostic tools at national level...
  37. Sharifiyazdi H, Namazi F, Oryan A, Shahriari R, Razavi M. Point mutations in the Theileria annulata cytochrome b gene is associated with buparvaquone treatment failure. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:431-5 pubmed publisher
    ..punctures were positive and further molecular examination revealed that these animals were infected with Theileria annulata. Death occurred in seven of the eight infected animals in spite of the buparvaquone treatment...
  38. Salih D, Ahmed J, Bakheit M, Ali E, El Hussein A, Hassan S, et al. Validation of the indirect TaSP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection in cattle. Parasitol Res. 2005;97:302-8 pubmed
    An ELISA based on a recombinant Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP) was evaluated for detection of antibodies in sera from cattle exposed to tropical theileriosis in Sudan...
  39. Schmuckli Maurer J, Shiels B, Dobbelaere D. Stochastic induction of Theileria annulata merogony in vitro by chloramphenicol. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1705-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Theileria annulata inhabits the cytoplasm of bovine leukocytes where it can be found as a multinucleated schizont...
  40. MacHugh N, Weir W, Burrells A, Lizundia R, Graham S, Taracha E, et al. Extensive polymorphism and evidence of immune selection in a highly dominant antigen recognized by bovine CD8 T cells specific for Theileria annulata. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2059-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata infects leukocytes and causes an acute, often fatal lymphoproliferative disease in cattle...
  41. Weir W, Karagenc T, Gharbi M, Simuunza M, Aypak S, Aysul N, et al. Population diversity and multiplicity of infection in Theileria annulata. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:193-203 pubmed publisher
    The tick-borne apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata is endemic in many sub-tropical countries and causes the bovine disease tropical theileriosis...
  42. Adamson R, Lyons K, Sharrard M, Kinnaird J, Swan D, Graham S, et al. Transient transfection of Theileria annulata. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2001;114:53-61 pubmed
    We have developed a method to transiently transfect infective, uninucleate, Theileria annulata sporozoites. Transfection vectors have been constructed using a number of T...
  43. Aktas M, Dumanli N, Angin M. Cattle infestation by Hyalomma ticks and prevalence of Theileria in Hyalomma species in the east of Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2004;119:1-8 pubmed
    ..detritum, respectively. In H.a. anatolicum collected from shelters, the above rates were 11.8 and 17.6 in male and female ticks, respectively. The prevalence and intensity of Theileria infection was greater in female ticks than in males...
  44. Branco S, Orvalho J, Leitão A, Pereira I, Malta M, Mariano I, et al. Fatal cases of Theileria annulata infection in calves in Portugal associated with neoplastic-like lymphoid cell proliferation. J Vet Sci. 2010;11:27-34 pubmed
  45. Kirvar E, Ilhan T, Katzer F, Hooshmand Rad P, Zweygarth E, Gerstenberg C, et al. Detection of Theileria annulata in cattle and vector ticks by PCR using the Tams1 gene sequences. Parasitology. 2000;120 ( Pt 3):245-54 pubmed
    A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization for the detection of Theileria annulata are described. The PCR used primers amplifying a 785 base-pair fragment of the T...
  46. Das G, Ghosh S, Ray D. Reduction of Theileria annulata infection in ticks fed on calves immunized with purified larval antigens of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2005;37:345-61 pubmed
    Larval antigen of Hyalonmma anatolicum anatolicum, the vector of Theileria annulata, was purified by two-step affinity chromatography using anti-tick gut-specific rabbit IgG and IgG from immunized cattle...
  47. Almeria S, Castella J, Ferrer D, Gutierrez J, Estrada Pena A, Sparagano O. Reverse line blot hybridization used to identify hemoprotozoa in Minorcan cattle. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;969:78-82 pubmed
    ..The oligonucleotides used were those for Theileria annulata, T. buffeli, T. taurotragi, T. velifera, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. divergens, and B. major...
  48. Bakheit M, Schnittger L, Salih D, Boguslawski K, Beyer D, Fadl M, et al. Application of the recombinant Theileria annulata surface protein in an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of tropical theileriosis. Parasitol Res. 2004;92:299-302 pubmed
    The recombinant surface protein of Theileria annulata (TaSP) was used in the standardization and validation of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating antibodies against tropical theileriosis...
  49. Schneider I, Haller D, Seitzer U, Beyer D, Ahmed J. Molecular genetic characterization and subcellular localization of a putative Theileria annulata membrane protein. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:405-15 pubmed
    A Theileria annulata protein (TaD) exhibiting an N-terminal signal sequence for endoplasmic reticulum membrane translocation and a conserved cysteine-rich region was isolated by screening the mRNA of a T...
  50. Shiels B. Should I stay or should I go now? A stochastic model of stage differentiation in Theileria annulata. Parasitol Today. 1999;15:241-5 pubmed
    ..In this article, Brian Shiels suggests that for differentiation to the merozoite in Theileria annulata the process is predetermined by the parasite, but can be initiated and modulated by changes to the ..
  51. Schnittger L, Katzer F, Biermann R, Shayan P, Boguslawski K, McKellar S, et al. Characterization of a polymorphic Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP) closely related to PIM of Theileria parva: implications for use in diagnostic tests and subunit vaccines. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;120:247-56 pubmed
    b>Theileria annulata is a tick-transmitted protozoan that causes tropical theileriosis, an often fatal leukoproliferative disorder of cattle...
  52. D Oliveira C, van der Weide M, Jacquiet P, Jongejan F. Detection of Theileria annulata by the PCR in ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) collected from cattle in Mauritania. Exp Appl Acarol. 1997;21:279-91 pubmed
    We report on the detection of Theileria annulata in infected Hyalomma ticks by the PCR using primers derived from the gene encoding the 30 kDa major merozoite surface antigen (TamsI-1)...
  53. Swan D, Phillips K, Tait A, Shiels B. Evidence for localisation of a Theileria parasite AT hook DNA-binding protein to the nucleus of immortalised bovine host cells. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1999;101:117-29 pubmed
    Immortalisation of bovine leukocytes by the macroschizont stage of the tick transmitted protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata, results in the clonal expansion of infected cells and dissemination throughout the bovine host...
  54. Spitalska E, Torina A, Cannella V, Caracappa S, Sparagano O. Discrimination between Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in their vectors and hosts by RFLP based on the 18S rRNA gene. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:318-20 pubmed
    ..However, we developed a species-specific RFLP test based on the MspI restriction enzyme, able to cut amplified products from T. lestoquardi only and to discriminate the two species in both tick and blood samples...
  55. McGuire K, Manuja A, Russell G, Springbett A, Craigmile S, Nichani A, et al. Quantitative analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in Theileria annulata-infected cell lines derived from resistant and susceptible cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;99:87-98 pubmed
    The pathogenic mechanisms involved in tropical theileriosis, caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata, are unclear...
  56. Renneker S, Kullmann B, Gerber S, Dobschanski J, Bakheit M, Geysen D, et al. Development of a competitive ELISA for detection of Theileria annulata infection. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:249-56 pubmed publisher
    In previous studies, Theileria annulata surface protein (TaSP) was identified as an immunodominant antigen and successfully used to develop and validate a recombinant-protein-based ELISA for the detection of circulating antibodies in ..
  57. Mohammad Al Saeed A, Omer L, Abdo J, Habibi G, Salih D, Seitzer U, et al. Epidemiological studies on tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection of cattle) in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:403-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The implication of the results in the epidemiology of tropical theileriosis in the region is discussed with emphasis on comparisons between the two tests used and recommendations for the future work are outlined...
  58. Glass E. The balance between protective immunity and pathogenesis in tropical theileriosis: what we need to know to design effective vaccines for the future. Res Vet Sci. 2001;70:71-5 pubmed
    The tick-borne protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata, causes an overwhelming disease in Friesian cattle, imported to improve productivity, in a large area of the world...
  59. Weir W, Karagenc T, Baird M, Tait A, Shiels B. Evolution and diversity of secretome genes in the apicomplexan parasite Theileria annulata. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about how apicomplexan parasites have evolved to infect different host species and cell types. Theileria annulata and Theileria parva invade and transform bovine leukocytes but each species favours a different host cell ..
  60. MacHugh N, Burrells A, Morrison W. Demonstration of strain-specific CD8 T cell responses to Theileria annulata. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..CD8 T cell response at the clonal level in a group of eight animals immunized with a cloned population of Theileria annulata. The results demonstrated that immunized animals generated parasite-specific CD8 T cells that produced IFN ..
  61. Schmuckli Maurer J, Kinnaird J, Pillai S, Hermann P, McKellar S, Weir W, et al. Modulation of NF-kappaB activation in Theileria annulata-infected cloned cell lines is associated with detection of parasite-dependent IKK signalosomes and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:158-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this influence, it appears that the primary event required for formation of the parasite-dependent IKK signalosome is likely to be an interaction between a signalosome component and a parasite-encoded surface ligand...
  62. Xue G, von Schubert C, Hermann P, Peyer M, Maushagen R, Schmuckli Maurer J, et al. Characterisation of gp34, a GPI-anchored protein expressed by schizonts of Theileria parva and T. annulata. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;172:113-20 pubmed publisher
    Using bioinformatics tools, we searched the predicted Theileria annulata and T. parva proteomes for putative schizont surface proteins...
  63. Glass E, Craigmile S, Springbett A, Preston P, Kirvar E, Wilkie G, et al. The protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata, induces a distinct acute phase protein response in cattle that is associated with pathology. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1409-18 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that the tick-borne protozoan parasite of cattle, Theileria annulata, induced an atypical acute phase response in cattle...
  64. Graham S, Brown D, Vatansever Z, Waddington D, Taylor L, Nichani A, et al. Proinflammatory cytokine expression by Theileria annulata infected cell lines correlates with the pathology they cause in vivo. Vaccine. 2001;19:2932-44 pubmed
    Control of Theileria annulata is currently best achieved by the use of live attenuated cell line vaccines...
  65. Schneider I, Haller D, Kullmann B, Beyer D, Ahmed J, Seitzer U. Identification, molecular characterization and subcellular localization of a Theileria annulata parasite protein secreted into the host cell cytoplasm. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:1471-82 pubmed
    ..In this study, we describe a highly conserved novel 37 kD Theileria annulata protein (TaSE)...
  66. Seitzer U, Beyer D, Kullmann B, Bakheit M, Ahmed J. Evaluation of Theileria annulata recombinant immunodominant proteins for the development of ELISA. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:244-8 pubmed publisher
    A number of Theileria annulata genes have been cloned, sequenced and expressed, including TaSP, TaD, TaSE and TamtHSP70...
  67. Baylis H, Megson A, Hall R. Infection with Theileria annulata induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transcription factor AP-1 in bovine leucocytes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1995;69:211-22 pubmed
    b>Theileria annulata infects bovine leucocytes and results in their reversible transformation such that they become immortalised and metastatic...
  68. Taylor L, Welburn S, Woolhouse M. Theileria annulata: virulence and transmission from single and mixed clone infections in cattle. Exp Parasitol. 2002;100:186-95 pubmed
    ..Virulence should also be positively correlated to transmission rates. Theileria annulata provides a good model system for studying such hypotheses, as parasite replication causes harm to the host, ..
  69. Leemans I, Brown D, Hooshmand Rad P, Kirvar E, Uggla A. Infectivity and cross-immunity studies of Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in sheep and cattle: I. In vivo responses. Vet Parasitol. 1999;82:179-92 pubmed
    ..lestoquardi, resulting in the establishment of schizonts and their subsequent development into piroplasms, although it protected against the major clinical effects of T. lestoquardi infection...
  70. Asri Rezaei S, Dalir Naghadeh B. Evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in cattle naturally infected with Theileria annulata. Vet Parasitol. 2006;142:179-86 pubmed
    To assess the antioxidant status and oxidative stress in bovine theileriosis due to Theileria annulata blood samples were collected from 35 clinically affected cattle referred to Veterinary Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine,..
  71. Shiels B, Fox M, McKellar S, Kinnaird J, Swan D. An upstream element of the TamS1 gene is a site of DNA-protein interactions during differentiation to the merozoite in Theileria annulata. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 12):2243-52 pubmed
    ..Studies carried out on Theileria annulata, a bovine apicomplexan parasite, have provided evidence that a stochastic process controls differentiation ..
  72. Seitzer U, Gerber S, Beyer D, Dobschanski J, Kullmann B, Haller D, et al. Schizonts of Theileria annulata interact with the microtubuli network of their host cell via the membrane protein TaSP. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:1085-102 pubmed publisher
    ..for this interaction is largely unknown, we investigated the possible involvement of the immunodominant Theileria annulata surface protein, TaSP, in the attachment of the parasite to host cell microtubule network...