babesia bovis

Summary

Summary: A species of protozoa that is a cause of bovine babesiosis. Ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus, and IXODES are the chief vectors.

Top Publications

  1. Altangerel K, Sivakumar T, Battsetseg B, Battur B, Ueno A, Igarashi I, et al. Phylogenetic relationships of Mongolian Babesia bovis isolates based on the merozoite surface antigen (MSA)-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:309-16 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a molecular epidemiological study on Babesia bovis in Mongolia...
  2. Figueroa J, Chieves L, Johnson G, Buening G. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction based assay for the detection of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale DNA in bovine blood. Vet Parasitol. 1993;50:69-81 pubmed
    ..bovis and A. marginale, respectively. Blood collected from cattle previously inoculated with B. bovis (4 years), A. marginale (2 years) and B. bigemina (1 year) was demonstrated to be latently infected by using the Multiplex PCR test...
  3. Mazuz M, Molad T, Fish L, Leibovitz B, Wolkomirsky R, Fleiderovitz L, et al. Genetic diversity of Babesia bovis in virulent and attenuated strains. Parasitology. 2012;139:317-23 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to compare the genetic diversity of the single copy Bv80 gene sequences of Babesia bovis in populations of attenuated and virulent parasites...
  4. Lau A, Pedroni M, Bhanot P. Target specific-trisubstituted pyrrole inhibits Babesia bovis erythrocytic growth. Exp Parasitol. 2013;133:365-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that a trisubstituted pyrrole is a potent inhibitor of Babesia bovis, a bovine parasite. Furthermore, B...
  5. Gray J. Identity of the causal agents of human babesiosis in Europe. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:131-6 pubmed
    ..Comparative biology should support genetic data in taxonomic studies of both B. divergens and B. microti. ..
  6. Goff W, Johnson W, Parish S, Barrington G, Tuo W, Valdez R. The age-related immunity in cattle to Babesia bovis infection involves the rapid induction of interleukin-12, interferon-gamma and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in the spleen. Parasite Immunol. 2001;23:463-71 pubmed
    Young calves possess a strong innate immunity against Babesia bovis infection that lasts for approximately 6 months after birth and is abrogated with the removal of the spleen...
  7. Ramos C, Araújo F, Souza I, Bacanelli G, Luiz H, Russi L, et al. Real-time polymerase chain reaction based on msa2c gene for detection of Babesia bovis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction (q-PCR) based on the msa2c gene and standardized with Platinum SYBR Green/ROX for the detection of Babesia bovis in cattle. The msa2c q-PCR amplified a DNA fragment with average dissociation temperature of 77.41°C (± 0...
  8. Goff W, Storset A, Johnson W, Brown W. Bovine splenic NK cells synthesize IFN-gamma in response to IL-12-containing supernatants from Babesia bovis-exposed monocyte cultures. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:221-8 pubmed
    ..Young calves demonstrate a strong spleen-dependent innate response to an initial infection with Babesia bovis involving the type-1 regulating cytokines IL-12 and IFN-gamma...
  9. Gaffar F, Yatsuda A, Franssen F, de Vries E. A Babesia bovis merozoite protein with a domain architecture highly similar to the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) present in Plasmodium sporozoites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;136:25-34 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a Babesia bovis TRAP homologue (BbTRAP)...

More Information

Publications88

  1. De Waal D, Combrink M. Live vaccines against bovine babesiosis. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:88-96 pubmed
    Bovine babesiosis is an important tick-borne disease caused by Babesia bovis, B. bigemina and B. divergens...
  2. Gaffar F, Yatsuda A, Franssen F, de Vries E. Erythrocyte invasion by Babesia bovis merozoites is inhibited by polyclonal antisera directed against peptides derived from a homologue of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1. Infect Immun. 2004;72:2947-55 pubmed
    ..Here we describe cloning and characterization of a Babesia bovis AMA-1 homologue designated BbAMA-1. The overall level of similarity of BbAMA-1 to P...
  3. Terkawi M, Huyen N, Wibowo P, Seuseu F, Aboulaila M, Ueno A, et al. Spherical body protein 4 is a new serological antigen for global detection of Babesia bovis infection in cattle. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:337-42 pubmed publisher
    Five Babesia bovis recombinant proteins, including merozoite surface antigen 2c (BbMSA-2c), C-terminal rhoptry-associated protein 1 (BbRAP-1/CT), truncated thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (BbTRAP-T), spherical body protein 1 (..
  4. Brown W, Norimine J, Knowles D, Goff W. Immune control of Babesia bovis infection. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:75-87 pubmed
    b>Babesia bovis causes an acute and often fatal infection in adult cattle, which if resolved, leads to a state of persistent infection in otherwise clinically healthy cattle...
  5. Cantu C A, Ortega S J, Garcia Vazquez Z, Mosqueda J, Henke S, George J. Epizootiology of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico. J Parasitol. 2009;95:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and the prevalence of antibodies to them and identify possible risk factors for bovine ..
  6. Almeria S, Castella J, Ferrer D, Ortuño A, Estrada Pena A, Gutierrez J. Bovine piroplasms in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain): a comparison of PCR-based and light microscopy detection. Vet Parasitol. 2001;99:249-59 pubmed
    ..0% of the studied animals were infected), while one animal (0.75%) was found to be infected by Babesia bovis. It was observed that 31% of animals infected with B. bigemina had a concurrent infection of T. annulata...
  7. Mosqueda J, McElwain T, Palmer G. Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 2 proteins are expressed on the merozoite and sporozoite surface, and specific antibodies inhibit attachment and invasion of erythrocytes. Infect Immun. 2002;70:6448-55 pubmed
    The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 2 (MSA-2) locus encodes four proteins, MSA-2a(1), -2a(2), -2b, and -2c...
  8. LeRoith T, Berens S, Brayton K, Hines S, Brown W, Norimine J, et al. The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 hypervariable region induces surface-reactive antibodies that block merozoite invasion. Infect Immun. 2006;74:3663-7 pubmed
    A hypervariable region (HVR) previously identified in the carboxy-terminal one-third of the Babesia bovis variable merozoite surface antigen family was more extensively analyzed in merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) from 16 strains and ..
  9. Cooke B, Mohandas N, Cowman A, Coppel R. Cellular adhesive phenomena in apicomplexan parasites of red blood cells. Vet Parasitol. 2005;132:273-95 pubmed
    ..that culminate in accumulation of parasitised red blood cells in the microvasculature of cattle infected with Babesia bovis (babesiosis) and humans infected with Plasmodium falciparum (falciparum malaria) is particularly instructive ..
  10. Berens S, Brayton K, McElwain T. Coinfection with antigenically and genetically distinct virulent strains of Babesia bovis is maintained through all phases of the parasite life cycle. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5769-76 pubmed
    Antigenic polymorphism is a defining characteristic of the Babesia bovis variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family. Sequence analysis strongly suggests that recombination between virulent strains contributes to VMSA diversity...
  11. Howell J, Ueti M, Palmer G, Scoles G, Knowles D. Persistently infected calves as reservoirs for acquisition and transovarial transmission of Babesia bovis by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3155-9 pubmed
    b>Babesia bovis is a deadly disease of cattle resulting in severe economic losses in the vast regions of the world where it is endemic...
  12. Zupańska A, Drummond P, Swetnam D, Al Khedery B, Allred D. Universal primers suitable to assess population dynamics reveal apparent mutually exclusive transcription of the Babesia bovis ves1alpha gene. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;166:47-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesia bovis is an intraerythrocytic hemoparasite of widespread distribution, which adversely affects livestock production in many regions of the world...
  13. Mtshali M, Mtshali P. Molecular diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis hemoparasites from cattle in South Africa. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:154 pubmed publisher
    Babesia parasites, mainly Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, are tick-borne hemoparasites inducing bovine babesiosis in cattle globally. The clinical signs of the disease include, among others, anemia, fever and hemoglobinuria...
  14. Schneider D, Yan H, Bastos R, Johnson W, Gavin P, Allen A, et al. Dynamics of bovine spleen cell populations during the acute response to Babesia bovis infection: an immunohistological study. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..was used to monitor the splenic distribution of defined cells during the acute response of naïve calves to Babesia bovis infection...
  15. Asada M, Goto Y, Yahata K, Yokoyama N, Kawai S, Inoue N, et al. Gliding motility of Babesia bovis merozoites visualized by time-lapse video microscopy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35227 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite that induces babesiosis in cattle after transmission by ticks...
  16. Suarez C, McElwain T. Transfection systems for Babesia bovis: a review of methods for the transient and stable expression of exogenous genes. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:205-15 pubmed publisher
    With the recently sequenced Babesia bovis genome, a large pool of genes with unknown function was identified...
  17. Allred D. Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis: how similar is it to that in Plasmodium falciparum?. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998;92:461-72 pubmed
    Despite significant differences in some aspects of their life-cycles, the Apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis and Plasmodium falciparum share many parallels...
  18. Xiao Y, Al Khedery B, Allred D. The Babesia bovis VESA1 virulence factor subunit 1b is encoded by the 1beta branch of the ves multigene family. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;171:81-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic parasite of cattle, establishes persistent infections of extreme duration...
  19. de Vries E, Corton C, Harris B, Cornelissen A, Berriman M. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of the erythrocytic stages of Babesia bovis. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:61-74 pubmed
    ..Here we analysed approximately 13,000 ESTs derived from the erythrocytic stage of the apicomplexan parasite Babesia bovis. The ESTs were clustered in order to obtain information on the expression level of a gene and to increase ..
  20. Lau A, Cereceres K, Palmer G, Fretwell D, Pedroni M, Mosqueda J, et al. Genotypic diversity of merozoite surface antigen 1 of Babesia bovis within an endemic population. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;172:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In Babesia bovis, genetic diversity of variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) genes has been associated with disease ..
  21. Buling A, Criado Fornelio A, Asenzo G, Benitez D, Barba Carretero J, Florin Christensen M. A quantitative PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Vet Parasitol. 2007;147:16-25 pubmed
    The haemoparasites Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina affect cattle over vast areas of the tropics and temperate parts of the world...
  22. Passos L, Bell Sakyi L, Brown C. Immunochemical characterization of in vitro culture-derived antigens of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. Vet Parasitol. 1998;76:239-49 pubmed
    Cross-reactivity between Babesia bovis and B. bigemina becomes a problem in discrimination of the two infections in endemic areas where the two species usually occur in association...
  23. Ferreri L, Brayton K, Sondgeroth K, Lau A, Suarez C, McElwain T. Expression and strain variation of the novel "small open reading frame" (smorf) multigene family in Babesia bovis. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:131-8 pubmed publisher
    Small open reading frame (smorf) genes comprise the second largest Babesia bovis multigene family...
  24. Goff W, Johnson W, Parish S, Barrington G, Elsasser T, Davis W, et al. IL-4 and IL-10 inhibition of IFN-gamma- and TNF-alpha-dependent nitric oxide production from bovine mononuclear phagocytes exposed to Babesia bovis merozoites. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002;84:237-51 pubmed
    The requirement for IFN-gamma and/or TNF-alpha as co-stimulants with Babesia bovis merozoites for nitric oxide (NO) production was examined, as well as the regulatory role of IL-4 and IL-10. Purified B...
  25. Allred D, Al Khedery B. Antigenic variation and cytoadhesion in Babesia bovis and Plasmodium falciparum: different logics achieve the same goal. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;134:27-35 pubmed
    b>Babesia bovis is a protozoal hemoparasite of cattle which behaves in certain crucial respects like Plasmodium falciparum, despite being phylogenetically distant and having many differences in its life cycle...
  26. Suarez C, McElwain T. Stable expression of a GFP-BSD fusion protein in Babesia bovis merozoites. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a plasmid was designed to target integration of a gfp-bsd gene into the Babesia bovis ef-1alpha locus...
  27. Gaffar F, Franssen F, de Vries E. Babesia bovis merozoites invade human, ovine, equine, porcine and caprine erythrocytes by a sialic acid-dependent mechanism followed by developmental arrest after a single round of cell fission. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1595-603 pubmed
    b>Babesia bovis infections have only been observed in bovine species in contrast to Babesia divergens that also can infect humans, sheep and rodents...
  28. Martins T, Pedro O, Caldeira R, Do Rosario V, Neves L, Domingos A. Detection of bovine babesiosis in Mozambique by a novel seminested hot-start PCR method. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present the detection of Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis in cattle from Mozambique using two distinct PCR methods...
  29. LeRoith T, Brayton K, Molloy J, Bock R, Hines S, Lew A, et al. Sequence variation and immunologic cross-reactivity among Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 proteins from vaccine strains and vaccine breakthrough isolates. Infect Immun. 2005;73:5388-94 pubmed
    The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) is an immunodominant membrane glycoprotein that is the target of invasion-blocking antibodies...
  30. Allred D, Carlton J, Satcher R, Long J, Brown W, Patterson P, et al. The ves multigene family of B. bovis encodes components of rapid antigenic variation at the infected erythrocyte surface. Mol Cell. 2000;5:153-62 pubmed
    ..Variation appears to involve creation and modification or loss of a novel, transcribed copy of the gene...
  31. Suarez C, Laughery J, Schneider D, Sondgeroth K, McElwain T. Acute and persistent infection by a transfected Mo7 strain of Babesia bovis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;185:52-7 pubmed publisher
    A Mo7-derived Babesia bovis line stably transfected with the gfp-bsd gene was inoculated into two four to five months old calves, while two additional calves were inoculated with Mo7 parasites...
  32. Antonio Alvarez J, Lopez U, Rojas C, Borgonio V, Sanchez V, Castaneda R, et al. Immunization of Bos taurus steers with Babesia bovis recombinant antigens MSA-1, MSA-2c and 12D3. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..On day 28, all groups of cattle were challenged with a field strain of Babesia bovis. After challenge, the experimental cattle were clinically and serologically monitored...
  33. Mosqueda J, McElwain T, Stiller D, Palmer G. Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 and rhoptry-associated protein 1 are expressed in sporozoites, and specific antibodies inhibit sporozoite attachment to erythrocytes. Infect Immun. 2002;70:1599-603 pubmed
    We examined Babesia bovis sporozoites for the expression of two molecules, merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) and rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1), that are postulated to be involved in the invasion of host erythrocytes...
  34. Wilkowsky S, Farber M, Echaide I, Torioni de Echaide S, Zamorano P, Dominguez M, et al. Babesia bovis merozoite surface protein-2c (MSA-2c) contains highly immunogenic, conserved B-cell epitopes that elicit neutralization-sensitive antibodies in cattle. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2003;127:133-41 pubmed
    The search for vaccine candidates against bovine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis is greatly focused on the identification of merozoite surface-exposed antigens that are widely conserved, functionally relevant and immunodominant in ..
  35. Calder J, Reddy G, Chieves L, Courtney C, Littell R, Livengood J, et al. Monitoring Babesia bovis infections in cattle by using PCR-based tests. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:2748-55 pubmed
    The sensitivity and specificity of PCR tests based on the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence of Babesia bovis were compared in a blind study of experimentally infected cattle with the corresponding parameters of the complement fixation (CF)..
  36. Aboulaila M, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Development and evaluation of two nested PCR assays for the detection of Babesia bovis from cattle blood. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:65-70 pubmed publisher
    We developed and evaluated two nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection in cattle based on two membrane protein genes from B. bovis, BBOV_IV005650 (BV5650) and BBO_IV008970 (BV8970)...
  37. Brown W, Norimine J, Goff W, Suarez C, McElwain T. Prospects for recombinant vaccines against Babesia bovis and related parasites. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:315-27 pubmed
    ..Development of successful non-living recombinant vaccines will depend on increased understanding of protective immune mechanisms and availability of parasite genomes...
  38. Cantu A, Ortega S J, Mosqueda J, Garcia Vazquez Z, Henke S, George J. Immunologic and molecular identification of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern Mexico. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:504-7 pubmed
    ..These ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, the agents responsible for bovine babesiosis...
  39. Goff W, McElwain T, Suarez C, Johnson W, Brown W, Norimine J, et al. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a rhoptry-associated protein 1 epitope specifically identifies Babesia bovis-infected cattle. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:38-43 pubmed
    ..tandemly repeated B-cell epitope within the C terminus of the rhoptry-associated protein 1 of the hemoparasite Babesia bovis was cloned and expressed as a histidine-tagged thioredoxin fusion peptide and used as antigen in a cELISA...
  40. Norimine J, Suarez C, McElwain T, Florin Christensen M, Brown W. Immunodominant epitopes in Babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein 1 that elicit memory CD4(+)-T-lymphocyte responses in B. bovis-immune individuals are located in the amino-terminal domain. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2039-48 pubmed
    b>Babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1), which confers partial protection against B...
  41. Derbyshire E, Franssen F, de Vries E, Morin C, Woodrow C, Krishna S, et al. Identification, expression and characterisation of a Babesia bovis hexose transporter. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;161:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, two predicted hexose transporters (BboHT1 and 2) have been identified within the Babesia bovis genome...
  42. Sondgeroth K, McElwain T, Allen A, Chen A, Lau A. Loss of neurovirulence is associated with reduction of cerebral capillary sequestration during acute Babesia bovis infection. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:181 pubmed publisher
    Severe neurological signs that develop during acute infection by virulent strains of Babesia bovis are associated with sequestration of infected erythrocytes in cerebral capillaries...
  43. Norimine J, Ruef B, Palmer G, Knowles D, Herndon D, Rice Ficht A, et al. A novel 78-kDa fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS1) of Babesia bovis stimulates memory CD4+ T lymphocyte responses in B. bovis-immune cattle. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;147:20-9 pubmed
    Antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocyte responses contribute to protective immunity against Babesia bovis, however the antigens that induce these responses remain largely unknown. A proteomic approach was used to identify novel B...
  44. Terkawi M, Seuseu F, Eko Wibowo P, Huyen N, Minoda Y, Aboulaila M, et al. Secretion of a new spherical body protein of Babesia bovis into the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;178:40-5 pubmed publisher
    A cDNA encoding a new Babesia bovis spherical body protein 4 (BbSBP-4) was reported to have no significant homology to other apicomplexan proteins or previously reported B. bovis spherical body proteins...
  45. Florin Christensen M, Suarez C, Hines S, Palmer G, Brown W, McElwain T. The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 2 locus contains four tandemly arranged and expressed genes encoding immunologically distinct proteins. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3566-75 pubmed
    Members of the variable merozoite surface antigen (vmsa) gene family of Babesia bovis encode membrane proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion. In this study, we have identified and sequenced the complete 8...
  46. Lew A, Bock R, Croft J, Minchin C, Kingston T, Dalgliesh R. Genotypic diversity in field isolates of Babesia bovis from cattle with babesiosis after vaccination. Aust Vet J. 1997;75:575-8 pubmed
    To determine whether particular genotypes of Babesia bovis were common to field isolates obtained from cattle properties in Queensland where the B bovis vaccine had apparently failed.
  47. Dzikowski R, Deitsch K. Antigenic variation by protozoan parasites: insights from Babesia bovis. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:364-6 pubmed
    ..b>Babesia bovis, the causative agent of severe babesiosis in cattle, was previously shown to undergo antigenic variation ..
  48. Goff W, Johnson W, Horn R, Barrington G, Knowles D. The innate immune response in calves to Boophilus microplus tick transmitted Babesia bovis involves type-1 cytokine induction and NK-like cells in the spleen. Parasite Immunol. 2003;25:185-8 pubmed
    The innate immune response to Babesia bovis infection in cattle is age-related, spleen-dependent and, in stabilate inoculated calves, has type-1 characteristics, including the early induction of IL-12 and IFN-gamma...
  49. Mesplet M, Palmer G, Pedroni M, Echaide I, Florin Christensen M, Schnittger L, et al. Genome-wide analysis of peptidase content and expression in a virulent and attenuated Babesia bovis strain pair. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;179:111-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that peptidases would segregate with virulence between a virulent parent Babesia bovis strain and an attenuated daughter strain derived by rapid in vivo passage...
  50. Bork S, Okamura M, Matsuo T, Kumar S, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Host serum modifies the drug susceptibility of Babesia bovis in vitro. Parasitology. 2005;130:489-92 pubmed
    ..In this study, we attempted to culture Babesia bovis in a serum-free condition. The growth pattern and morphology of B...
  51. Caballero M, Pedroni M, Palmer G, Suarez C, Davitt C, Lau A. Characterization of acyl carrier protein and LytB in Babesia bovis apicoplast. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;181:125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways between parasites that have both common and unique stages, we characterized the apicoplast in Babesia bovis, which has only intraerythrocytic asexual stages in the mammalian host, and compared it to that of Plasmodium ..
  52. Al Khedery B, Allred D. Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis occurs through segmental gene conversion of the ves multigene family, within a bidirectional locus of active transcription. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:402-14 pubmed
    Antigenic variation in Babesia bovis is one aspect of a multifunctional virulence/survival mechanism mediated by the heterodimeric variant erythrocyte surface antigen 1 (VESA1) protein that also involves endothelial cytoadhesion with ..
  53. Florin Christensen J, Suarez C, Florin Christensen M, Hines S, McElwain T, Palmer G. Phosphatidylcholine formation is the predominant lipid biosynthetic event in the hemoparasite Babesia bovis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000;106:147-56 pubmed
    ..We found that erythrocytes infected with Babesia bovis (i-RBC) accumulate lipids and show striking increases in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid, ..
  54. Pedroni M, Luu T, Lau A. Babesia bovis: a bipartite signal directs the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase to the apicoplast. Exp Parasitol. 2012;131:261-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Babesia bovis contains a prokaryotic derived organelle known as the apicoplast...
  55. Huang Y, Xiao Y, Allred D. Unusual chromatin structure associated with monoparalogous transcription of the Babesia bovis ves multigene family. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:163-72 pubmed publisher
    Rapid antigenic variation in Babesia bovis involves the variant erythrocyte surface antigen-1 (VESA1), a heterodimeric protein with subunits encoded by two branches of the ves multigene family...
  56. Shkap V, de Vos A, Zweygarth E, Jongejan F. Attenuated vaccines for tropical theileriosis, babesiosis and heartwater: the continuing necessity. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:420-6 pubmed
    ..As a result, there is a continuing necessity to use available live vaccines in tick and tick-borne disease-control strategies adapted to conditions prevailing in many parts of the world...
  57. Heekin A, Guerrero F, Bendele K, Saldivar L, Scoles G, Gondro C, et al. Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:162 pubmed publisher
    ..The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most ..
  58. Lau A, Kalyanaraman A, Echaide I, Palmer G, Bock R, Pedroni M, et al. Attenuation of virulence in an apicomplexan hemoparasite results in reduced genome diversity at the population level. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:410 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the mechanisms of virulence loss at the whole genome level using Babesia bovis as a model apicomplexan in which genetically related attenuated parasites can be reliably derived from ..
  59. Bock R, Kingston T, de Vos A. Effect of breed of cattle on transmission rate and innate resistance to infection with Babesia bovis and B bigemina transmitted by Boophilus microplus. Aust Vet J. 1999;77:461-4 pubmed
    To assess the effect of breed of cattle on the transmission rates of and innate resistance to Babesia bovis and B bigemina parasites transmitted by Boophilus microplus ticks.
  60. Gayo V, Romito M, Nel L, Solari M, Viljoen G. PCR-based detection of the transovarial transmission of Uruguayan Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina vaccine strains. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2003;70:197-204 pubmed
    ..It is feared that the attenuated Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina vaccine strains may be transmitted by the local tick vector Boophilus microplus, and that ..
  61. Ramos C, Cooper S, Holman P. Molecular and serologic evidence for Babesia bovis-like parasites in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south Texas. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:214-20 pubmed publisher
    The current study was undertaken to determine if white-tailed deer in south Texas harbor Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis...
  62. Hutchings C, Li A, Fernandez K, Fletcher T, Jackson L, Molloy J, et al. New insights into the altered adhesive and mechanical properties of red blood cells parasitized by Babesia bovis. Mol Microbiol. 2007;65:1092-105 pubmed
    ..cells (RBCs) in the microvasculature is an important pathological feature of both bovine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis and human malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum...
  63. Suarez C, Florin Christensen M, Hines S, Palmer G, Brown W, McElwain T. Characterization of allelic variation in the Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) locus and identification of a cross-reactive inhibition-sensitive MSA-1 epitope. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6865-70 pubmed
    The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1), a member of the variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family, is an immunodominant glycoprotein which elicits antibodies that inhibit erythrocyte invasion...
  64. Aboulaila M, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Development and evaluation of a nested PCR based on spherical body protein 2 gene for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:45-50 pubmed publisher
    We developed and evaluated a nested PCR assay for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis infection in cattle based on the spherical body protein 2 gene (SBP2) from B. bovis. The specificity and sensitivity of the test were compared with the B...
  65. Bork S, Das S, Okubo K, Yokoyama N, Igarashi I. Effects of protein kinase inhibitors on the in vitro growth of Babesia bovis. Parasitology. 2006;132:775-9 pubmed
    ..kinase C, and calcium-modulin kinase, respectively, were tested for their effects on the in vitro growth of Babesia bovis. Staurosporine was the most effective inhibitor, completely clearing the parasitaemia as early as the first ..
  66. Urdaz Rodríguez J, Fosgate G, Waghela S, Alleman A, Rae D, Donovan G, et al. Seroprevalence estimation and management factors associated with high herd seropositivity for Babesia bovis in commercial dairy farms of Puerto Rico. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009;41:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine individual cow seroprevalence of Babesia bovis in adult lactating dairy cattle of Puerto Rico (PR), to assess the associations of farm management factors on herd seroprevalence, and to ..
  67. Suarez C, Palmer G, Hotzel I, McElwain T. Structure, sequence, and transcriptional analysis of the Babesia bovis rap-1 multigene locus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998;93:215-24 pubmed
    ..bigemina versus B. bovis are reflected in the marked structural and antigenic polymorphism in the B. bigemina RAP-1 molecules as compared with the essentially monomorphic RAP-1 in B. bovis...
  68. Rodríguez A, Couto A, Echaide I, Schnittger L, Florin Christensen M. Babesia bovis contains an abundant parasite-specific protein-free glycerophosphatidylinositol and the genes predicted for its assembly. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In the work at hand we have investigated the existence of free GPIs in Babesia bovis. Comparative thin layer chromatographic analysis of the protein-free glycolipid fraction of in vitro cultured ..
  69. Simuunza M, Bilgic H, Karagenc T, Syakalima M, Shiels B, Tait A, et al. Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring in Babesia bovis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;177:106-15 pubmed publisher
    The tick-borne protozoan parasite, Babesia bovis is one of the causes of bovine babesiosis, an economically important disease of cattle in tropical and sub-tropical countries...
  70. Howell J, Ueti M, Palmer G, Scoles G, Knowles D. Transovarial transmission efficiency of Babesia bovis tick stages acquired by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus during acute infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:426-31 pubmed
    The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a reemerging threat to U.S. cattle, is acquired by adult female ticks of the subgenus Boophilus and is transovarially transmitted as the kinete stage to developing larval offspring...
  71. Berens S, Brayton K, Molloy J, Bock R, Lew A, McElwain T. Merozoite surface antigen 2 proteins of Babesia bovis vaccine breakthrough isolates contain a unique hypervariable region composed of degenerate repeats. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7180-9 pubmed
    The merozoite surface antigen 2 (MSA-2) proteins of Babesia bovis are members of the variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family that have been implicated in erythrocyte invasion and are important targets for antibody-mediated ..
  72. Wang X, Xiao Y, Bouchut A, Al Khedery B, Wang H, Allred D. Characterization of the unusual bidirectional ves promoters driving VESA1 expression and associated with antigenic variation in Babesia bovis. Eukaryot Cell. 2012;11:260-9 pubmed publisher
    Rapid clonal antigenic variation in Babesia bovis involves the variant erythrocyte surface antigen-1 (VESA1) protein expressed on the infected-erythrocyte surface...
  73. Brown W. Molecular approaches to elucidating innate and acquired immune responses to Babesia bovis, a protozoan parasite that causes persistent infection. Vet Parasitol. 2001;101:233-48 pubmed
    ..of the molecular basis for innate and acquired immunity against the hemoprotozoan parasite of cattle, Babesia bovis. Knowledge of mechanisms used by the parasite to survive within infected cattle from acute to persistent ..
  74. Norimine J, Mosqueda J, Palmer G, Lewin H, Brown W. Conservation of Babesia bovis small heat shock protein (Hsp20) among strains and definition of T helper cell epitopes recognized by cattle with diverse major histocompatibility complex class II haplotypes. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1096-106 pubmed
    b>Babesia bovis small heat shock protein (Hsp20) is recognized by CD4+ T lymphocytes from cattle that have recovered from infection and are immune to challenge...
  75. Freeman J, Kappmeyer L, Ueti M, McElwain T, Baszler T, Echaide I, et al. A Babesia bovis gene syntenic to Theileria parva p67 is expressed in blood and tick stage parasites. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:211-8 pubmed publisher
    Completion of the Babesia bovis (T2Bo strain) genome provides detailed data concerning the predicted proteome of this parasite, and allows for a bioinformatics approach to gene discovery...
  76. Perez Llaneza A, Caballero M, Baravalle E, Mesplet M, Mosqueda J, Suarez C, et al. Development of a tandem repeat-based multilocus typing system distinguishing Babesia bovis geographic isolates. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:196-204 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work we have searched the genome of the tick-transmitted bovine hemoprotozoon Babesia bovis for tandem repeats (TRs) that could be useful for a multilocus typing system...
  77. Benavides M, Sacco A. Differential Bos taurus cattle response to Babesia bovis infection. Vet Parasitol. 2007;150:54-64 pubmed
    ..alternative to help in babesiosis control would be the identification of genetically resistant cattle to Babesia bovis infection. The objective of this work was to phenotype cattle based on primary response against B...
  78. Heekin A, Guerrero F, Bendele K, Saldivar L, Scoles G, Dowd S, et al. Gut transcriptome of replete adult female cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, feeding upon a Babesia bovis-infected bovine host. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:3075-90 pubmed publisher
    ..microplus is capable of transmitting a number of pathogenic organisms, including the apicomplexan hemoparasite Babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. The R...
  79. Gaffar F, Wilschut K, Franssen F, de Vries E. An amino acid substitution in the Babesia bovis dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene is correlated to cross-resistance against pyrimethamine and WR99210. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;133:209-19 pubmed
    The genomic locus and cDNA encoding Babesia bovis dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) were cloned and sequenced...