plasmodium knowlesi

Summary

Summary: A protozoan parasite from Southeast Asia that causes monkey malaria. It is naturally acquired by man in Malaysia and can also be transmitted experimentally to humans.

Top Publications

  1. McCutchan T. Is a monkey malaria from Borneo an emerging human disease?. Future Microbiol. 2008;3:115-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Jiang G, Shi M, Conteh S, Richie N, Banania G, Geneshan H, et al. Sterile protection against Plasmodium knowlesi in rhesus monkeys from a malaria vaccine: comparison of heterologous prime boost strategies. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6559 pubmed publisher
    ..which have been effective against malaria in rodent models, we tested five immunization regimens against Plasmodium knowlesi in rhesus monkeys. All vaccines included the same four P...
  3. van Hellemond J, Rutten M, Koelewijn R, Zeeman A, Verweij J, Wismans P, et al. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infection detected by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1478-80 pubmed publisher
    We describe a PCR-confirmed case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection with a high parasitemia level and clinical signs of severe malaria in a migrant worker from Malaysian Borneo in the Netherlands...
  4. Kawai S, Hirai M, Haruki K, Tanabe K, Chigusa Y. Cross-reactivity in rapid diagnostic tests between human malaria and zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi infections. Parasitol Int. 2009;58:300-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi has a relatively broad host range extending to humans, in whom it causes zoonotic malaria. Recent studies have shown that human infection with P. knowlesi is widely distributed in forested areas of Southeast Asia...
  5. Daneshvar C, Davis T, Cox Singh J, Rafa ee M, Zakaria S, Divis P, et al. Clinical and parasitological response to oral chloroquine and primaquine in uncomplicated human Plasmodium knowlesi infections. Malar J. 2010;9:238 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is a cause of symptomatic and potentially fatal infections in humans...
  6. Kantele A, Jokiranta T. Review of cases with the emerging fifth human malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:1356-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, numerous reports have described human malaria caused by a fifth Plasmodium species, Plasmodium knowlesi, which usually infects macaque monkeys...
  7. Putaporntip C, Hongsrimuang T, Seethamchai S, Kobasa T, Limkittikul K, Cui L, et al. Differential prevalence of Plasmodium infections and cryptic Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans in Thailand. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    A case of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi has been recently discovered in Thailand. To investigate the prevalence of this malaria species, a molecular-based survey was performed...
  8. Sabbatani S, Fiorino S, Manfredi R. Plasmodium knowlesi: from Malaysia, a novel health care threat. Infez Med. 2012;20:5-11 pubmed
    Epidemic foci of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been identified during the past ten years in Malaysia, in particular in the States of Sarawak and Sabah (Malaysia Borneo), and in the Pahang region (peninsular Malaysia)...
  9. Collins W. Plasmodium knowlesi: a malaria parasite of monkeys and humans. Annu Rev Entomol. 2012;57:107-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite of monkeys of Southeast Asia that is transmitted by mosquitoes of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Lee C, Adeeba K, Freigang G. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Klang Valley, Peninsula Malaysia: a case series. Med J Malaysia. 2010;65:63-5 pubmed
    We report seven cases of naturally acquired human Plasmodium knowlesi infections which were admitted to our centre from July 2007 till June 2008. Diagnosis was confirmed by nested PCR. Cases of P...
  2. Corredor V, Meyer E, Lapp S, Corredor Medina C, Huber C, Evans A, et al. A SICAvar switching event in Plasmodium knowlesi is associated with the DNA rearrangement of conserved 3' non-coding sequences. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;138:37-49 pubmed
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi variant antigens are expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes and are encoded by the Schizont Infected Cell Agglutination variant antigen (SICAvar) multigene family...
  3. Jongwutiwes S, Putaporntip C, Iwasaki T, Sata T, Kanbara H. Naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in human, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:2211-3 pubmed
    We describe a case of naturally acquired infection with Plasmodium knowlesi in Thailand. Diagnosis was confirmed by the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences...
  4. Rogers W, Weiss W, Kumar A, Aguiar J, Tine J, Gwadz R, et al. Protection of rhesus macaques against lethal Plasmodium knowlesi malaria by a heterologous DNA priming and poxvirus boosting immunization regimen. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4329-35 pubmed
    ..multiantigen, DNA priming and poxvirus boosting vaccine regimen for prevention of malaria in the Plasmodium knowlesi-rhesus macaque model system...
  5. Kantele A, Marti H, Felger I, Müller D, Jokiranta T. Monkey malaria in a European traveler returning from Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1434-6 pubmed publisher
    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria...
  6. Blackman M, Dennis E, Hirst E, Kocken C, Scott Finnigan T, Thomas A. Plasmodium knowlesi: secondary processing of the malaria merozoite surface protein-1. Exp Parasitol. 1996;83:229-39 pubmed
    ..processing of MSP-1 takes place in a similar manner on invasive merozoites of the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Processing can take place to a limited extent in pure isolated merozoites; however, within 10 min of the ..
  7. Collins W, Sullivan J, Nace D, Williams T, Williams A, Galland G, et al. Additional observations on the sporozoite transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to monkeys. J Parasitol. 2004;90:866-7 pubmed
    Saimiri boliviensis monkeys were infected by the intravenous injection of 50 sporozoites of the H strain of Plasmodium knowlesi dissected from the salivary glands of Anopheles dirus mosquitoes; prepatent periods were 11, 12, 13, 13, 13, ..
  8. Meyer E, Semenya A, Okenu D, Dluzewski A, Bannister L, Barnwell J, et al. The reticulocyte binding-like proteins of P. knowlesi locate to the micronemes of merozoites and define two new members of this invasion ligand family. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;165:111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..experimental and bioinformatic characterization of two new rbl genes in the simian malaria parasite species Plasmodium knowlesi. Experimental analyses confirm that a P. knowlesi gene fragment orthologous to P...
  9. Jongwutiwes S, Buppan P, Kosuvin R, Seethamchai S, Pattanawong U, Sirichaisinthop J, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria in humans and macaques, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1799-806 pubmed publisher
    Naturally acquired human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi are endemic to Southeast Asia. To determine the prevalence of P. knowlesi malaria in malaria-endemic areas of Thailand, we analyzed genetic characteristics of P...
  10. Mahdi Abdel Hamid M, Remarque E, van Duivenvoorde L, van der Werff N, Walraven V, Faber B, et al. Vaccination with Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 formulated in the novel adjuvant co-vaccine HT™ protects against blood-stage challenge in rhesus macaques. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20547 pubmed publisher
    Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a leading blood stage vaccine candidate. Plasmodium knowlesi AMA1 (PkAMA1) was produced and purified using similar methodology as for clinical grade PfAMA1 yielding a pure, ..
  11. Daneshvar C, Davis T, Cox Singh J, Rafa ee M, Zakaria S, Divis P, et al. Clinical and laboratory features of human Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:852-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly recognized as a cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia but there are no detailed prospective clinical studies of naturally acquired infections...
  12. Tripathi R, Awasthi A, Dutta G. Mefloquine resistance reversal action of ketoconazole - a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, against mefloquine-resistant malaria. Parasitology. 2005;130:475-9 pubmed
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi (W1) shows a high level of innate resistance to mefloquine as shown by recrudescence of blood-induced infection in rhesus monkeys, following oral mefloquine treatment with up to 80-160 mg/kg total dose over 3-4 days...
  13. Waters A, Higgins D, McCutchan T. Evolutionary relatedness of some primate models of Plasmodium. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:914-23 pubmed
    ..What is considered to be the most ancient of the human malaria pathogens, P. malariae, was also included in the analysis and does not group at all with other simian or human parasites...
  14. Cox Singh J, Davis T, Lee K, Shamsul S, Matusop A, Ratnam S, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans is widely distributed and potentially life threatening. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:165-71 pubmed publisher
    Until recently, Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans was misdiagnosed as Plasmodium malariae malaria. The objectives of the present study were to determine the geographic distribution of P...
  15. Garman S, Simcoke W, Stowers A, Garboczi D. Structure of the C-terminal domains of merozoite surface protein-1 from Plasmodium knowlesi reveals a novel histidine binding site. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7264-9 pubmed
    ..Here we present the structure of the C-terminal domains of MSP-1 (known as MSP-1(19)) from Plasmodium knowlesi. The structure reveals two tightly packed epidermal growth factor-like domains oriented head to tail...
  16. Rogers W, Baird J, Kumar A, Tine J, Weiss W, Aguiar J, et al. Multistage multiantigen heterologous prime boost vaccine for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria provides partial protection in rhesus macaques. Infect Immun. 2001;69:5565-72 pubmed
    ..We therefore constructed a multicomponent, multistage DNA vaccine for the simian malaria species Plasmodium knowlesi including two preerythrocytic-stage antigens, the circumsporozoite protein (PkCSP) and sporozoite surface ..
  17. Cox Singh J, Singh B. Knowlesi malaria: newly emergent and of public health importance?. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:406-10 pubmed publisher
    ..on public health impact have arisen from the discovery of a large focus of the simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, in the human population. P...
  18. Wang J, Ding D, Li G, Zhao J. [Therapeutic efficacy of naphthoquine phosphate combined with artemisinine against Plasmodium knowlesi]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2008;26:442-4 pubmed
    To study the antimalarial activity of naphthoquine phosphate combined with artemisinine against Plasmodium knowlesi in rhesus monkey. Monkeys were randomly divided into 9 groups (3/group). The monkeys in groups A and B were treated i.g...
  19. Lee K, Divis P, Zakaria S, Matusop A, Julin R, Conway D, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi: reservoir hosts and tracking the emergence in humans and macaques. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002015 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite originally thought to be restricted to macaques in Southeast Asia, has recently been recognized as a significant cause of human malaria. Unlike the benign and morphologically similar P...
  20. Lee K, Cox Singh J, Singh B. Morphological features and differential counts of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites in naturally acquired human infections. Malar J. 2009;8:73 pubmed publisher
    Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, are more common than previously thought...
  21. Jeslyn W, Huat T, Vernon L, Irene L, Sung L, Jarrod L, et al. Molecular epidemiological investigation of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans and macaques in Singapore. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:131-5 pubmed publisher
    Singapore reported its first locally acquired human Plasmodium knowlesi infection in 2007, involving a soldier who had undergone training in a forested area where long-tailed macaques are frequently seen...
  22. Van den Eede P, Van H, Van Overmeir C, Vythilingam I, Duc T, Hung L, et al. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infections in young children in central Vietnam. Malar J. 2009;8:249 pubmed publisher
    Considering increasing reports on human infections by Plasmodium knowlesi in Southeast Asian countries, blood samples collected during two large cross-sectional malariometric surveys carried out in a forested area of central Vietnam in ..
  23. Cox Singh J, Singh B, Daneshvar C, Planche T, Parker Williams J, Krishna S. Anti-inflammatory cytokines predominate in acute human Plasmodium knowlesi infections. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20541 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi has entered the human population of Southeast Asia. Naturally acquired knowlesi malaria is newly described with relatively little available data, including data on the host response to infection...
  24. Pain A, Böhme U, Berry A, Mungall K, Finn R, Jackson A, et al. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Nature. 2008;455:799-803 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in ..
  25. Link L, Bart A, Verhaar N, van Gool T, Pronk M, Scharnhorst V. Molecular detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in a Dutch traveler by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2523-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi infection with low parasitemia presents a diagnostic challenge, as rapid diagnostic tests are often negative and identification to the species level by microscopy is difficult. P...
  26. Sermwittayawong N, Singh B, Nishibuchi M, Sawangjaroen N, Vuddhakul V. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infection in Ranong province, southwestern border of Thailand. Malar J. 2012;11:36 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has been reported in humans in many Southeast Asian countries...
  27. Fatih F, Siner A, Ahmed A, Woon L, Craig A, Singh B, et al. Cytoadherence and virulence - the case of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Malar J. 2012;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the binding phenotype of Plasmodium knowlesi infected human erythrocytes to recombinant human ICAM-1, VCAM and CD36. Five patients with PCR-confirmed P...
  28. Lau Y, Fong M, Mahmud R, Chang P, Palaeya V, Cheong F, et al. Specific, sensitive and rapid detection of human plasmodium knowlesi infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in blood samples. Malar J. 2011;10:197 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, which is in many cases misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to the morphological similarity has contributed to the needs of detection and differentiation of malaria ..
  29. Vythilingam I, Tan C, Asmad M, Chan S, Lee K, Singh B. Natural transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to humans by Anopheles latens in Sarawak, Malaysia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:1087-8 pubmed
    Four species of malaria parasites are known to infect humans. A fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi, has been reported to infect humans in Malaysian Borneo...
  30. Korir C, Galinski M. Proteomic studies of Plasmodium knowlesi SICA variant antigens demonstrate their relationship with P. falciparum EMP1. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:75-9 pubmed
    ..The Plasmodium knowlesi Schizont-infected cell agglutination (SICA) antigens are encoded by the SICAvar multigene family, and the P...
  31. Marchand R, Culleton R, Maeno Y, Quang N, Nakazawa S. Co-infections of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax among Humans and Anopheles dirus Mosquitoes, Southern Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1232-9 pubmed publisher
    A single Anopheles dirus mosquito carrying sporozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax was recently discovered in Khanh Phu, southern Vietnam...
  32. Luchavez J, Espino F, Curameng P, Espina R, Bell D, Chiodini P, et al. Human Infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:811-3 pubmed publisher
    Five human cases of infection with the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi from Palawan, the Philippines, were confirmed by nested PCR...
  33. Berry A, Iriart X, Wilhelm N, Valentin A, Cassaing S, Witkowski B, et al. Imported Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a French tourist returning from Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:535-8 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of imported Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in a French tourist following a vacation in Thailand...
  34. McCutchan T, Piper R, Makler M. Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test to identify Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1750-2 pubmed publisher
    Reports of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a monkey malaria, suggest that it and other nonhuman malaria species may be an emerging health problem...
  35. Moon R, Hall J, Rangkuti F, Ho Y, Almond N, Mitchell G, et al. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia...
  36. Cox Singh J. Knowlesi malaria in Vietnam. Malar J. 2009;8:269 pubmed publisher
    The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is transmitted in the forests of Southeast Asia. Symptomatic zoonotic knowlesi malaria in humans is widespread in the region and is associated with a history of spending time in the jungle...
  37. Goh X, Lim Y, Vythilingam I, Chew C, Lee P, Ngui R, et al. Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex™. Malar J. 2013;12:264 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo...
  38. Demogines A, Truong K, Sawyer S. Species-specific features of DARC, the primate receptor for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:445-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two malaria parasites, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, use DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells...
  39. Barber B, William T, Grigg M, Yeo T, Anstey N. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. Malar J. 2013;12:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs.
  40. Horuk R, Chitnis C, Darbonne W, Colby T, Rybicki A, Hadley T, et al. A receptor for the malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax: the erythrocyte chemokine receptor. Science. 1993;261:1182-4 pubmed
    ..Third, both MGSA and IL-8 blocked the binding of the parasite ligand and the invasion of human erythrocytes by P. knowlesi, suggesting the possibility of receptor blockade for anti-malarial therapy...
  41. Singh B, Kim Sung L, Matusop A, Radhakrishnan A, Shamsul S, Cox Singh J, et al. A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings. Lancet. 2004;363:1017-24 pubmed
    ..We aimed to investigate whether such infections could be attributable to a variant form of P malariae or a newly emergent Plasmodium species...
  42. Galinski M, Corredor V. Variant antigen expression in malaria infections: posttranscriptional gene silencing, virulence and severe pathology. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;134:17-25 pubmed
  43. Weiss W, Kumar A, Jiang G, Williams J, Bostick A, Conteh S, et al. Protection of rhesus monkeys by a DNA prime/poxvirus boost malaria vaccine depends on optimal DNA priming and inclusion of blood stage antigens. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1063 pubmed
    ..DNA plasmids boosted by recombinant poxviruses which protects a high percentage of rhesus monkeys against Plasmodium knowlesi (Pk) malaria...
  44. Tan C, Vythilingam I, Matusop A, Chan S, Singh B. Bionomics of Anopheles latens in Kapit, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in relation to the transmission of zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. Malar J. 2008;7:52 pubmed publisher
    A large focus of human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques was discovered in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo...
  45. Lee K, Cox Singh J, Brooke G, Matusop A, Singh B. Plasmodium knowlesi from archival blood films: further evidence that human infections are widely distributed and not newly emergent in Malaysian Borneo. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1125-8 pubmed publisher
    Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi have been misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to their morphological similarities. Although microscopy-identified P...
  46. Lapp S, Korir C, Galinski M. Redefining the expressed prototype SICAvar gene involved in Plasmodium knowlesi antigenic variation. Malar J. 2009;8:181 pubmed publisher
    ..gene family, expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, is critical for antigenic variation in Plasmodium knowlesi. When this family was discovered, a prototypic SICAvar gene was characterized and defined by a 10-exon ..
  47. van der Wel A, Tomas A, Kocken C, Malhotra P, Janse C, Waters A, et al. Transfection of the primate malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi using entirely heterologous constructs. J Exp Med. 1997;185:1499-503 pubmed
    ..Here we report on stable transfection of Plasmodium knowlesi (a primate malaria parasite that clusters phylogenetically with P...
  48. Singh B, Daneshvar C. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2010;65:166-72 pubmed
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, is now recognised as the fifth cause of human malaria and can lead to fatal infections in humans...
  49. Bronner U, Divis P, Färnert A, Singh B. Swedish traveller with Plasmodium knowlesi malaria after visiting Malaysian Borneo. Malar J. 2009;8:15 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is typically found in nature in macaques and has recently been recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in human populations in south-east Asia...
  50. Cox Singh J. Zoonotic malaria: Plasmodium knowlesi, an emerging pathogen. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012;25:530-6 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite of Southeast Asian macaques, into the human population is ongoing and widespread across Southeast Asia. Humans entering P. knowlesi transmission areas are at risk...
  51. Rajahram G, Barber B, William T, Menon J, Anstey N, Yeo T. Deaths due to Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: association with reporting as Plasmodium malariae and delayed parenteral artesunate. Malar J. 2012;11:284 pubmed publisher
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as a common cause of severe and fatal human malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, but is morphologically indistinguishable from and still commonly reported as Plasmodium malariae, despite the ..
  52. Barber B, William T, Grigg M, Menon J, Auburn S, Marfurt J, et al. A prospective comparative study of knowlesi, falciparum, and vivax malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: high proportion with severe disease from Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax but no mortality with early referral and artesunate therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:383-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi commonly causes severe malaria in Malaysian Borneo, with high case-fatality rates reported. We compared risk, spectrum, and outcome of severe disease from P...
  53. Kocken C, Zeeman A, Voorberg van der Wel A, Thomas A. Transgenic Plasmodium knowlesi: relieving a bottleneck in malaria research?. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:370-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is a primate malaria parasite that is phylogenetically close to the major human parasite Plasmodium vivax. P...
  54. Barber B, William T, Dhararaj P, Anderios F, Grigg M, Yeo T, et al. Epidemiology of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in north-east Sabah, Malaysia: family clusters and wide age distribution. Malar J. 2012;11:401 pubmed publisher
    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo, with a particularly high incidence in Kudat, Sabah. Little is known however about the epidemiology in this substantially deforested region.
  55. Singh A, Puri S, Chitnis C. Antibodies raised against receptor-binding domain of Plasmodium knowlesi Duffy binding protein inhibit erythrocyte invasion. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002;121:21-31 pubmed
    ..Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi are completely dependent on binding the Duffy blood group antigen to invade human erythrocytes. P...
  56. Vythilingam I. Plasmodium knowlesi in humans: a review on the role of its vectors in Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2010;27:1-12 pubmed
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi in humans is life threatening, is on the increase and has been reported from most states in Malaysia. Anopheles latens and Anopheles cracens have been incriminated as vectors...
  57. Lee W, Chin P, Lau Y, Chin L, Fong M, Yap C, et al. Hyperparasitaemic human Plasmodium knowlesi infection with atypical morphology in peninsular Malaysia. Malar J. 2013;12:88 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is a potentially life-threatening zoonotic malaria parasite due to its relatively short erythrocytic cycle. Microscopic identification of P...
  58. Choi J, Augagneur Y, Ben Mamoun C, Voelker D. Identification of gene encoding Plasmodium knowlesi phosphatidylserine decarboxylase by genetic complementation in yeast and characterization of in vitro maturation of encoded enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:222-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defines a new system for probing the function of Plasmodium genes by library-based genetic complementation and its usefulness in revealing new biochemical properties of encoded proteins...
  59. Jiram A, Vythilingam I, Noorazian Y, Yusof Y, Azahari A, Fong M. Entomologic investigation of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia. Malar J. 2012;11:213 pubmed
    The first natural infection of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans was recorded in 1965 in peninsular Malaysia...
  60. Joet T, Holterman L, Stedman T, Kocken C, van der Wel A, Thomas A, et al. Comparative characterization of hexose transporters of Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium yoelii and Toxoplasma gondii highlights functional differences within the apicomplexan family. Biochem J. 2002;368:923-9 pubmed
    ..This study defines models useful to study the biology of apicomplexan hexose permeation pathways, as well as contributing to drug development...
  61. Lucchi N, Poorak M, Oberstaller J, Debarry J, Srinivasamoorthy G, Goldman I, et al. A new single-step PCR assay for the detection of the zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31848 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies in Southeast Asia have demonstrated substantial zoonotic transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to humans. Microscopically, P. knowlesi exhibits several stage-dependent morphological similarities to P. malariae and P...
  62. Roughton S, Green A. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria: assessing the risk to the British Armed Forces. J R Army Med Corps. 2012;158:318-21 pubmed
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonosis and is now recognised as the fifth commonly occurring form of human malaria. It is endemic in South East Asia, including some areas previously declared malaria free or at low risk for malaria...
  63. Putaporntip C, Jongwutiwes S, Iwasaki T, Kanbara H, Hughes A. Ancient common ancestry of the merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium vivax as inferred from its homologue in Plasmodium knowlesi. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;146:105-8 pubmed
  64. Ta T, Salas A, Ali Tammam M, Martinez M, Lanza M, Arroyo E, et al. First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia. Malar J. 2010;9:219 pubmed publisher
    Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) macaques found in Southeast ..
  65. Cox Singh J, Hiu J, Lucas S, Divis P, Zulkarnaen M, Chandran P, et al. Severe malaria - a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings: a case report. Malar J. 2010;9:10 pubmed publisher
    Zoonotic malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is an important, but newly recognized, human pathogen. For the first time, post-mortem findings from a fatal case of knowlesi malaria are reported here...
  66. Kumar A, Weiss W, Tine J, Hoffman S, Rogers W. ELISPOT assay for detection of peptide specific interferon-gamma secreting cells in rhesus macaques. J Immunol Methods. 2001;247:49-60 pubmed
    ..cells (PBMCs) from rhesus monkeys immunized with a DNA vaccine and recombinant canary pox encoding the Plasmodium knowlesi circumsporozoite protein (PkCSP) were incubated with pools of peptides from PkCSP...
  67. Butcher G, Mitchell G, Cohen S. Plasmodium knowlesi infections in a small number of non-immune natural hosts (Macaca fascicularis) and in rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:75-7 pubmed publisher
    The natural host of Plasmodium knowlesi is the kra monkey, Macaca fascicularis, but this parasite, initially mistaken for P. malariae, is now infecting humans in some areas of Southeast Asia...
  68. Martínez Salazar E, Tobón Castaño A, Blair S. [Natural Plasmodium knowlesi malaria infections in humans]. Biomedica. 2012;32 Suppl 1:121-30 pubmed publisher
    The first reported case of natural transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to humans was published in 1965...
  69. Willmann M, Ahmed A, Siner A, Wong I, Woon L, Singh B, et al. Laboratory markers of disease severity in Plasmodium knowlesi infection: a case control study. Malar J. 2012;11:363 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi malaria causes severe disease in up to 10% of cases in Malaysian Borneo and has a mortality rate of 1 - 2%...
  70. Van den Eede P, Vythilingam I, Ngo D, Nguyen V, Le X, D Alessandro U, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Vietnam: some clarifications. Malar J. 2010;9:20 pubmed publisher
    A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax...
  71. Iseki H, Kawai S, Takahashi N, Hirai M, Tanabe K, Yokoyama N, et al. Evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method as a tool for diagnosis of infection by the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we developed a LAMP method for the molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi infection (PkLAMP) and evaluated its sensitivity, specificity, and clinical applicability...
  72. Hoosen A, Shaw M. Plasmodium knowlesi in a traveller returning to New Zealand. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2011;9:144-8 pubmed publisher
    The recent discovery that Plasmodium knowlesi causes malaria in human populations, established it as the fifth species of plasmodium that may do so. A case of P...
  73. Ong C, Lee S, Koh W, Ooi E, Tambyah P. Monkey malaria in humans: a diagnostic dilemma with conflicting laboratory data. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:927-8 pubmed
    b>Plasmodium knowlesi has recently been recognized as the fifth Plasmodium species causing malaria in humans...
  74. Galinski M, Barnwell J. Monkey malaria kills four humans. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:200-4 pubmed publisher
    Four human deaths caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria species, are stimulating a surge of public health interest and clinical vigilance in vulnerable areas of Southeast Asia...
  75. Singh A, Ozwara H, Kocken C, Puri S, Thomas A, Chitnis C. Targeted deletion of Plasmodium knowlesi Duffy binding protein confirms its role in junction formation during invasion. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:1925-34 pubmed
    ..These studies provide support for development of intervention strategies that target EBPs to inhibit junction formation and block erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites...
  76. Divis P, Shokoples S, Singh B, Yanow S. A TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of Plasmodium knowlesi. Malar J. 2010;9:344 pubmed publisher
    The misdiagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi by microscopy has prompted a re-evaluation of the geographic distribution, prevalence and pathogenesis of this species using molecular diagnostic tools. In this report, a specific probe for P...
  77. Praba Egge A, Montenegro S, Cogswell F, Hopper T, James M. Cytokine responses during acute simian Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium knowlesi infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:586-96 pubmed
    ..These observations further confirmed that the simian malaria/rhesus monkey model is well suited for studies on the regulation of immunity to acute Plasmodium infection...
  78. Nakazawa S, Marchand R, Quang N, Culleton R, Manh N, Maeno Y. Anopheles dirus co-infection with human and monkey malaria parasites in Vietnam. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We were able to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi DNA by conventional PCR and, furthermore, detected P...