haemosporida

Summary

Summary: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.

Top Publications

  1. Richard F, Sehgal R, Jones H, Smith T. A comparative analysis of PCR-based detection methods for avaian malaria. J Parasitol. 2002;88:819-22 pubmed
  2. Valkiunas G, Bairlein F, Iezhova T, Dolnik O. Factors affecting the relapse of Haemoproteus belopolskyi infections and the parasitaemia of Trypanosoma spp. in a naturally infected European songbird, the blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla. Parasitol Res. 2004;93:218-22 pubmed
    ..The relapse of avian Haemoproteus spp. infection and of the parasitaemia of avian Trypanosoma spp. may be related to gonadal hormones, corticosterone and melatonin. ..
  3. Merino S, Hennicke J, Martinez J, Ludynia K, Torres R, Work T, et al. Infection by Haemoproteus parasites in four species of frigatebirds and the description of a new species of Haemoproteus (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae). J Parasitol. 2012;98:388-97 pubmed publisher
    ..andrewsi differ significantly from all the characteristics measured from H. valki?nasi. In addition, it also differs from all characteristics of H. iwa despite being genetically identical in the analyzed fragment. ..
  4. Valkiunas G, Iezhova T, Loiseau C, Chasar A, Smith T, Sehgal R. New species of haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) from African rainforest birds, with remarks on their classification. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:1213-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This study emphasises the value of both the polymerase chain reaction and microscopy in the identification of avian haemosporidian parasites. ..
  5. Krone O, Waldenstrom J, Valkiunas G, Lessow O, Muller K, Iezhova T, et al. Haemosporidian blood parasites in European birds of prey and owls. J Parasitol. 2008;94:709-15 pubmed publisher
    ..strains that had already been found in Passeriformes were also detected in the birds of prey and owls examined here, supporting previous findings indicating a broad and nonspecific host spectrum bridging different bird orders...
  6. Sol D, Jovani R, Torres J. Parasite mediated mortality and host immune response explain age-related differences in blood parasitism in birds. Oecologia. 2003;135:542-7 pubmed
  7. Ito A, Gotanda T. Field efficacy of recombinant R7 vaccine against chicken leucocytozoonosis. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:483-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it is verified that O-rR7 vaccine has efficacy against leucocytozoonosis under field condition, and this vaccine can be put into practical use...
  8. Garamszegi L. The sensitivity of microscopy and PCR-based detection methods affecting estimates of prevalence of blood parasites in birds. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, studies making comparisons across parasite genera and/or host species from different sources need to consider several types of bias originating from variation in method sensitivity...
  9. Marzal A, Ricklefs R, Valkiunas G, Albayrak T, Arriero E, Bonneaud C, et al. Diversity, loss, and gain of malaria parasites in a globally invasive bird. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21905 pubmed publisher
    ..of a common invasive bird, we examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of haemosporidian parasites (order Haemosporida, genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) infecting house sparrows (Passer domesticus)...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Valkiunas G, Santiago Alarcon D, Levin I, Iezhova T, Parker P. A new Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from the endemic Galapagos dove Zenaida galapagoensis, with remarks on the parasite distribution, vectors, and molecular diagnostics. J Parasitol. 2010;96:783-92 pubmed publisher
    Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) multipigmentatus n. sp. (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) was found in the endemic Galapagos dove Zenaida galapagoensis ...
  2. Imura T, Suzuki Y, Ejiri H, Sato Y, Ishida K, Sumiyama D, et al. Prevalence of avian haematozoa in wild birds in a high-altitude forest in Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2012;183:244-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Valkiunas G. Haemosporidian vector research: marriage of molecular and microscopical approaches is essential. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:3084-6 pubmed
    Many species of malaria and related haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) are responsible for diseases in wild and domestic animals. These pathogens are exclusively transmitted by blood-sucking dipteran insects (Diptera)...
  4. Spurgin L, Illera J, Padilla D, Richardson D. Biogeographical patterns and co-occurrence of pathogenic infection across island populations of Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii). Oecologia. 2012;168:691-701 pubmed publisher
  5. Chasar A, Loiseau C, Valkiunas G, Iezhova T, Smith T, Sehgal R. Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:4121-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates that anthropogenic habitat change can affect host-parasite systems and result in opposing trends in prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in wild bird populations...
  6. Sato Y, Tamada A, Mochizuki Y, Nakamura S, Okano E, Yoshida C, et al. Molecular detection of Leucocytozoon lovati from probable vectors, black flies (Simuliudae) collected in the alpine regions of Japan. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:251-5 pubmed publisher
    ..japonicum, S. uchidai, and P. hirtipes group, studied in this area could be regarded as potential vectors for L. lovati in the rock ptarmigan. This is the first detection case of Leucocytozoon from black flies of Japan...
  7. Valkiunas G, Zickus T, Shapoval A, Lezhova T. Effect of Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) on body mass of the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1123-5 pubmed
    ..Clinical symptoms of the infection were not recorded. All birds from both groups survived until the end of the experiment...
  8. Krizanauskiene A, Iezhova T, Sehgal R, Carlson J, Palinauskas V, Bensch S, et al. Molecular characterization of Haemoproteus sacharovi (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae), a common parasite of columbiform birds, with remarks on classification of haemoproteids of doves and pigeons. Zootaxa. 2013;3616:85-94 pubmed publisher
    Haemoproteus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) is the largest genus of avian haemosporidian parasites, some species of which cause lethal diseases in birds...
  9. Ortego J, Cordero P. PCR-based detection and genotyping of haematozoa (Protozoa) parasitizing eagle owls, Bubo bubo. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:467-70 pubmed publisher
    ..ziemanni constitutes a monophyletic clade that may be composed by a complex of genetically differentiated cryptic species...
  10. Valkiunas G, Bensch S, Iezhova T, Krizanauskiene A, Hellgren O, Bolshakov C. Nested cytochrome b polymerase chain reaction diagnostics underestimate mixed infections of avian blood haemosporidian parasites: microscopy is still essential. J Parasitol. 2006;92:418-22 pubmed
    ..increasingly to screen vertebrate blood samples for the diagnosis of haemosporidian blood parasites (Sporozoa, Haemosporida), but a rigorous evaluation of the sensitivity of these methods for detecting mixed infections of different ..
  11. Sehgal R, Hull A, Anderson N, Valkiunas G, Markovets M, Kawamura S, et al. Evidence for cryptic speciation of Leucocytozoon spp. (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae) in diurnal raptors. J Parasitol. 2006;92:375-9 pubmed
    Species of Leucocytozoon (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae) traditionally have been described based on morphological characters of their blood stages and host cells, with limited information on their avian host specificity...
  12. Hellgren O, Krizanauskiene A, Valkiunas G, Bensch S. Diversity and phylogeny of mitochondrial cytochrome B lineages from six morphospecies of avian Haemoproteus (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae). J Parasitol. 2007;93:889-96 pubmed
    Species of Haemoproteus (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae), avian haemosporidians, have traditionally been described based on morphology of their gametocytes and on limited experimental information on their vertebrate host specificity...
  13. Martínez de la Puente J, Martinez J, Rivero de Aguilar J, Herrero J, Merino S. On the specificity of avian blood parasites: revealing specific and generalist relationships between haemosporidians and biting midges. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:3275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Several C. festivipennis and C. kibunesis haplotypes established significant coevolutionary links with Haemoproteus haplotypes. These results shed light on the specificity of interactions between vectors and blood parasites...
  14. Pérez Tris J, Hasselquist D, Hellgren O, Krizanauskiene A, Waldenstrom J, Bensch S. What are malaria parasites?. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:209-11 pubmed
  15. Ito A, Gotanda T, Kobayashi S, Kume K, Sugimoto C, Matsumura T. Increase of antibody titer against Leucocytozoon caulleryi by oral administration of recombinant R7 antigen. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:211-3 pubmed
    ..Also, LV-vaccinated chickens whose anti-2GS antibody titer was middle-level showed increases of the antibody titer compared to vaccinated-control chickens (P>0.01, >0.05) after oral administration with rR7 antigen...
  16. Scheuerlein A, Ricklefs R. Prevalence of blood parasites in European passeriform birds. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:1363-70 pubmed
    ..Clearly, ecologists should be cautious in relating patterns of variation in haematozoan prevalence to particular host traits...
  17. Valkiunas G, Kazlauskienė R, Bernotienė R, Palinauskas V, Iezhova T. Abortive long-lasting sporogony of two Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) in the mosquito Ochlerotatus cantans, with perspectives on haemosporidian vector research. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Demonstration of infective sporozoites in insects is essential for definitively demonstrating the insects are vectors...
  18. Waldenstrom J, Bensch S, Kiboi S, Hasselquist D, Ottosson U. Cross-species infection of blood parasites between resident and migratory songbirds in Africa. Mol Ecol. 2002;11:1545-54 pubmed
    ..This cost of migration could have considerable impact on the evolution of migration and patterns of winter distribution in migrating birds...
  19. Valkiunas G, Kazlauskienė R, Bernotienė R, Bukauskaitė D, Palinauskas V, Iezhova T. Haemoproteus infections (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) kill bird-biting mosquitoes. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:1011-8 pubmed publisher
    Haemoproteus parasites (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) are widespread; some species cause severe diseases in avian hosts...
  20. Levin I, Valkiunas G, Santiago Alarcon D, Cruz L, Iezhova T, O Brien S, et al. Hippoboscid-transmitted Haemoproteus parasites (Haemosporida) infect Galapagos Pelecaniform birds: evidence from molecular and morphological studies, with a description of Haemoproteus iwa. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:1019-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that hippoboscid flies warrant more attention as vectors of avian Haemoproteus spp., particularly in marine and coastal environments...
  21. la Puente J, Merino S, Tomás G, Moreno J, Morales J, Lobato E, et al. The blood parasite Haemoproteus reduces survival in a wild bird: a medication experiment. Biol Lett. 2010;6:663-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence showing long-term direct survival costs of chronic Haemoproteus infections in wild birds...
  22. Valkiunas G, Iezhova T, Evans E, Carlson J, Martínez Gómez J, Sehgal R. Two new Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from columbiform birds. J Parasitol. 2013;99:513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..sp. (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) from the Socorro common ground dove (Columbina passerina socorroensis) of Socorro Island, ..
  23. Matta N, Lotta I, Valkiunas G, González A, Pacheco M, Escalante A, et al. Description of Leucocytozoon quynzae sp. nov. (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae) from hummingbirds, with remarks on distribution and possible vectors of leucocytozoids in South America. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:457-68 pubmed publisher
    We describe Leucocytozoon quynzae sp. nov. (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae), which is the first Leucocytozoon parasite identified to species level in hummingbirds...
  24. Loiseau C, Zoorob R, Garnier S, Birard J, Federici P, Julliard R, et al. Antagonistic effects of a Mhc class I allele on malaria-infected house sparrows. Ecol Lett. 2008;11:258-65 pubmed
    ..4-fold reduction in the risk to harbour a Haemoproteus strain. We suggest that this antagonistic effect might arise because Mhc genes can alter the competitive interactions between malaria parasites within the host...
  25. Omori S, Sato Y, Hirakawa S, Isobe T, Yukawa M, Murata K. Two extra chromosomal genomes of Leucocytozoon caulleryi; complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome and existence of the apicoplast genome. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..caulleryi. These sequences were estimated as partial caseinolytic protease C and elongation factor Tu A genes. This report is the first description of two extra chromosomal genomes of L. caulleryi...
  26. Valkiunas G, Iezhova T, Krizanauskiene A, Palinauskas V, Sehgal R, Bensch S. A comparative analysis of microscopy and PCR-based detection methods for blood parasites. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Presently, different PCR protocols must be used for the detection of parasites belonging to different genera; this is expensive and time-consuming...
  27. Duval L, Robert V, Csorba G, Hassanin A, Randrianarivelojosia M, Walston J, et al. Multiple host-switching of Haemosporidia parasites in bats. Malar J. 2007;6:157 pubmed
    ..However, no evidence has previously been found for host-swapping between wild birds and mammals...
  28. Pérez Tris J, Bensch S. Diagnosing genetically diverse avian malarial infections using mixed-sequence analysis and TA-cloning. Parasitology. 2005;131:15-23 pubmed
    ..We discuss the utility of the method, and propose a framework for its use when screening for genetically diverse avian malarial parasites...
  29. Bentz S, Rigaud T, Barroca M, Martin Laurent F, Bru D, Moreau J, et al. Sensitive measure of prevalence and parasitaemia of haemosporidia from European blackbird (Turdus merula) populations: value of PCR-RFLP and quantitative PCR. Parasitology. 2006;133:685-92 pubmed
    ..This suggests that previous results obtained by smear screening should be reinterpreted in terms of parasitaemia instead of parasite prevalence...
  30. Fallon S, Bermingham E, Ricklefs R. Host specialization and geographic localization of avian malaria parasites: a regional analysis in the Lesser Antilles. Am Nat. 2005;165:466-80 pubmed
  31. Szymanski M, Lovette I. High lineage diversity and host sharing of malarial parasites in a local avian assemblage. J Parasitol. 2005;91:768-74 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that some Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp. lineages exhibit a low degree of host specificity, a phenomenon with implications for ecological and evolutionary interactions among these parasites and their hosts...
  32. Ricklefs R, Fallon S. Diversification and host switching in avian malaria parasites. Proc Biol Sci. 2002;269:885-92 pubmed
    ..Although host switching has been a prominent feature over the evolutionary history of avian malaria parasites, it is infrequent and unpredictable on time scales germane to public health and wildlife management...
  33. Waldenstrom J, Bensch S, Hasselquist D, Ostman O. A new nested polymerase chain reaction method very efficient in detecting Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections from avian blood. J Parasitol. 2004;90:191-4 pubmed
    ..infections, which often are of low intensity and, therefore, hard to detect with other methods...
  34. Hellgren O, Waldenstrom J, Pérez Tris J, Szöll E, Si O, Hasselquist D, et al. Detecting shifts of transmission areas in avian blood parasites: a phylogenetic approach. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:1281-90 pubmed
  35. Møller A, Nielsen J. Malaria and risk of predation: a comparative study of birds. Ecology. 2007;88:871-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this study demonstrates that protozoan infections are a common cause of death for hosts mediated by increased risk of predation...
  36. Wood M, Cosgrove C, Wilkin T, Knowles S, Day K, Sheldon B. Within-population variation in prevalence and lineage distribution of avian malaria in blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:3263-73 pubmed
  37. Ricklefs R, Fallon S, Bermingham E. Evolutionary relationships, cospeciation, and host switching in avian malaria parasites. Syst Biol. 2004;53:111-9 pubmed
    ..Detailed studies of the phylogeographic distributions of hosts and parasites are needed to characterize these events...
  38. Rooyen J, Lalubin F, Glaizot O, Christe P. Altitudinal variation in haemosporidian parasite distribution in great tit populations. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:139 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives were to determine the lineage diversity of parasites occuring across the study populations and to investigate whether altitudinal gradients govern the distribution of haemosporidian parasites by lineage...
  39. Bensch S, Pérez Tris J, Waldenstrom J, Hellgren O. Linkage between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in avian malaria parasites: multiple cases of cryptic speciation?. Evolution. 2004;58:1617-21 pubmed
    ..Studies examining parasite virulence and host immune systems must consider this remarkable diversity of avian malaria parasites...
  40. Hellgren O, Waldenstrom J, Bensch S. A new PCR assay for simultaneous studies of Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus from avian blood. J Parasitol. 2004;90:797-802 pubmed
    Many bird species host several lineages of apicomplexan blood parasites (Protista spp., Haemosporida spp.), some of which are shared across different host species...
  41. Jenkins T, Owens I. Biogeography of avian blood parasites (Leucocytozoon spp.) in two resident hosts across Europe: phylogeographic structuring or the abundance-occupancy relationship?. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:3910-20 pubmed publisher
  42. Beadell J, Gering E, Austin J, Dumbacher J, Peirce M, Pratt T, et al. Prevalence and differential host-specificity of two avian blood parasite genera in the Australo-Papuan region. Mol Ecol. 2004;13:3829-44 pubmed
    ..These results support previous evidence of strong host-family specificity in Haemoproteus and suggest that lineages of Plasmodium are more likely to form evolutionarily-stable associations with novel hosts...
  43. Synek P, Munclinger P, Albrecht T, Votypka J. Avian haemosporidians in haematophagous insects in the Czech Republic. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The co-occurrence of Haemoproteus ROFI1 and TURDUS2 lineages in both insects and birds at the same study plot suggests a transmission of these lineages during breeding season of birds...
  44. Bensch S, Akesson S. Temporal and spatial variation of hematozoans in Scandinavian willow warblers. J Parasitol. 2003;89:388-91 pubmed
    ..Such fluctuations of parasites and the selection pressure they supposedly impose on the host population are likely to maintain variation in immune system genes in the host population...
  45. Megali A, Yannic G, Christe P. Disease in the dark: molecular characterization of Polychromophilus murinus in temperate zone bats revealed a worldwide distribution of this malaria-like disease. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:1039-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These haplotypes formed a well-defined clade together with Haemosporidia of tropical bats, revealing a worldwide distribution of this parasite mostly neglected by malarial studies since the 1980s...
  46. Ricklefs R, Outlaw D. A molecular clock for malaria parasites. Science. 2010;329:226-9 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum at 2.5 million years ago (Ma), the initial radiation of mammalian Plasmodium at 12.8 Ma, and the contemporary global diversity of the Haemosporida across terrestrial vertebrates at 16.2 Ma.
  47. Madsen V, Valkiunas G, Iezhova T, Mercade C, Sanchez M, Osorno J. Testosterone levels and gular pouch coloration in courting magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens): variation with age-class, visited status and blood parasite infection. Horm Behav. 2007;51:156-63 pubmed
    ..Investigated frigatebirds were infected only with Haemoproteus iwa (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae), with an overall prevalence infection of 15.5%...
  48. Outlaw D, Ricklefs R. Comparative gene evolution in haemosporidian (apicomplexa) parasites of birds and mammals. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:537-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The high d(N)/d(S) ratio in the cyt b branch separating avian and mammalian parasites and a mammal-parasite codon bias suggest that adaptive evolution has distinguished mammal and bird parasites...
  49. Krizanauskiene A, Hellgren O, Kosarev V, Sokolov L, Bensch S, Valkiunas G. Variation in host specificity between species of avian hemosporidian parasites: evidence from parasite morphology and cytochrome B gene sequences. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1319-24 pubmed
    ..The natural host range is thus not a reliable taxonomic character in the systematics of these parasites in the form in which it is still accepted in some recent taxonomic studies...
  50. Iezhova T, Valkiunas G, Loiseau C, Smith T, Sehgal R. Haemoproteus cyanomitrae sp. nov. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from a widespread African songbird, the olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea. J Parasitol. 2010;96:137-43 pubmed publisher
    Haemoproteus ( Parahaemoproteus ) cyanomitrae n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) was found in the olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea (Nectariniidae), in rain forests of tropical Africa...
  51. Bensch S, Stjernman M, Hasselquist D, Ostman O, Hansson B, Westerdahl H, et al. Host specificity in avian blood parasites: a study of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus mitochondrial DNA amplified from birds. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1583-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, host shifts seem to have occurred repeatedly in this parasite host system. We discuss this in terms of the possible evolutionary consequences for these bird species...
  52. Cosgrove C, Day K, Sheldon B. Coamplification of Leucocytozoon by PCR diagnostic tests for avian malaria: a cautionary note. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1362-5 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, advocate the use of a post-PCR diagnostic step, such as RFLP analysis or sequencing, to assess the contribution of Leucocytozoon spp. to overall prevalence...
  53. Deviche P, Greiner E, Manteca X. Interspecific variability of prevalence in blood parasites of adult passerine birds during the breeding season in Alaska. J Wildl Dis. 2001;37:28-35 pubmed
  54. Santiago Alarcon D, Palinauskas V, Schaefer H. Diptera vectors of avian Haemosporidian parasites: untangling parasite life cycles and their taxonomy. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2012;87:928-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Haemosporida is a large group of vector-borne intracellular parasites that infect amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. This group includes the different malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that infect humans around the world...
  55. Levin I, Valkiunas G, Iezhova T, O Brien S, Parker P. Novel Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from the swallow-tailed gull (Lariidae), with remarks on the host range of hippoboscid-transmitted avian hemoproteids. J Parasitol. 2012;98:847-54 pubmed publisher
    Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus) jenniae n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) is described from a Galapagos bird, the swallow-tailed gull Creagrus furcatus (Charadriiformes, Laridae), based on the morphology of its blood stages and segments ..
  56. Valkiunas G, Iezhova T. The transmission of Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) of blackcap by Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Parasitol. 2004;90:196-8 pubmed
    ..9 and 16% of erythrocytes in different experimental hosts. Culicoides impunctatus is an experimental vector of H. belopolskyi. It is likely to be the important natural vector of Haemoproteus spp. of passerine birds in Europe...
  57. Poinar G, Telford S. Paleohaemoproteus burmacis gen. n., sp. n. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) from an Early Cretaceous biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Parasitology. 2005;131:79-84 pubmed
    ..Characters of the biting midge suggest that the host was a large, cold-blooded vertebrate. This is the earliest record of a malaria parasite and first indication that Early Cretaceous reptiles were infected with haemosporidial parasites...
  58. Krizanauskiene A, Pérez Tris J, Palinauskas V, Hellgren O, Bensch S, Valkiunas G. Molecular phylogenetic and morphological analysis of haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida) in a naturally infected European songbird, the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, with description of Haemoproteus pallidulus sp. nov. Parasitology. 2010;137:217-27 pubmed publisher
  59. Martinez J, Martínez de la Puente J, Herrero J, Del Cerro S, Lobato E, Rivero DE Aguilar J, et al. A restriction site to differentiate Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections in birds: on the inefficiency of general primers for detection of mixed infections. Parasitology. 2009;136:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific primers for each species and study area should be designed until a new method can efficiently discriminate both parasites...