Summary: An order of parasitic protozoa found in blood cells and epithelial cells of vertebrates and invertebrates. Life cycles involve both sexual and asexual phases.

Top Publications

  1. Baneth G, Aroch I, Tal N, Harrus S. Hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study. Vet Parasitol. 1998;79:123-33 pubmed a rare finding in cats from Israel. The over-representation of cats with a retroviral disease among the cats with hepatozoonosis indicates a possible association between immunosupression and the development of Hepatozoon infection. ..
  2. Thielman N, Guerrant R. Persistent diarrhea in the returned traveler. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998;12:489-501 pubmed
  3. Desser S. The blood parasites of the spiny pocket mouse Liomys salvini (Thomas, 1893) from Costa Rica. J Parasitol. 2000;86:156-7 pubmed
    ..Sixty percent of the mice harbored Trypanosoma zeledoni, 5% an unnamed species of Hepatozoon, and 20% of the mice were infected with a species of Haemobartonella...
  4. Jakes K, O Donoghue P, Whittier J. Ultrastructure of Hepatozoon boigae (Mackerras, 1961) nov. comb. from brown tree snakes, Boiga irregularis, from northern Australia. Parasitol Res. 2003;90:225-31 pubmed
    ..These stages did not possess apical complex organelles and were surrounded by thick walls containing circumferential junctions and interposed strips reminiscent of oocyst sutures...
  5. Kirchner M, Brunner A, Edelhofer R, Joachim A. [Vector-borne parasites of dogs on the Islands of Cabo Verde]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2008;120:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the high infection rates the import of animals from Cabo Verde to Central Europe must be seen as critical, since an endemisation of (sub-)tropical infectious agents cannot be excluded. ..
  6. Sakuma M, Nishio T, Nakanishi N, Izawa M, Asari Y, Okamura M, et al. A case of Iriomote cat (Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis) with Hepatozoon felis parasitemia. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:1381-4 pubmed
    ..felis in leopard cats in Korea. Although the virulence of H. felis in this cat was suggested to be low, this is the first report of an H. felis-infected Iriomote cat with parasitemia. ..
  7. Wittner M, Tanowitz H, Weiss L. Parasitic infections in AIDS patients. Cryptosporidiosis, isosporiasis, microsporidiosis, cyclosporiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1993;7:569-86 pubmed
    ..Until the AIDS epidemic, several of these parasitic infections were almost unknown as causes of human disease. This article reviews the diseases produced by cryptosporidia, isospora, cyclospora, and microsporidia in humans. ..
  8. Lopez F, Manglicmot J, Schmidt T, Yeh C, Smith H, Relman D. Molecular characterization of Cyclospora-like organisms from baboons. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:670-6 pubmed
    ..These findings raise important questions about the evolutionary relationships of the eimeriids and Cyc-hu host range and should lead to improved polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostics. ..
  9. Di Gliullo A, Cribari M, Bava A, Cicconetti J, Collazos R. Cyclospora cayetanensis in sputum and stool samples. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2000;42:115-7 pubmed
    ..C. cayetanensis is an emergent agent of diarrhea and as far as we know this is the first time the parasite is observed in respiratory samples. ..

More Information


  1. Kubo M, Jeong A, Kim S, Kim Y, Lee H, Kimura J, et al. The first report of Hepatozoon species infection in leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis) in Korea. J Parasitol. 2010;96:437-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In analyses of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, the Hepatozoon species infecting the Korean leopard cats was closely related to Brazilian (99.2-99.8% identical) and Spanish (97.0-98.2% identical) isolates of Hepatozoon felis. ..
  2. Baneth G, Samish M, Shkap V. Life cycle of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and domestic dog (Canis familiaris). J Parasitol. 2007;93:283-99 pubmed
    ..Skeletal pain and recumbency were manifested in 2 dogs. This study further elucidates the life cycle of H. canis and provides a sequential morphologic description of H. canis merogony, gamontogony, and sporogony...
  3. Merino S, Martinez J, Martínez de la Puente J, Criado Fornelio A, Tomás G, Morales J, et al. Molecular characterization of the 18S rDNA gene of an avian Hepatozoon reveals that it is closely related to Lankesterella. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1330-5 pubmed
    ..minima. The bootstrap values obtained were 97% and 100%, respectively. These results imply that this parasite is a species of a lankesterellid instead of Hepatozoon. ..
  4. Telford S, Butler J, Moler P. Two additional Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) from the southern black racer, Coluber constrictor priapus (Serpentes: Colubridae), in northern Florida. J Parasitol. 2005;91:139-43 pubmed
    ..5 x 108.9 (52-278 x 50-278), with L/W 1.06 (1.0-1.2), and contain 25.0 (7-111) sporocysts. Sporocysts are spherical to ovoid, 27.6 x 25.2 (21-38 x 20-33), LW 701.3 (420-1,125) and L/W 1.09 (1.0-1.4), containing 20.2 (12-32) sporozoites. ..
  5. Kocan A, Breshears M, Cummings C, Panciera R, Ewing S, Barker R. Naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in coyotes from Oklahoma. J Wildl Dis. 1999;35:86-9 pubmed
    ..americanum in this small sample of free-ranging coyotes and the ability of these same animals to harbor adult populations of A. maculatum is an important component of the epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in North America. ..
  6. Criado Fornelio A, Martinez Marcos A, Buling Saraña A, Barba Carretero J. Molecular studies on Babesia, Theileria and Hepatozoon in southern Europe. Part II. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary history. Vet Parasitol. 2003;114:173-94 pubmed
    ..Taking into account the present phylogenetic analysis and additional paleogeographic, parasitological and zoological evidences, two hypothesis on the origin and evolution of piroplasmids groups are presented. ..
  7. Stenberg P, Bowerman W. First report of Hepatozoon sp. in the Oregon spotted frog, Rana pretiosa. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:956-60 pubmed
    ..Intra-and extracellular merozoites were present, but rare. A potential vector, the mosquito Culex boharti, was common throughout the habitat of the population carrying Hepatozoon sp. ..
  8. Weber R, Deplazes P. [New parasitic diseases in man: infections caused by Microsporida and Cyclospora species]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1995;125:909-23 pubmed
    ..Diarrhea is usually self-limiting. Diarrhea, however, may often last weeks to months, causing significant morbidity. Cotrimoxazole appears to be the drug of choice for treatment of Cyclospora infection. ..
  9. Abd Allah Shazly M. Erythrocytic and merogonic stages of Hepatozoon ridibundae sp. nov. infecting the Arabian ranid frogs, Rana ridibunda in Saudi Arabia with reflections on the haemogregarine complex. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2003;33:497-516 pubmed
    ..2 +/- 0.3 x 3.8 +/- 0.4 microm. A partial systematic revision of the haemogregarine complex was discussed in the view of the diagnostic characteristic features of the 6 recognized haemogregarine genera...
  10. Godfrey S, Nelson N, Bull C. Ecology and dynamics of the blood parasite, Hepatozoon tuatarae (Apicomplexa), in tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on Stephens Island, New Zealand. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:126-39 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that exposure and susceptibility to infection decreases with host size and that ticks, but not mites, are probably the vectors in this ancient host-parasite association of a long-lived (>50 yr) host. ..
  11. Davies A, Hosein S, Merrett N. Haematozoans from deep water fishes trawled off the Cape Verde Islands and over the Porcupine Seabight, with a revision of species within the genus Desseria (Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae). Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2012;59:1-11 pubmed
    ..Of the original list of 41 species, 30 were retained and 5 species added, including D. harriottae, so that the genus now contains 35 species. ..
  12. Jittapalapong S, Rungphisutthipongse O, Maruyama S, Schaefer J, Stich R. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1081:479-88 pubmed
    ..canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated. ..
  13. Ewing S, Panciera R, Mathew J. Persistence of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) in a naturally infected dog. J Parasitol. 2003;89:611-3 pubmed
    ..Preventing ingestion of Gulf Coast ticks is an effective control measure. ..
  14. Almeida A, Souza T, Marcili A, Labruna M. Novel Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon agents infecting the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) in southeastern Brazil. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:640-6 pubmed
    ..ruminantium and H. americanum, it is highly desirable to know if these novel organisms have any important role as agents of diseases in domestic animals and wildlife in Brazil. ..
  15. Readel A, Goldberg T. Blood parasites of frogs from an equatorial African montane forest in western Uganda. J Parasitol. 2010;96:448-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Seasonal changes in the prevalence and intensity of parasitemia were not observed, nor was there any association between parasitemia and infection with the pandemic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. ..
  16. Olah G. Distinction between Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226:1477-8 pubmed
  17. Baneth G, Samish M, Alekseev E, Aroch I, Shkap V. Transmission of hepatozoon canis to dogs by naturally-fed or percutaneously-injected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. J Parasitol. 2001;87:606-11 pubmed
  18. Smith H, Paton C, Mitambo M, Girdwood R. Sporulation of Cyclospora sp. oocysts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:1631-2 pubmed
    ..Up to 12% of human- and baboon-derived oocysts previously stored at 4 degrees C for 1 to 2 months sporulated when stored for 6 to 7 days at 30 degrees C. ..
  19. Baneth G, Shkap V, Samish M, Pipano E, Savitsky I. Antibody response to Hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol. 1998;74:299-305 pubmed
    ..Detection of IgG titres would be beneficial for the diagnosis of progressive infections with undetectable parasitemia, for seroprevalence studies, and as an adjunct to IgM titres in early infections. ..
  20. Ewing S, DuBois J, Mathew J, Panciera R. Larval Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) [Acari: Ixodidae] as host for Hepatozoon americanum [Apicomplexa: Adeleorina]. Vet Parasitol. 2002;103:43-51 pubmed
    ..maculatum can acquire infection and nymphs can harbor viable oocysts as demonstrated by this study, the potential variety of vertebrate hosts that can alternate with GCTs in maintaining an endemic cycle is considerably expanded. ..
  21. Allen K, Yabsley M, Johnson E, Reichard M, Panciera R, Ewing S, et al. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States. J Parasitol. 2011;97:648-53 pubmed publisher
    ..4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. ..
  22. Simpson V, Panciera R, Hargreaves J, McGarry J, Scholes S, Bown K, et al. Myocarditis and myositis due to infection with Hepatozoon species in pine martens (Martes martes) in Scotland. Vet Rec. 2005;156:442-6 pubmed
    ..The pine martens were in good physical condition and there was no indication that the infection was causing ill health. ..
  23. Harris D, Maia J, Perera A. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon species in reptiles from the Seychelles. J Parasitol. 2011;97:106-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Hepatozoon on the Seychelles form a monophyletic lineage, although more data are clearly needed to stabilize estimates of relationships based on this marker. ..
  24. Molnar O, Bajer K, Mészáros B, Torok J, Herczeg G. Negative correlation between nuptial throat colour and blood parasite load in male European green lizards supports the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften. 2013;100:551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis...
  25. Abdel Haleem H, Al Quraishy S, Abdel Baki A. A redescription of Haemogregarina damiettae Ramadan et al. 1996 naturally infecting the Acanthodactylus boskianus from Egypt, with new merognic data. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2045-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The merogonic stages were evident as multinucleated ovoid to subspherical bodies enclosed by parasitophorous vacuoles. Mature meronts measured 16?×?12 ?m and estimated to produce 15-25 merozoites. ..
  26. Miyamoto M, Mello M. Chromatin supraorganization, DNA fragmentation, and cell death in erythrocytes of the rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae), infected with the protozoan, Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae). Cell Biol Int. 2007;31:494-9 pubmed
    ..The Hepatozoon infection is thus suggested to accelerate destruction of erythrocytes in the rattlesnake, not only affecting cells harbouring the parasite, but also in those without it...
  27. Boulianne B, Evans R, Smith T. Phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) infecting frogs of Nova Scotia, Canada, determined by ITS-1 sequences. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..clamatae. Phylogenetic data based on molecular variation and cytopathological features from this study provide the strongest evidence to date supporting the distinction between these 2 species...
  28. O Dwyer L, Massard C, Pereira de Souza J. Hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2001;94:143-50 pubmed
    ..6%), R. sanguineus (12.4%), Amblyomma aureolatum (2.8%) and Amblyomma ovale (2.0%). There was a positive correlation between the presence of A. cajennense and H. canis infection...
  29. East M, Wibbelt G, Lieckfeldt D, Ludwig A, Goller K, Wilhelm K, et al. A Hepatozoon species genetically distinct from H. canis infecting spotted hyenas in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:45-52 pubmed
    ..Previous reports of infection of wild carnivores in eastern and southern Africa with an unspecified Hepatozoon species similar in appearance to H. canis may have involved the species described in this study...
  30. Tarello W. Halitosis in association with canine hepatozoonosis. Vet Rec. 2006;158:205-6 pubmed
  31. Baneth G, Barta J, Shkap V, Martin D, Macintire D, Vincent Johnson N. Genetic and antigenic evidence supports the separation of Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum at the species level. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1298-301 pubmed
    ..canis and anti-H. americanum sera against H. canis gamonts. Sequence analysis of 368 bases near the 3' end of the 18S rRNA gene from each species revealed a pairwise difference of 13.59%...
  32. Adam R, Ortega Y, Gilman R, Sterling C. Intervening transcribed spacer region 1 variability in Cyclospora cayetanensis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2339-43 pubmed
    ..These multiple sequences could represent multiple clones from a single clinical source or, more likely, variability of the ITS1 region within the genome of a single clone...
  33. Ramírez Herrera O, Rodriguez Vivas R, Montes Pérez R, Torres Acosta J. [Annual follow-up of the gastrointestinal parasitosis of the tepezcuintle, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in captivity in the Mexican tropic]. Rev Biol Trop. 2001;49:1171-6 pubmed
    ..showed that the tepezcuintle (Agouti paca) is commonly infested by gastrointestinal parasites (GIP), mainly Eucoccidiida and helminths...
  34. Collins P, Wright M. Emerging intestinal protozoa: a diagnostic dilemma. Clin Lab Sci. 1997;10:273-8 pubmed
    ..The proper identification of these pathogens rests with well-trained laboratory personnel. As appropriate treatment differs for each genus, communication between the laboratory and the physician is vital to the recovery of the patient...
  35. Voyvoda H, Pasa S, Uner A. Clinical Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog in Turkey. J Small Anim Pract. 2004;45:613-7 pubmed
    ..canis gametocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed clinical description of H. canis infection in a dog in Turkey...
  36. Perez R, Rubini A, O Dwyer L. The first report of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) in domestic cats from São Paulo state, Brazil. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:83-5 pubmed
    ..Another two cats, which lived in the same house as the first cat, were also positive for this hemoparasite. This is the first report of a Hepatozoon sp. infection in domestic cats from Brazil...
  37. Ewing S, Panciera R. The biology and control of ticks infesting dogs and cats. Vet Ther. 2004;5:236-7; author reply 237 pubmed
  38. Pereira G, Soares P, Gomes M, Viana L, Manso P, Machado M, et al. Are fish paratenic natural hosts of the caiman haemoparasite Hepatozoon caimani?. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Gametocytes were observed in the blood smears of juvenile caimans that had ingested infected fish 9-12 weeks earlier. The potential role of fish as paratenic vertebrate hosts of H. caimani in nature is discussed...
  39. Telford S, Moler P, Butler J. Hepatozoon species of the timber rattlesnake in northern Florida: description of a new species, evidence of salivary gland oocysts, and a natural cross-familial transmission of an Hepatozoon species. J Parasitol. 2008;94:520-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The spherical to ovoid oocysts form spherical to elongate sporocysts 14-45 x 11-25 microm, L/W 1.0-2.3, producing an average of 13.0 (8-21) sporozoites. The salivary gland in 1 of 5 mosquitoes dissected contained 1 mature oocyst...
  40. Van As J, Davies A, Smit N. Hepatozoon langii n. sp. and Hepatozoon vacuolatus n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Adele-orina: Hepatozoidae) from the crag lizard (Sauria: Cordylidae) Pseudocordylus langi from the North Eastern Drakensberg escarpment, Eastern Free State, South Africa. Zootaxa. 2013;3608:345-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatozoon langii n. sp occurred in the absence of H. vacuolatus n. sp., but the latter haemogregarine always formed mixed infections with the former; no stages intermediate between the two haemogregarine types were observed. ..
  41. Baneth G. Perspectives on canine and feline hepatozoonosis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:3-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention of hepatozoonosis should be based on avoidance of oral ingestion of infected tick vectors and infected prey...
  42. Ponce De Leon P, Flaherty P, Zdero M. [A new trichromic safranin stain for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, species of Microsporidia and Isospora belli in fecal material]. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 1999;41:211-4 pubmed
    ..The safranin-trichrome stain is simple, chip and its results are similar to those of specific tints. All microorganisms are easy to detect and besides being perfectly distinguishable from fungi and faecal elements...
  43. Jinneman K, Wetherington J, Hill W, Omiescinski C, Adams A, Johnson J, et al. An oligonucleotide-ligation assay for the differentiation between Cyclospora and Eimeria spp. polymerase chain reaction amplification products. J Food Prot. 1999;62:682-5 pubmed
    ..mitis strains and the ratio of positive to negative spectrophotometric absorbance (A490) values for each strain ranged from 4.086 to 15.280 (median 9.5). PCR/OLA provides a rapid, reliable, spectrophotometric alternative to PCR/RFLP...
  44. Maia J, Harris D, Perera A. Molecular survey of Hepatozoon species in lizards from North Africa. J Parasitol. 2011;97:513-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Parasite prevalence differed significantly between lacertid lizards and geckos. Our results show that there is limited host specificity and no clear relation to the geographical distribution of Hepatozoon parasites...
  45. Collins R. Protozoan parasites of the intestinal tract: a review of Coccidia and Microsporida. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1997;97:593-8 pubmed
    ..Increased incidence and numbers of patients with prolonged diarrhea due to these forms indicate the need for increased clinical vigilance with regard to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment...
  46. Potter T, Macintire D. Hepatozoon americanum: an emerging disease in the south-central/southeastern United States. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2010;20:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the clinical epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of Hepatozoon americanum infection in dogs...
  47. Dezdek D, Vojta L, Curković S, Lipej Z, Mihaljević Z, Cvetnic Z, et al. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus...
  48. Bern C, Hernandez B, Lopez M, Arrowood M, de Mejia M, de Merida A, et al. Epidemiologic studies of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Guatemala. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:766-74 pubmed
    ..8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 10.8 by univariate analysis). Other risk factors included water source, type of sewage drainage, ownership of chickens or other fowl, and contact with soil (among children younger than 2 years)...
  49. Madsen T, Ujvari B. MHC class I variation associates with parasite resistance and longevity in tropical pythons. J Evol Biol. 2006;19:1973-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest python MHC is subject to both frequency-dependent and balancing selection...
  50. Simpson V, Birtles R, Bown K, Panciera R, Butler H, Davison N. Hepatozoon species infection in wild red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) on the Isle of Wight. Vet Rec. 2006;159:202-5 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide base sequence of the PCR products indicated that the organism was a novel species closely related to, but distinct from, Hepatozoon erhardovae of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus)...
  51. Telford S, Butler J, Telford R. Hepatozoon polytopis n. sp. parasitic in two genera and species of colubrid snakes in southern Florida. J Parasitol. 2005;91:144-7 pubmed
    ..Thamnophis sauritus sackenii from Palm Beach County is infected also by H. polytopis, as indicated from similar gamont dimensions and verified by isolation of an identical haplotype of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene from both host species...
  52. Mackenzie G, Beaver D. What is your diagnosis? Hepatozoonosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226:693-4 pubmed
  53. Al Ghamdi A, Morsy K, Bashtar A, Abdel Ghaffar F, Al Rasheid K, Al Quraishy S, et al. Developmental stages of Hepatozoon hemprichii sp. nov. infecting the skink Scincus hemprichii and the tick Hyalomma impeltatum from Saudi Arabia. J Parasitol. 2011;97:878-83 pubmed publisher
  54. Ewing S, Panciera R, Mathew J, Cummings C, Kocan A. American canine hepatozoonosis. An emerging disease in the New World. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;916:81-92 pubmed
    ..americanum and to define the enzootic cycle of which dogs have become a part; likewise, more work is required to determine whether larval GCTs can acquire infection and transmit it as nymphs...
  55. Goodgame R. Understanding intestinal spore-forming protozoa: cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:429-41 pubmed
  56. de Bortoli C, André M, Braga M, Machado R. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in cats from São Luís Island, Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1189-92 pubmed publisher
    ..When analyzing the phylogenetic tree, the found Hepatozoon DNA was in the same clade than H. felis isolates. Our findings suggest that more than one species of Hepatozoon could infect felids in Brazil...
  57. Shimokawa Miyama T, Umeki S, Baba K, Sada K, Hiraoka H, Endo Y, et al. Neutropenia associated with osteomyelitis due to Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:1389-93 pubmed
    ..canis infection. This is the first report of neutropenia associated with H. canis infection. H. canis infection can be included in the differential diagnosis in canine cases of neutropenia in areas where the disease is endemic...
  58. Tateno M, Nishio T, Matsuo T, Sakuma M, Nakanishi N, Izawa M, et al. Epidemiological survey of tick-borne protozoal infection in iriomote cats and tsushima leopard cats in Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:985-9 pubmed
    ..The degree of Hepatozoon parasitemia observed on blood smears ranged from 0.1 to 4.7%. However, no cases had obvious clinical signs of hepatozoonosis. Neither Babesia- nor Theileria-infected wildcats were detected in this study. ..
  59. Williams B, Berentsen A, Shock B, Teixiera M, Dunbar M, Becker M, et al. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:911-8 pubmed publisher
  60. Tomé B, Maia J, Salvi D, Brito J, Carretero M, Perera A, et al. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin. Syst Parasitol. 2014;87:249-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp. ..
  61. Panciera R, Mathew J, Cummings C, Duffy J, Ewing S, Kocan A. Comparison of tissue stages of Hepatozoon americanum in the dog using immunohistochemical and routine histologic methods. Vet Pathol. 2001;38:422-6 pubmed
    ..Use of this immunohistochemical procedure confirms the canine intermediate host-parasite relationships that were presumptively established using conventional histopathologic methods...
  62. Gabrielli S, Kumlien S, Calderini P, Brozzi A, Iori A, Cancrini G. The first report of Hepatozoon canis identified in Vulpes vulpes and ticks from Italy. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:855-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sanguineus-free. The peridomestic habits of V. vulpes and the increasing global temperature are expected to amplify the impact of this vector-borne disease and to enforce the transmission of Hepatozoon to domestic animals...
  63. Telford S, Wozniak E, Butler J. Haemogregarine specificity in two communities of Florida snakes, with descriptions of six new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) and a possible species of Haemogregarina (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae). J Parasitol. 2001;87:890-905 pubmed
  64. Telford S. Three new Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) infecting the Florida kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula floridana. J Parasitol. 2010;96:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..33-1.94 that contain 16-36 sporozoites. An oocyst of H. eurytopis was present in the salivary gland of an infected Aedes aegypti , which is the second report of sporogony by a Hepatozoon species occurring in this site...
  65. Shutler D, Smith T, Robinson S. Relationships between leukocytes and Hepatozoon spp. In green frogs, Rana clamitans. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:67-72 pubmed able to evade detection by the immune system, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to manipulate leukocyte investment, or that other unmeasured or undetected parasites were more important in affecting immune response...
  66. Baneth G, Mathew J, Shkap V, Macintire D, Barta J, Ewing S. Canine hepatozoonosis: two disease syndromes caused by separate Hepatozoon spp. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19:27-31 pubmed
  67. Rashdan N, El Sebaii S. Culex neavei Theobald, as a possible transmitter of Hepatozoon matruhensis to the Egyptian snake Psammophis schokari. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006;36:1-6, following 6 pubmed
    ..05) under low temperature and highly significant (p<0.001) under high temperature. The mortality rate was slightly affected at 20 +/- 1 degrees C, but greatly affected at 30 +/- 1 degrees C...
  68. Garrett J, Kocan A, Reichard M, Panciera R, Bahr R, Ewing S. Experimental infection of adult and juvenile coyotes with domestic dog and wild coyote isolates of Hepatozoon americanum (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina). J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:588-92 pubmed
    ..The age of coyotes at the time of exposure, and possibly the number of H. americanum oocysts ingested, might influence morbidity and mortality, but it appears that both adult and juvenile coyotes could be reservoirs of H. americanum...
  69. Baneth G, Shkap V. Monozoic cysts of Hepatozoon canis. J Parasitol. 2003;89:379-81 pubmed
    ..The H. canis cyst stage differs in size and morphology from the large cysts of H. americanum, the second Hepatozoon species known to infect dogs...
  70. Reardon J, Norbury G. Ectoparasite and hemoparasite infection in a diverse temperate lizard assemblage at Macraes Flat, South Island, New Zealand. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1274-8 pubmed
    ..Considering the threatened nature of O. otagense, evidence of high parasitemia should stimulate further investigation...
  71. Merino S, Martinez J, Masello J, Bedolla Y, Quillfeldt P. First molecular characterization of a Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) infecting birds and description of a new species infecting storm petrels (Aves: Hydrobatidae). J Parasitol. 2014;100:338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first Hepatozoon species infecting birds to be characterized at the molecular level and the first found infecting erythrocytes and not leucocytes...
  72. Herbert J, Godfrey S, Bull C, Menz R. Developmental stages and molecular phylogeny of Hepatozoon tuatarae, a parasite infecting the New Zealand tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus and the tick, Amblyomma sphenodonti. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial sequence data of the parasite's small subunit ribosomal gene, obtained by PCR, was used for phylogenetic comparison. Characterisation of the H. tuatarae lifecycle will help in conservation management of the tuatara...
  73. Paperna I, Kremer Mecabell T, Finkelman S. Hepatozoon kisrae n. sp. infecting the lizard Agama stellio is transmitted by the tick Hyalomma cf. aegyptium. Parasite. 2002;9:17-27 pubmed
    ..Ticks become infected when fed on infected lizards; sporogony was complete when the ticks reached adult stage, over 40 days after initial attachment...
  74. El Dakhly K, Goto M, Noishiki K, El Nahass E, Hirata A, Sakai H, et al. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:3267-74 pubmed publisher
  75. Bajer A, Pawelczyk A, Behnke J, Gilbert F, Sinski E. Factors affecting the component community structure of haemoparasites in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from the Mazury Lake District region of Poland. Parasitology. 2001;122 Pt 1:43-54 pubmed
  76. Telford S, Ernst J, Clark A, Butler J. Hepatozoon sauritus: a polytopic hemogregarine of three genera and four species of snakes in north Florida, with specific identity verified from genome analysis. J Parasitol. 2004;90:352-8 pubmed
    ..Hepatozoon sauritus, therefore, is a polytopic species in contrast to the 8 other Hepatozoon species thus far described from snakes in Florida, each of which appears to parasitize a single host species...
  77. Keller R, Lurye J. What is your diagnosis? Hepatozoonosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;225:1531-2 pubmed
  78. Curtis L, Grutter A, Smit N, Davies A. Gnathia aureamaculosa, a likely definitive host of Haemogregarina balistapi and potential vector for Haemogregarina bigemina between fishes of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:361-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Although transmission of H. balistapi has not yet been demonstrated, laboratory trials tend to support the view that G. aureamaculosa is also a potential vector of H. bigemina between surgeonfish...
  79. Tomé B, Maia J, Harris D. Hepatozoon infection prevalence in four snake genera: influence of diet, prey parasitemia levels, or parasite type?. J Parasitol. 2012;98:913-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, this lineage may be more effective at parasitizing snakes or may occur, despite being unrecorded, in other vertebrate groups consumed by snakes...
  80. van Gool T, Dankert J. [3 emerging protozoal infections in The Netherlands: Cyclospora, Dientamoeba, and Microspora infections]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1996;140:155-60 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of E. bieneusi in HIV positive patients with diarrhoea was 8-10% in the Academic Medical Centre in the last five years. Infection with Encephalitozoon appears to be endemic in the Netherlands...
  81. Moço T, da Silva R, Madeira N, dos Santos Paduan K, Rubini A, Leal D, et al. Morphological, morphometric, and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) from naturally infected Caudisona durissa terrifica (Serpentes, Viperidae). Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of Hepatozoon DNA was obtained with success but the molecular characterization was unable to differentiate species of the samples, with respect to the fragment studied...
  82. Karagenc T, Pasa S, Kirli G, Hosgor M, Bilgic H, Ozon Y, et al. A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:113-9 pubmed
    ..The results of sequence analysis indicate that they are closely related to Indian and Japanese isolates of H. canis. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of H. canis infection in the dog, in Turkey...
  83. Fryauff D, Krippner R, Prodjodipuro P, Ewald C, Kawengian S, Pegelow K, et al. Cyclospora cayetanensis among expatriate and indigenous populations of West Java, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:585-8 pubmed
    ..We found that C. cayetanensis was the main protozoal cause of gastrointestinal illness and diarrhea in adult foreign residents during the wet season. The parasite rarely caused illness in the indigenous population or in children...
  84. Vilcins I, Ujvari B, Old J, Deane E. Molecular and morphological description of a Hepatozoon species in reptiles and their ticks in the Northern Territory, Australia. J Parasitol. 2009;95:434-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of an additional genotype suggests the ticks may be exposed to 2 Hepatozoon species, providing further opportunity to study multiple host-vector-parasite relationships...
  85. Pieniazek N, Herwaldt B. Reevaluating the molecular taxonomy: is human-associated Cyclospora a mammalian Eimeria species?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3:381-3 pubmed
    ..To improve our understanding of the taxonomy of human-associated Cyclospora, molecular evaluation of isolates of additional Cyclospora and Eimeria species is needed...
  86. Jinneman K, Wetherington J, Hill W, Adams A, Johnson J, Tenge B, et al. Template preparation for PCR and RFLP of amplification products for the detection and identification of Cyclospora sp. and Eimeria spp. Oocysts directly from raspberries. J Food Prot. 1998;61:1497-503 pubmed
    ..cayetanensis and the Eimeria spp. are 94 to 96% similar in the amplified region, but the amplification products from the two genera were distinguished using an RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme MnlI...
  87. McKiernan J, Grutter A, Davies A. Reproductive and feeding ecology of parasitic gnathiid isopods of epaulette sharks (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) with consideration of their role in the transmission of a haemogregarine. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:19-27 pubmed
    ..hemiscyllii gamonts were detected in squashes of gnathiids that had engorged on haemogregarine-positive H. ocellatum 24-57 days previously, no further developmental stages were detected...