sarcocystis

Summary

Summary: A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.

Top Publications

  1. Elsheikha H, Schott H, Mansfield L. Genetic variation among isolates of Sarcocystis neurona, the agent of protozoal myeloencephalitis, as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Infect Immun. 2006;74:3448-54 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona causes serious neurological disease in horses and other vertebrates in the Americas. Based on epidemiological data, this parasite has recently emerged...
  2. Reiner G, Eckert J, Peischl T, Bochert S, Jakel T, Mackenstedt U, et al. Variation in clinical and parasitological traits in Pietrain and Meishan pigs infected with Sarcocystis miescheriana. Vet Parasitol. 2002;106:99-113 pubmed
    ..e. on the animal model. The present study evaluates differences in susceptibility/resistance against Sarcocystis miescheriana in the European Pietrain (PI) and the Chinese Meishan (ME) pig breeds, based on 25 individuals, ..
  3. Elsheikha H, Fitzgerald S, Mansfield L, Saeed A. Sarcocystis inghami n. sp. (Sporozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the skeletal muscles of the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana in Michigan. Syst Parasitol. 2003;56:77-84 pubmed
    This report describes the newly identified Sarcocystis inghami n. sp...
  4. Yabsley M, Ellis A, Stallknecht D, Howerth E. Characterization of Sarcocystis from four species of hawks from Georgia, USA. J Parasitol. 2009;95:256-9 pubmed publisher
    During 2001 to 2004, 4 species of hawks (Buteo and Accipiter spp.) from Georgia were surveyed for Sarcocystis spp. infections by examining intestinal sections. In total, 159 of 238 (66...
  5. Thomas N, Dubey J, Lindsay D, Cole R, Meteyer C. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): a histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases. J Comp Pathol. 2007;137:102-21 pubmed
    ..the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T...
  6. Miller M, Barr B, Nordhausen R, James E, Magargal S, Murray M, et al. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    In 2004, three wild sea otters were diagnosed with putative Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis by histopathology and immunohistochemistry...
  7. Dubey J, Zarnke R, Thomas N, Wong S, Van Bonn W, Briggs M, et al. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals. Vet Parasitol. 2003;116:275-96 pubmed
    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S...
  8. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Saville W, Reed S, Granstrom D, Speer C. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:89-131 pubmed
    ..The protozoan most commonly associated with EPM is Sarcocystis neurona. The complete life cycle of S...
  9. Gjerde B. Morphological and molecular characterization and phylogenetic placement of Sarcocystis capreolicanis and Sarcocystis silva n. sp. from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Norway. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1225-37 pubmed publisher
    ..By light microscopy, four sarcocyst types were found, including those of Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis oviformis, which had been characterized previously...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Olias P, Gruber A, Heydorn A, Kohls A, Mehlhorn H, Hafez H, et al. A novel Sarcocystis-associated encephalitis and myositis in racing pigeons. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..domestica) have previously been attributed to infection with Sarcocystis falcatula, which is shed in the faeces of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana)...
  2. Yang Z, Wei C, Zen J, Song J, Zuo Y, He Y, et al. A taxonomic re-appraisal of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the monkey Macaca fascicularis in Yunnan, PR China. Parasitol Int. 2005;54:75-81 pubmed
    The first detection of Sarcocystis nesbitti Mandour, 1969 in the Chinese mainland is reported and the morphology of the sarcocyst is described in detail...
  3. Bentz B, Ealey K, Morrow J, Claypool P, Saliki J. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in equids residing in Oklahoma. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:597-600 pubmed
    A sampling of equids from the state of Oklahoma produced an estimate of seroprevalence of antibody to Sarcocystis neurona to be about 89.2%...
  4. Dubey J, Mitchell S, Morrow J, Rhyan J, Stewart L, Granstrom D, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Toxoplasma gondii in wild horses from central Wyoming. J Parasitol. 2003;89:716-20 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, N. hughesi, and Toxoplasma gondii are 4 related coccidians considered to be associated with encephalomyelitis in horses. The source of infection for N...
  5. Howe D, Gaji R, Mroz Barrett M, Gubbels M, Striepen B, Stamper S. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites express a family of immunogenic surface antigens that are orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1023-33 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S...
  6. Yeargan M, Howe D. Improved detection of equine antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona using polyvalent ELISAs based on the parasite SnSAG surface antigens. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a common neurologic disease of horses that is caused by the apicomplexan pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. To help improve serologic diagnosis of S...
  7. Witonsky S, Morrow J, Leger C, Dascanio J, Buechner Maxwell V, Palmer W, et al. Sarcocystis neurona-specific immunoglobulin G in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of horses administered S neurona vaccine. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18:98-103 pubmed
    A vaccine against Sarcocystis neurona, which induces equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), has received conditional licensure in the United States...
  8. Witonsky S, Gogal R, Duncan R, Norton H, Ward D, Lindsay D. Prevention of meningo/encephalomyelitis due to Sarcocystis neurona infection in mice is mediated by CD8 cells. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:113-23 pubmed
    Immunodeficient CD8 knockout mice were infected with Sarcocystis neurona merozoites, in order to determine the role of CD8 cells in protective immunity...
  9. Gargala G, Baishanbo A, Favennec L, Francois A, Ballet J, Rossignol J. Inhibitory activities of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase-targeted dihydroxyisoflavone and trihydroxydeoxybenzoin derivatives on Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, and Cryptosporidium parvum development. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4628-34 pubmed
    ..tyrosine kinase (PTK) mediation and a novel approach for identifying anticoccidial agents, activities against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, and Cryptosporidium parvum grown in BM and HCT-8 cell cultures of 52 EGFR PTK ..
  10. Lindsay D, Mitchell S, Vianna M, Dubey J. Sarcocystis neurona (Protozoa: Apicomplexa): description of oocysts, sporocysts, sporozoites, excystation, and early development. J Parasitol. 2004;90:461-5 pubmed
    ..Horses are considered accidental intermediate hosts. The structure of sporocysts of the causative agent, Sarcocystis neurona, has never been described. Sporocysts of S...
  11. Hoane J, Gennari S, Dubey J, Ribeiro M, Borges A, Yai L, et al. Prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. infection in horses from Brazil based on presence of serum antibodies to parasite surface antigen. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:155-9 pubmed
    ..tested for antibodies against the major surface antigens SnSAG4 and NhSAG1 to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi, respectively. Antibodies against SnSAG4 were detected in 669 (69...
  12. Hoane J, Carruthers V, Striepen B, Morrison D, Entzeroth R, Howe D. Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona microneme protein SnMIC10: protein characteristics and expression during intracellular development. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:671-9 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona, an apicomplexan parasite, is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Like other members of the Apicomplexa, S...
  13. Gjerde B. Phylogenetic relationships among Sarcocystis species in cervids, cattle and sheep inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:579-91 pubmed publisher
    Coccidian parasites in the genus Sarcocystis have a two-host life cycle, and have traditionally been identified on the basis of morphological features of the sarcocyst stage in their intermediate hosts...
  14. Slapeta J, Kyselová I, Richardson A, Modry D, Lukes J. Phylogeny and sequence variability of the Sarcocystis singaporensis Zaman and Colley, (1975) 1976 ssrDNA. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:810-5 pubmed
    The coccidium Sarcocystis singaporensis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) is a cyst-forming parasite with potential as a biological agent for the control of wild populations of rodents in non-native environments...
  15. Dahlgren S, Gjerde B. Molecular characterization of five Sarcocystis species in red deer ( Cervus elaphus), including Sarcocystis hjorti n. sp., reveals that these species are not intermediate host specific. Parasitology. 2010;137:815-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Five Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis hjorti n. sp...
  16. Tian M, Chen Y, Wu L, Rosenthal B, Liu X, He Y, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host. Vet Parasitol. 2012;183:373-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis nesbitti was first described by Mandour in 1969 from rhesus monkey muscle. Its definitive host remains unknown. 18S rRNA gene of S. nesbitti was amplified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis...
  17. Jakel T, Scharpfenecker M, Jitrawang P, Ruckle J, Kliemt D, Mackenstedt U, et al. Reduction of transmission stages concomitant with increased host immune responses to hypervirulent Sarcocystis singaporensis, and natural selection for intermediate virulence. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:1639-47 pubmed
    ..depending on inoculum size) and host immune reactions were examined for the apicomplexan protozoan Sarcocystis singaporensis...
  18. Witonsky S, Gogal R, Duncan R, Norton H, Ward D, Yang J, et al. Humoral immunity is not critical for protection against experimental infection with Sarcocystis neurona in B-cell-deficient mice. J Parasitol. 2005;91:830-7 pubmed
    Immunodeficient B-cell-deficient mice (mmuMT) were infected with Sarcocystis neurona merozoites to determine the role of B cells and the humoral immune response in protective immunity...
  19. Elsheikha H, Lacher D, Mansfield L. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences. Parasitol Res. 2005;97:345-57 pubmed
    ..subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming ..
  20. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Kerber C, Kasai N, Pena H, Gennari S, et al. First isolation of Sarcocystis neurona from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris, from Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:295-304 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona was isolated from sporocysts from two of eight South American opossums, Didelphis albiventris, from Brazil. Interferon gamma gene knock out (KO) mice fed sporocysts from two opossums developed neurologic sarcocystosis...
  21. Vangeel L, Houf K, Geldhof P, Nollet H, Vercruysse J, Ducatelle R, et al. Intramuscular inoculation of cattle with Sarcocystis antigen results in focal eosinophilic myositis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;183:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiology and pathogenesis are unclear, although it has been suggested, that Sarcocystis species are involved...
  22. Olias P, Gruber A, Heydorn A, Kohls A, Hafez H, Lierz M. Unusual biphasic disease in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) following experimental infection with Sarcocystis calchasi. Avian Dis. 2010;54:1032-7 pubmed
    A novel Sarcocystis species has recently been reported in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica) as intermediate host, causing severe central nervous signs similar to Paramyxovirus-1 or Salmonella Typhimurium var. cop...
  23. Reiner G, Kliemt D, Willems H, Berge T, Fischer R, Kohler F, et al. Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance/susceptibility to Sarcocystis miescheriana in swine. Genomics. 2007;89:638-46 pubmed
    ..In swine, e.g., marked differences in resistance/susceptibility to Sarcocystis miescheriana have been shown between Chinese Meishan and European Pietrain pigs, and these differences are ..
  24. Sundar N, Asmundsson I, Thomas N, Samuel M, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:8-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States...
  25. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Fritz D, Speer C. Structure of Sarcocystis neurona sarcocysts. J Parasitol. 2001;87:1323-7 pubmed
    The ultrastructure of Sarcocystis neurona sarcocysts was studied from muscle of an experimentally infected cat. The cat was killed 144 days after being fed sporocysts from a naturally infected opossum...
  26. Klein H, Löschner B, Zyto N, Portner M, Montag T. Expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of a recombinant lectin of Sarcocystis muris (Apicomplexa) cyst merozoites. Glycoconj J. 1998;15:147-53 pubmed
    The mature major microneme protein of Sarcocystis muris cyst merozoites, which is known as a dimeric lectin with high affinity to galactose and some of its derivatives, was expressed in Escherichia colias a histidine-tagged fusion ..
  27. Olias P, Gruber A, Kohls A, Hafez H, Heydorn A, Mehlhorn H, et al. Sarcocystis species lethal for domestic pigeons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:497-9 pubmed publisher
    A large number of Sarcocystis spp. infect birds as intermediate hosts, but pigeons are rarely affected. We identified a novel Sarcocystis sp. that causes lethal neurologic disease in domestic pigeons in Germany...
  28. Hu J, Meng Y, Guo Y, Liao J, Song J. Completion of the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi , a parasite from the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus. J Parasitol. 2012;98:550-3 pubmed publisher
    Transmission experiments were performed to elucidate the life cycle of Sarcocystis zuoi found in Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) in China...
  29. Wouda W, Snoep J, Dubey J. Eosinophilic myositis due to Sarcocystis hominis in a beef cow. J Comp Pathol. 2006;135:249-53 pubmed
    ..By transmission electron microscopy the sarcocysts were identified as Sarcocystis hominis, based on the morphology of villar protrusions of the sarcocyst wall, which were broad-based and ..
  30. Bolten K, Marsh A, Reed S, Dubey J, Toribio R, Saville W. Sarcocystis neurona: molecular characterization of enolase domain I region and a comparison to other protozoa. Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:108-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis neurona causes protozoal myeloencephalitis and has the ability to infect a wide host range in contrast to other Sarcocystis species. In the current study, five S...
  31. Smith J, Neill P, Box E. Pathogenesis of Sarcocystis falcatula (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). III. Pathologic and quantitative parasitologic analysis of extrapulmonary disease. J Parasitol. 1989;75:270-87 pubmed
    Forty-four budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were administered sporocysts of Sarcocystis falcatula orally and were examined at necropsy intervals from less than 12 hr to 168 days...
  32. Dubey J, Venturini M, Venturini L, McKinney J, Pecoraro M. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in horses from Argentina. Vet Parasitol. 1999;86:59-62 pubmed
    Sera from 76 horses from Argentina were examined for antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 27 (35...
  33. Slapeta J, Modry D, Votypka J, Jirku M, Lukes J, Koudela B. Evolutionary relationships among cyst-forming coccidia Sarcocystis spp. (Alveolata: Apicomplexa: Coccidea) in endemic African tree vipers and perspective for evolution of heteroxenous life cycle. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2003;27:464-75 pubmed
    Cyst-forming coccidia of the genus Sarcocystis (Alveolata: Apicomplexa: Coccidea) parasitize vertebrates worldwide...
  34. Vardeleon D, Marsh A, Thorne J, Loch W, Young R, Johnson P. Prevalence of Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in horses from various geographical locations. Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:273-82 pubmed
    ..In addition, all samples were tested for antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona by immunoblot analysis. A total of 208 samples was evaluated...
  35. Olias P, Olias L, Krucken J, Lierz M, Gruber A. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:230-6 pubmed publisher
    The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g...
  36. Gargala G, Le Goff L, Ballet J, Favennec L, Stachulski A, Rossignol J. In vitro efficacy of nitro- and halogeno-thiazolide/thiadiazolide derivatives against Sarcocystis neurona. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:230-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)...
  37. Gupta G, Lakritz J, Kim J, Kim D, Kim J, Marsh A. Seroprevalence of Neospora, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in horses from Jeju island, South Korea. Vet Parasitol. 2002;106:193-201 pubmed
    ..gondii equid (pony) were used. In addition, all samples were tested for antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona by immunoblot analysis. A total of 191 serum samples from clinically normal horses were evaluated...
  38. Yarim M, Yildiz K, Kabakci N, Karahan S. Immunohistochemical localisation of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Sarcocystis spp. Parasitol Res. 2004;93:457-60 pubmed
    ..In the present study, 3beta-HSD was detected in the bradyzoites enclosed in sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. with immunohistochemistry...
  39. Gjerde B, Dahlgren S. Corvid birds (Corvidae) act as definitive hosts for Sarcocystis ovalis in moose (Alces alces). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1445-53 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological data and a unique phylogenetic position had suggested that Sarcocystis ovalis in moose and red deer might use a definitive host other than canids, felids, or humans...
  40. Wee S, Shin S. Experimental induction of the two-host life cycle of Sarcocystis cruzi between dogs and Korean native calves. Korean J Parasitol. 2001;39:227-32 pubmed
    Eight dogs were experimentally infected with Sarcocystis by oral inoculation of cardiac muscle from naturally infected cattle...
  41. Dahlgren S, Gjerde B. Genetic characterisation of six Sarcocystis species from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Norway based on the small subunit rRNA gene. Vet Parasitol. 2007;146:204-13 pubmed
    Six Sarcocystis species, i.e...
  42. Rossano M, Kaneene J, Marteniuk J, Banks B, Schott H, Mansfield L. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in Michigan equids. Prev Vet Med. 2001;48:113-28 pubmed
    A cross-sectional study of serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona (the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) was performed on Michigan equids. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to S...
  43. Dubey J, Chapman J, Rosenthal B, Mense M, Schueler R. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2006;137:36-49 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum are related apicomplexans that can cause systemic illness in many species of animals, including dogs...
  44. Rejmanek D, Vanwormer E, Miller M, Mazet J, Nichelason A, Melli A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from central California. Vet Parasitol. 2009;166:8-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis neurona, a protozoal parasite shed by opossums (Didelphis virginiana), has been shown to cause significant morbidity and mortality in horses, sea otters, and other marine mammals...
  45. Dangoudoubiyam S, Oliveira J, Víquez C, Gomez Garcia A, Gonzalez O, Romero J, et al. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica. J Parasitol. 2011;97:522-4 pubmed publisher
    ..samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America, were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp...
  46. Rejmanek D, Miller M, Grigg M, Crosbie P, Conrad P. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California. Vet Parasitol. 2010;170:20-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S...
  47. Pena H, Ogassawara S, Sinhorini I. Occurrence of cattle Sarcocystis species in raw kibbe from Arabian food establishments in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and experimental transmission to humans. J Parasitol. 2001;87:1459-65 pubmed
    ..kibbe from 25 Arabian restaurants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were examined for the presence of bovine Sarcocystis species, using light and electron microscopy, and for infectivity to humans...
  48. Wendte J, Miller M, Nandra A, Peat S, Crosbie P, Conrad P, et al. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:37-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite identified as a cause of fatal neurological disease in the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In an effort to characterize virulent S...
  49. Tomova C, Geerts W, MULLER REICHERT T, Entzeroth R, Humbel B. New comprehension of the apicoplast of Sarcocystis by transmission electron tomography. Biol Cell. 2006;98:535-45 pubmed
    Apicomplexan parasites (like Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria and Sarcocystis) contain a distinctive organelle, the apicoplast, acquired by a secondary endosymbiotic process analogous to chloroplasts and mitochondria...
  50. Dubey J, Benson J, Larson M. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona encephalomyelitis in a domestic cat following routine surgery. Vet Parasitol. 2003;112:261-7 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses in the Americas...
  51. Elsheikha H, Mansfield L. Sarcocystis neurona major surface antigen gene 1 (SAG1) shows evidence of having evolved under positive selection pressure. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:452-9 pubmed
    ..were used to test the hypothesis that natural selection promotes diversity in different parts of SAG1 of Sarcocystis neurona. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of SAG1 from multiple S...
  52. Fayer R. Sarcocystis spp. in human infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:894-902, table of contents pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis species are intracellular protozoan parasites with an intermediate-definitive host life cycle based on a prey-predator relationship...
  53. Dahlgren S, Gjerde B, Skirnisson K, Gudmundsdottir B. Morphological and molecular identification of three species of Sarcocystis in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Iceland. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:191-8 pubmed
    Six Sarcocystis species have previously been described from reindeer in Norway based on sarcocyst morphology and DNA sequencing...
  54. Dahlgren S, Gouveia Oliveira R, Gjerde B. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:27-35 pubmed
    Six Sarcocystis species from reindeer (S. grueneri, S. rangi, S. tarandivulpes, S. hardangeri, S. rangiferi and S. tarandi) have previously been genetically characterised...
  55. Asmundsson I, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:352-60 pubmed
    ..true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis neurona, the major causative agent of ..
  56. Stojecki K, Karamon J, Sroka J, Cencek T. Molecular diagnostics of Sarcocystis spp. infections. Pol J Vet Sci. 2012;15:589-96 pubmed
    Protozoa of the genus Sarcocystis (phylum Apicomplexa, family Sarcocystidae) is one of the most common parasites affecting animals. Interspecies diagnostic of Sarcocystis genus was based on electron microscopy for many years...
  57. Sellon D, Knowles D, Greiner E, Long M, Hines M, Hochstatter T, et al. Depletion of natural killer cells does not result in neurologic disease due to Sarcocystis neurona in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. J Parasitol. 2004;90:782-8 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that is the primary etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses...
  58. Kia E, Mirhendi H, Rezaeian M, Zahabiun F, Sharbatkhori M. First molecular identification of Sarcocystis miescheriana (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) from wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Iran. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:724-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystis isolate obtained from the thigh muscle of a wild boar (Sus scrofa), captured from Gilan Province, northern Iran, was subjected to molecular analysis...
  59. Duarte P, Conrad P, Wilson W, Ferraro G, Packham A, Bowers Lepore J, et al. Risk of postnatal exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65:1047-52 pubmed
    To estimate risk of exposure and age at first exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi and time to maternal antibody decay in foals.
  60. Miller M, Conrad P, Harris M, Hatfield B, Langlois G, Jessup D, et al. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..lesions consistent with an infectious etiology, and further investigation confirmed the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona as the underlying cause. Tissues from 94% of examined otters were PCR-positive for S...
  61. Barr S, Warner K. Characterization of a serine protease activity in Sarcocystis neurona merozoites. J Parasitol. 2003;89:385-8 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystis neurona merozoites were examined for their ability to invade and divide in bovine turbinate (BT) cell cultures after treatment with cysteine (iodoacetamide), aspartic (pepstatin A), metallo-(1,10-phenanthroline and ethylene ..
  62. Valinezhad A, Oryan A, Ahmadi N. Sarcocystis and its complications in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of eastern provinces of Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:229-34 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. was investigated by gross and histopathological examinations in 250 camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered from 2002 to 2005 in the Mashhad Slaughterhouse, eastern Iran...
  63. Dubey J, Rosenthal B, Speer C. Sarcocystis lindsayi n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001;48:595-603 pubmed
    A new species, Sarcocystis lindsayi n. sp., is proposed for a parasite resembling Sarcocystis falcatula...
  64. Wendte J, Miller M, Lambourn D, Magargal S, Jessup D, Grigg M. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001261 pubmed publisher
    Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T...
  65. Yang Z, Zuo Y, Ding B, Chen X, Luo J, Zhang Y. Identification of Sarcocystis hominis-like (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) cyst in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. J Parasitol. 2001;87:934-7 pubmed
    DNA templates were extracted from isolates of Sarcocystis hominis-like cysts collected from cattle and water buffalo, as well as from Sarcocystis fusiformis cysts and Sarcocystis suihominis cysts...
  66. Dahlgren S, Gjerde B. Sarcocystis in Norwegian roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): molecular and morphological identification of Sarcocystis oviformis n. sp. and Sarcocystis gracilis and their phylogenetic relationship with other Sarcocystis species. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:993-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Two Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis gracilis and Sarcocystis oviformis n. sp...
  67. Johnson C, Tinker M, Estes J, Conrad P, Staedler M, Miller M, et al. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure...
  68. Abdel Ghaffar F, Mehlhorn H, Bashtar A, Al Rasheid K, Sakran T, El Fayoumi H. Life cycle of Sarcocystis camelicanis infecting the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and the dog (Canis familiaris), light and electron microscopic study. Parasitol Res. 2009;106:189-95 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the heteroxeneous life cycle of Sarcocystis sp. infecting camels were studied. A total of 180 slaughtered camels collected from different localities in Egypt were investigated for sarcocysts...
  69. Mansfield L, Mehler S, Nelson K, Elsheikha H, Murphy A, Knust B, et al. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona and act as intermediate hosts. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:24-43 pubmed publisher
    We tested the hypothesis that brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona, the agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), and act as intermediate hosts for this parasite...