sarcocystidae

Summary

Summary: A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.

Top Publications

  1. Dubey J, Sreekumar C, Lindsay D, Hill D, Rosenthal B, Venturini L, et al. Besnoitia oryctofelisi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from domestic rabbits. Parasitology. 2003;126:521-39 pubmed
    ..Based on biological, serological, antigenic, and molecular differences between the rabbit and the opossum Besnoitia, a new name, B. oryctofelisi is proposed for the parasite from domestic rabbits from Argentina...
  2. Ellis J, Holmdahl O, Ryce C, Njenga J, Harper P, Morrison D. Molecular phylogeny of Besnoitia and the genetic relationships among Besnoitia of cattle, wildebeest and goats. Protist. 2000;151:329-36 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Besnoitia of cattle, wildebeest and goats had identical ITS1 rDNA sequences, which questions the use of the taxon Besnoitia caprae to describe the Besnoitia found in goats...
  3. Cortes H, Reis Y, Waap H, Vidal R, Soares H, Marques I, et al. Isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from infected cattle in Portugal. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:226-33 pubmed
    ..Morphological characterization of B. besnoiti tachyzoites and the amplification of the 149 bp segment from the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), aided with specific primers, confirmed the identification of B. besnoiti...
  4. Basso W, Schares G, Gollnick N, Rutten M, Deplazes P. Exploring the life cycle of Besnoitia besnoiti - experimental infection of putative definitive and intermediate host species. Vet Parasitol. 2011;178:223-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular and serological results from this study indicate that European B. besnoiti isolates may infect cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, gerbils, mice and voles; however a persistence of the parasite could be demonstrated only in voles...
  5. Olias P, Schade B, Mehlhorn H. Molecular pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae). Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1564-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an integrated approach, we have tried to highlight some promising directions for future research...
  6. Alvarez Garcia G, Frey C, Mora L, Schares G. A century of bovine besnoitiosis: an unknown disease re-emerging in Europe. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will provide an update of the epidemiology and impact of B. besnoiti infection. Strategies to control this parasitic disease will also be discussed. ..
  7. Jacquiet P, Lienard E, Franc M. Bovine besnoitiosis: epidemiological and clinical aspects. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It highlights the urgent need for research programs to improve efficient and sustainable control methods...
  8. Fernandez Garcia A, Alvarez Garcia G, Risco Castillo V, Aguado Martínez A, Marcen J, Rojo Montejo S, et al. Development and use of an indirect ELISA in an outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis in Spain. Vet Rec. 2010;166:818-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, a significant increase in seroprevalence and clinical signs was found to be associated with the increasing age of the animals, suggesting rapid horizontal transmission of the disease...
  9. Kiehl E, Heydorn A, Schein E, Al Rasheid K, Selmair J, Abdel Ghaffar F, et al. Molecular biological comparison of different Besnoitia species and stages from different countries. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings give strong hints that B. besnoiti has a cycle between rodents and a predator and that cattle and other are only accidental hosts...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Schares G, Basso W, Majzoub M, Cortes H, Rostaher A, Selmair J, et al. First in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from chronically infected cattle in Germany. Vet Parasitol. 2009;163:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..besnoiti isolates. A potential association between growth properties and differences in virulence remains to be established. This is the first in vitro isolation of B. besnoiti from cattle in Germany...
  2. Oryan A, Azizi S. Ultrastructure and pathology of Besnoitia caprae in the naturally infected goats of Kerman, East of Iran. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:1171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of the apicomplexa. This study showed that the organism demonstrated ultrastructurally minor differences with other Besnoitia species infecting other animal species...
  3. Dahlgren S, Gouveia Oliveira R, Gjerde B. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:27-35 pubmed
    ..hardangeri, S. rangiferi and S. tarandi by including the six species in phylogenetic analyses of the Sarcocystidae, and also to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the species from reindeer and those from other ..
  4. Cortes H, Nunes S, Reis Y, Staubli D, Vidal R, Sager H, et al. Immunodiagnosis of Besnoitia besnoiti infection by ELISA and Western blot. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:216-25 pubmed
    ..besnoiti antigen, is a useful tool combination to reliably detect animals that have been exposed to B. besnoiti infection, including both asymptomatic and symptomatic courses of disease...
  5. Gentile A, Militerno G, Schares G, Nanni A, Testoni S, Bassi P, et al. Evidence for bovine besnoitiosis being endemic in Italy--first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from cattle born in Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In connection with previously described autochthonous cases of bovine besnoitiosis the case described herein suggests that bovine besnoitiosis should be considered endemic in Italy...
  6. Lienard E, Salem A, Jacquiet P, Grisez C, Prevot F, Blanchard B, et al. Development of a protocol testing the ability of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) to transmit Besnoitia besnoiti (Henry, 1913) (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). Parasitol Res. 2013;112:479-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Then, S. calcitrans were able to carry B. besnoiti from chronically infected cattle to an artificial recipient in the conditions of the protocol...
  7. Gutiérrez Expósito D, Ortega Mora L, Marco I, Boadella M, Gortazar C, San Miguel Ayanz J, et al. First serosurvey of Besnoitia spp. infection in wild European ruminants in Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, wild ruminants from endemic regions of bovine besnoitiosis should be further studied because they may be putative reservoirs of the parasite...
  8. Lienard E, Salem A, Grisez C, Prevot F, Bergeaud J, Franc M, et al. A longitudinal study of Besnoitia besnoiti infections and seasonal abundance of Stomoxys calcitrans in a dairy cattle farm of southwest France. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, many seroconversions were reported in the two months before turn-out and could be associated with a high indoors activity of S. calcitrans during this period...
  9. Mehlhorn H, Klimpel S, Schein E, Heydorn A, Al Quraishy S, Selmair J. Another African disease in Central Europa: Besnoitiosis of cattle. I. Light and electron microscopical study. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:861-8 pubmed publisher
  10. Fernandez Garcia A, Risco Castillo V, Pedraza Diaz S, Aguado Martínez A, Alvarez Garcia G, Gomez Bautista M, et al. First isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from a chronically infected cow in Spain. J Parasitol. 2009;95:474-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolation and in vitro production of this B. besnoiti isolate offers a good opportunity to study general aspects of bovine besnoitiosis, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of this re-emergent disease...
  11. Schares G, Basso W, Majzoub M, Rostaher A, Scharr J, Langenmayer M, et al. Comparative evaluation of immunofluorescent antibody and new immunoblot tests for the specific detection of antibodies against Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites and bradyzoites in bovine sera. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..besnoiti antigens which may help to develop new specific and sensitive serological tests based on individual antigens and in the identification of possible vaccine candidates...
  12. Ellis A, Mackey E, Moore P, Divers S, Hensel P, Carmichael K, et al. Debilitation and mortality associated with besnoitiosis in four Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012;43:367-74 pubmed
    ..Histologically, cysts were often degenerate and associated with mild to marked inflammation, and amyloidosis was noted in one animal. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed Besnoitia darlingi in three of the four opossums. ..
  13. Zhu B, Hartigan A, Reppas G, Higgins D, Canfield P, Slapeta J. Looks can deceive: molecular identity of an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasite in Australian gliders. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..australis) had an intraerythrocytic parasite closely related to the cyst-forming coccidia (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae). The parasitaemia persisted for 3 months or more but was observed to clear within 3 years in captivity...
  14. Cortes H, Leitao A, Vidal R, Vila Viçosa M, Ferreira M, Caeiro V, et al. Besnoitiosis in bulls in Portugal. Vet Rec. 2005;157:262-4 pubmed
  15. Calero Bernal R, Verma S, Cerqueira Cézar C, Schafer L, van Wilpe E, Dubey J. Sarcocystis mehlhorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Parasitol Res. 2015;114:4397-403 pubmed publisher
    ..A new name, Sarcocystis mehlhorni, is proposed for the Sarcocystis species in black-tailed deer. ..
  16. Schares G, Maksimov A, Basso W, More G, Dubey J, Rosenthal B, et al. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assays for the sensitive detection of Besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2011;178:208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..besnoiti real time PCR assay (BbRT2) was specific for B. besnoiti, B. bennetti and B. tarandi, but did not react when 10 ng DNA of other related parasite species from the genus Besnoitia or other genera were subjected to analysis. ..
  17. Diezma Díaz C, Jiménez Meléndez A, Fernández M, Gutiérrez Expósito D, García Lunar P, Ortega Mora L, et al. Bovine chronic besnoitiosis in a calf: Characterization of a novel B. besnoiti isolate from an unusual case report. Vet Parasitol. 2017;247:10-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report underlines the need to include the inspection of young animals in besnoitiosis control. ..
  18. Reichel M, Ellis J, Dubey J. Neosporosis and hammondiosis in dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48:308-12 pubmed
    ..Treatment with clindamycin and potentiated sulphonamides may be useful in cases where muscular atrophy and fibrosis are absent. Feeding of raw meat is a potential risk factor for infection of dogs and should be discouraged...
  19. Abel J, Schares G, Orzeszko K, Gasser R, Ellis J. Hammondia isolated from dogs and foxes are genetically distinct. Parasitology. 2006;132:187-92 pubmed
    ..This study therefore provides evidence that H. heydorni oocysts from dogs and foxes represent 2 distinct genetic lineages that can be differentiated using a PCR, which targets the alpha tubulin locus. ..
  20. Lappin M. Enteric protozoal diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2005;35:81-8, vi pubmed
  21. Namazi F, Oryan A, Namavari M, Rahimain A. Experimental infection of embryonated eggs of chicken with Besnoitia caprae. Trop Biomed. 2010;27:417-23 pubmed
    ..It seems that the embryonated eggs could be a useful model to study the parasite's biology. ..
  22. Akhlaghi M, Razavi M, Hosseini A. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:2721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them from N. caninum and Besnoitia. ..
  23. Hornok S, Fedák A, Baska F, Basso W, Dencső L, Tóth G, et al. Vector-borne transmission of Besnoitia besnoiti by blood-sucking and secretophagous flies: epidemiological and clinicopathological implications. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:450 pubmed publisher
    ..Adding to the already known mechanical transmission of B. besnoiti by blood-sucking flies, results of the present study suggest that secretophagous flies should also be evaluated as potential vectors of this coccidium species. ..
  24. Namazi F, Namavari M, Rahimi E, Lotfi M, Tahamtan Y. Standardization of the outbred BALB/c mice as a suitable animal model for Besnoitia caprae studies. Vet Res Commun. 2011;35:425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..2) tachyzoites per mouse. The results indicate that outbred BALB/c mice can be used as a suitable model of besnoitiosis and to screen candidate treatments and to test the efficacy of vaccines for besnoitiosis. ..
  25. Cardoso R, Wang J, Müller J, Rupp S, Leitão A, Hemphill A. Modulation of cis- and trans- Golgi and the Rab9A-GTPase during infection by Besnoitia besnoiti, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Exp Parasitol. 2018;187:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, B. besnoiti, T. gondii and N. caninum show similarities but also differences in how they affect constituents of the endosomal/secretory pathways. ..
  26. Hu J, Liu T, Liu Q, Esch G, Chen J. Sarcocystis clethrionomyelaphis Matuschka, 1986 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the large oriental vole Eothenomys miletus (Thomas) (Cricetidae: Microtinae) and its phylogenetic relationships with other species of Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882. Syst Parasitol. 2015;91:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..clethrionomyelaphis and other colubrid-transmitted species of Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882. This is the first report identifying S. clethrionomyelaphis from its natural intermediate host. ..
  27. Frey C, Regidor Cerrillo J, Marreros N, García Lunar P, Gutiérrez Expósito D, Schares G, et al. Besnoitia besnoiti lytic cycle in vitro and differences in invasion and intracellular proliferation among isolates. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:115 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides first insights into the lytic cycle of B. besnoiti isolates and a standardised in vitro model that allows screening of drug candidates for the treatment of besnoitiosis. ..
  28. Esteban Gil A, Jacquiet P, Florentin S, Decaudin A, Berthelot X, Ronsin P, et al. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?. Theriogenology. 2016;86:1325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. ..
  29. Madubata C, Dunams Morel D, Elkin B, Oksanen A, Rosenthal B. Evidence for a recent population bottleneck in an Apicomplexan parasite of caribou and reindeer, Besnoitia tarandi. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..besnoiti. The surprising lack of genetic variation across the sampled range suggests that B. tarandi may have experienced a recent population bottleneck. ..
  30. Saeed M, Rashid M, Vaughan J, Jabbar A. Sarcocystosis in South American camelids: The state of play revisited. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:146 pubmed publisher
    Members of the genus Sarcocystis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, resulting in economic losses in production animals worldwide. Sarcocystis spp...
  31. Attademo F, Silva J, Luna F, Ikeda J, Foppel E, Sousa G, et al. Retrospective Survey for Pathogens in Stranded Marine Mammals in Northeastern Brazil: Brucella spp. infection in a Clymene Dolphin (Stenella clymene). J Wildl Dis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were investigated by culturing and PCR of tissue samples, whereas Sarcocystidae parasites, Leptospira spp., and Morbillivirus were surveyed for using specific PCR assays. Brucella spp...
  32. Jiménez Meléndez A, Ojo K, Wallace A, Smith T, Hemphill A, Balmer V, et al. In vitro efficacy of bumped kinase inhibitors against Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites. Int J Parasitol. 2017;47:811-821 pubmed publisher
    ..Further in vivo experiments should be planned, as attainment and maintenance of therapeutic blood plasma levels in calves, without toxicity, has been demonstrated for BKIs 1294, 1517 and 1553. ..
  33. Gutiérrez Expósito D, García Bocanegra I, Howe D, Arenas Montés A, Yeargan M, Ness S, et al. A serosurvey of selected cystogenic coccidia in Spanish equids: first detection of anti-Besnoitia spp. specific antibodies in Europe. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:128 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, cross-reactions with antibodies directed against other species of Sarcocystis might explain the positive reactions against the S. neurona antigens. ..
  34. Greay T, Zahedi A, Krige A, Owens J, Rees R, Ryan U, et al. Endemic, exotic and novel apicomplexan parasites detected during a national study of ticks from companion animals in Australia. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11:197 pubmed publisher
    ..sp., Theileria paparinii n. sp. and Theileria worthingtonorum n. sp. Additionally, a novel cf. Sarcocystidae sp...
  35. Gondim L, Wolf A, Vrhovec M, Pantchev N, Bauer C, Langenmayer M, et al. Characterization of an IgG monoclonal antibody targeted to both tissue cyst and sporocyst walls of Toxoplasma gondii. Exp Parasitol. 2016;163:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii. ..
  36. Mitchell S, Zajac A, Lindsay D. Development and ultrastructure of Cystoisospora canis Nemeséri, 1959 (syn, Isospora canis) monozoic cysts in two noncanine cell lines. J Parasitol. 2009;95:793-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study that fully demonstrates in vitro the development of what structurally resemble extraintestinal cysts of a Cystoisospora spp. ..
  37. Hu J, Li H, Huang S, Chen M, Esch G, Yang Z, et al. Sarcocystis menglaensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Williamson's mouse deer Tuagulus williamsoni (Kloss) (Artiodactyla: Tragulidae). Syst Parasitol. 2017;94:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences indicated that S. menglaensis shared a close affinity with species of Sarcocystis Lankester, 1982 from ruminants, which utilise felids as definitive hosts. ..
  38. Maksimov P, Hermosilla C, Kleinertz S, Hirzmann J, Taubert A. Besnoitia besnoiti infections activate primary bovine endothelial cells and promote PMN adhesion and NET formation under physiological flow condition. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1991-2001 pubmed publisher
    ..besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers. The present study shows that B. besnoiti infections of primary BUVEC induce a cascade of pro-inflammatory reactions and triggers early innate immune responses. ..
  39. Sreekumar C, Hill D, Fournet V, Rosenthal B, Lindsay D, Dubey J. Detection of Hammondia heydorni-like organisms and their differentiation from Neospora caninum using random-amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction. J Parasitol. 2003;89:1082-5 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that H. heydorni and N. caninum are genetically distinct and that such tools may be useful for more detailed characterization of the diversity of related parasites occurring in dogs. ..
  40. Máca O. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis lutrae in the European otter (Lutra lutra) and the European badger (Meles meles) from the Czech Republic. Parasitol Res. 2018;117:943-945 pubmed publisher
    Muscular sarcosporidial infections by Sarcocystis lutrae (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the otter (Lutra lutra) and badger (Meles meles) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) were found in the Czech Republic...
  41. Resende D, Pedrosa A, Correia D, Cabrine Santos M, Lages Silva E, Meira W, et al. Polymorphisms in the 18S rDNA gene of Cystoisospora belli and clinical features of cystoisosporosis in HIV-infected patients. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:679-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that patients can be infected with different C. belli genotypes, and this information may be useful for identifying new C. belli genotypes infecting humans. ..
  42. Houk A, O CONNOR T, Pena H, Gennari S, Zajac A, Lindsay D. Experimentally induced clinical Cystoisospora canis coccidiosis in dogs with prior natural patent Cystoisospora ohioensis-like or C. canis infections. J Parasitol. 2013;99:892-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It demonstrates that prior infection with C. canis but not C. ohioensis-like coccidia confers some resistance to clinical disases and a decrease in oocyst production in dogs challenged with C. canis. ..
  43. Dubey J, Shkap V, Pipano E, Fish L, Fritz D. Ultrastructure of Besnoitia besnoiti tissue cysts and bradyzoites. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2003;50:240-4 pubmed
    ..Enigmatic bodies, characteristically found in Besnoitia sp. bradyzoites, were not observed. Therefore, enigmatic bodies should be removed as a generic character of the bradyzoites of Besnoitia species...
  44. Charles R, Ellis A, Dubey J, Barnes J, Yabsley M. Besnoitiosis in a southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) from Uvalde, Texas. J Parasitol. 2011;97:838-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents the first report of besnoitiosis caused by B. neotomofelis in a southern plains woodrat and the first concurrent Besnoitia sp. and T. gondii infection in any host species...
  45. Oliveira Silva M, Lages Silva E, Resende D, Prata A, Ramirez L, Frenkel J. Cystoisospora belli: in vitro multiplication in mammalian cells. Exp Parasitol. 2006;114:189-92 pubmed
    ..In VERO cells, one or several parasitophorous vacuoles contained up to 16 mobile sporozoites. No oocysts were found in any of the cell types used. VERO cells may be suitable for studies of the interaction between parasite and host cells...
  46. Paperna I, Son R. Light microscopical structure and ultrastructure of a Besnoitia sp. in the naturally infected lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) from north Brazil, and in experimentally infected mice. Parasitology. 2001;123:247-55 pubmed
    ..No evidence of infection could be detected in these animals after feeding them with the tissues of mice harbouring cysts with very large number of bradyzoites...
  47. Dubey J, Tilahun G, Boyle J, Schares G, Verma S, Ferreira L, et al. Molecular and biological characterization of first isolates of Hammondia hammondi from cats from Ethiopia. J Parasitol. 2013;99:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hammondi-specific primers, and sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. JX477424, and KC223619). This is the first report of isolation of H. hammondi from cats from the African continent...
  48. Ducrocq J, Beauchamp G, Kutz S, Simard M, Elkin B, Croft B, et al. Comparison of gross visual and microscopic assessment of four anatomic sites to monitor Besnoitia tarandi in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus). J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:732-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, microscopic evaluation of a skin section from the anterior aspect of the mid-third portion of the metatarsal region could be used as a standardized comparative indicator of density of B. tarandi infection in Rangifer...
  49. Samarasinghe B, Johnson J, Ryan U. Phylogenetic analysis of Cystoisospora species at the rRNA ITS1 locus and development of a PCR-RFLP assay. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:592-5 pubmed
    ..and parsimony-based methods confirmed previous studies, which suggested that the genus Cystoisospora does not belong to the family Eimeriidae, but should be classified together with the cyst-forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae.
  50. Sreekumar C, Hill D, Miska K, Rosenthal B, Vianna M, Venturini L, et al. Hammondia heydorni: evidence of genetic diversity among isolates from dogs. Exp Parasitol. 2004;107:65-71 pubmed
    ..heydorni. This diversity should be taken into consideration while attempting to elucidate the systematics, diagnostics, and biology of H. heydorni in relation to N. caninum...
  51. Sreekumar C, Vianna M, Hill D, Miska K, Lindquist A, Dubey J. Differential detection of Hammondia hammondi from Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction. Parasitol Int. 2005;54:267-9 pubmed
    ..hammondi from T. gondii even in samples containing both parasites, thus obviating the need for other labourious techniques like mouse bioassay and in vitro cultivation...
  52. Behrendt J, Taubert A, Zahner H, Hermosilla C. Studies on synchronous egress of coccidian parasites (Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria bovis) from bovine endothelial host cells mediated by calcium ionophore A23187. Vet Res Commun. 2008;32:325-32 pubmed
    ..bovis macromeront maturation and a hampered merozoite exit owing to dense parasite-induced cytoskeleton elements surrounding the meront may be a reason for the lack of inducible synchronous release...
  53. Fichet Calvet E, Kia E, Giraudoux P, Quere J, Delattre P, Ashford R. Frenkelia parasites in a small mammal community. Dynamics of infection and effect on the host. Parasite. 2004;11:301-10 pubmed
    ..microti in M. arvalis. The year, habitat, host sex, relative density had no impact on prevalence. In M. arvalis only, sexually active voles were preferentially uninfected, indicating a possible impact of this parasitism on fertility...
  54. Lindquist H, Bennett J, Hester J, Ware M, Dubey J, Everson W. Autofluorescence of Toxoplasma gondii and related coccidian oocysts. J Parasitol. 2003;89:865-7 pubmed
    ..As with the autofluorescence of related coccidia, the oocysts glow pale blue when illuminated with an ultraviolet (UV) light source and viewed with the correct UV excitation and emission filter set...
  55. Elsheikha H, Mackenzie C, Rosenthal B, Marteniuk J, Steficek B, Windsor S, et al. An outbreak of besnoitiosis in miniature donkeys. J Parasitol. 2005;91:877-81 pubmed
    ..from rabbits and opossums. Isolated cases of infection with this agent have been reported infrequently in equids; however, this is the first report of an outbreak in a herd of donkeys in the United States...
  56. Uzêda R, Andrade M, Corbellini L, Antonello A, Vogel F, Gondim L. Frequency of antibodies against Besnoitia besnoiti in Brazilian cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2014;199:242-6 pubmed publisher
    ..besnoiti strains with different antigenic composition of those described in the European and African continent. Further studies are needed to confirm the presence of B. besnoiti or other Besnoitia species in Brazilian cattle...
  57. Dubey J, Sreekumar C, Donovan T, Rozmanec M, Rosenthal B, Vianna M, et al. Redescription of Besnoitia bennetti (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the donkey (Equus asinus). Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:659-72 pubmed
    ..bennetti was found to be more closely related to the other congeners described from ungulates. The parasite was formally redescribed and specimens deposited in the US National Parasite Collections...
  58. Palmieri N, Shrestha A, Ruttkowski B, Beck T, Vogl C, Tomley F, et al. The genome of the protozoan parasite Cystoisospora suis and a reverse vaccinology approach to identify vaccine candidates. Int J Parasitol. 2017;47:189-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrated in vitro the immunogenic potential of a C. suis-specific 42kDa transmembrane protein, which might constitute an attractive candidate for further testing. ..
  59. Houk A, Goodwin D, Zajac A, Barr S, Dubey J, Lindsay D. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively...
  60. Superina M, Garner M, Aguilar R. Health evaluation of free-ranging and captive pichis (Zaedyus pichiy; Mammalia, Dasypodidae), in Mendoza Province, Argentina. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:174-83 pubmed
    ..This report constitutes the first health evaluation of free-ranging and captive Z. pichiy. It will be a starting point for future health studies and will be beneficial for the captive management of this species...
  61. Monteiro R, Pena H, Gennari S, de Souza S, Richtzenhain L, Soares R. Differential diagnosis of oocysts of Hammondia-like organisms of dogs and cats by PCR-RFLP analysis of 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (HSP70) gene. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:235-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we presented two alternative molecular diagnostic assays that can be successfully applied for the differentiation of oocysts of Hammondia-like organisms shed by felids and canids...
  62. Ness S, Peters Kennedy J, Schares G, Dubey J, Mittel L, Mohammed H, et al. Investigation of an outbreak of besnoitiosis in donkeys in northeastern Pennsylvania. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;240:1329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the clinical, endoscopic, and serologic features of an outbreak of besnoitiosis in 2 donkey operations in northeastern Pennsylvania and to report the outcome of attempted treatment of 1 naturally infected individual...
  63. Mohammed O, Davies A, Hussein H, Daszak P, Ellis J. Hammondia heydorni from the Arabian mountain gazelle and red fox in Saudi Arabia. J Parasitol. 2003;89:535-9 pubmed
    ..The involvement of Neospora caninum was excluded using molecular methods. The Arabian red fox and the Arabian mountain gazelle in Saudi Arabia are new, definitive and intermediate hosts for H. heydorni...
  64. Shaw S, Grasperge B, Nevarez J, Reed S, Long L, Rademacher N, et al. Besnoitia darlingi infection in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:220-3 pubmed
    ..This opossum also suffered from an open phalangeal fracture and concurrent gastrointestinal parasites. Histopathologic findings included a glomerulonephritis and hepatic necrosis...
  65. Resende D, Lages Silva E, Assis D, Prata A, Oliveira Silva M. Experimental infection of murine and human macrophages with Cystoisospora belli. Acta Trop. 2009;111:177-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of infection of macrophages by this parasite, which supports the hypothesis that these could act as C. belli host cells in extraintestinal sites...
  66. Njagi O, Entzeroth R, Nyaga P, Musoke A. Monoclonal antibodies identify two neutralization-sensitive epitopes in Besnoitia besnoiti endocytes. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:247-53 pubmed
  67. Dubey J, Sreekumar C, Rosenthal B, Vianna M, Nylund M, Nikander S, et al. Redescription of Besnoitia tarandi (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:1273-87 pubmed
    ..tarandi was found to be more closely related to the other congeners described from ungulates. The parasite was formally redescribed and specimens deposited in the US National Parasite Collection...
  68. Schares G, Herrmann D, Beckert A, Schares S, Hosseininejad M, Pantchev N, et al. Characterization of a repetitive DNA fragment in Hammondia hammondi and its utility for the specific differentiation of H. hammondi from Toxoplasma gondii by PCR. Mol Cell Probes. 2008;22:244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..hammondi provides a foundation for the design of primers specific to T. gondii, and the future optimisation of conventional and real-time PCR assays for the specific diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in definitive and intermediate hosts...
  69. Elsheikha H, Mansfield L. Determination of the activity of sulfadiazine against Besnoitia darlingi tachyzoites in cultured cells. Parasitol Res. 2004;93:423-6 pubmed
    ..The methods described for drug evaluation were rapid, inexpensive and allowed the concurrent assessment of the drug against the parasite and its cytotoxic effect...
  70. Cortes H, Reis Y, Gottstein B, Hemphill A, Leitão A, Muller N. Application of conventional and real-time fluorescent ITS1 rDNA PCR for detection of Besnoitia besnoiti infections in bovine skin biopsies. Vet Parasitol. 2007;146:352-6 pubmed
  71. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Rosenthal B, Sreekumar C, Hill D, Shen S, et al. Establishment of Besnoitia darlingi from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in experimental intermediate and definitive hosts, propagation in cell culture, and description of ultrastructural and genetic characteristics. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:1053-64 pubmed
    ..A close relationship to B. besnoiti and an even closer relationship to B. jellisoni was indicated for B. darlingi on the basis of the small subunit and ITS-1 portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA...
  72. Jirku M, Modry D, Slapeta J, Koudela B, Lukes J. The phylogeny of Goussia and Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa; Eimeriorina) and the evolution of excystation structures in coccidia. Protist. 2002;153:379-90 pubmed
    ..The position of Goussia is less robustly resolved, since it forms a trichotomy with the Eimeriidae and Sarcocystidae, or alternatively constitutes the earliest branch of the coccidian lineage...
  73. Oryan A, Namazi F, Namavari M, Sharifiyazdi H, Moraveji M. Comparison of the pathogensis of two isolates of Besnoitia caprae in inbred BALB/c mice. Vet Res Commun. 2010;34:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings also provide evidence for significant differences between the two isolates of B. caprae...
  74. Merino S, Martinez J, Vásquez R, Slapeta J. Monophyly of marsupial intraerythrocytic apicomplexan parasites from South America and Australia. Parasitology. 2010;137:37-43 pubmed publisher
    Intraerythrocytic parasites (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) of the South American mouse opossum (Thylamys elegans) from Chile, South America, and of the yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis) from Australia were found to be monophyletic ..
  75. Gjerde B, Dahlgren S. Hammondia triffittae n. comb. of foxes ( Vulpes spp.): biological and molecular characteristics and differentiation from Hammondia heydorni of dogs. Parasitology. 2011;138:303-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Oocysts of H. triffittae were subspherical, averaging 12.5 × 10.9 ?m in size. The lsu rRNA gene and the alpha tubulin gene seem to be suitable genetic markers for differentiating between H. triffittae and H. heydorni...
  76. Shkap V, Reske A, Pipano E, Fish L, Baszler T. Immunological relationship between Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti. Vet Parasitol. 2002;106:35-43 pubmed
    ..caninum antigen was probed with B. besnoiti antiserum. Immunization and challenge experiments in the highly susceptible Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) showed essentially no cross-protection between N. caninum and B. besnoiti...
  77. Schares G, Langenmayer M, Scharr J, Minke L, Maksimov P, Maksimov A, et al. Novel tools for the diagnosis and differentiation of acute and chronic bovine besnoitiosis. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of parasite DNA in skin by real-time PCR was clearly superior to serological analysis in detecting infected cattle during acute besnoitiosis...
  78. Elsheikha H, Rosenthal B, Mansfield L. Dexamethasone treatment induces susceptibility of outbred Webster mice to experimental infection with Besnoitia darlingi isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Parasitol Res. 2005;95:413-9 pubmed
    The Sarcocystidae comprise a diverse, monophyletic apicomplexan parasite family, most of whose members form intracellular cysts in their intermediate hosts. The extent of pathology associated with such cyst formation can range widely...
  79. Schares G, Vrhovec M, Pantchev N, Herrmann D, Conraths F. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Hammondia hammondi oocysts in the faeces of cats from Germany and other European countries. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:34-45 pubmed publisher
    ..A PCR-RFLP analysis for the SAG2, SAG3, GRA6 and BTUB genes revealed T. gondii genotype II in all cases. Morphologically, H. hammondi oocysts exhibited a statistically significantly smaller Length-Width-Ratio than T. gondii oocysts...
  80. Barratt J, Al Qassab S, Reichel M, Ellis J. The development and evaluation of a nested PCR assay for detection of Neospora caninum and Hammondia heydorni in feral mouse tissues. Mol Cell Probes. 2008;22:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..heydorni although this hypothesis needs to be explored further. Data obtained in the current study suggest that N. caninum is a common parasite of feral rodents which may be important in the epidemiology of the disease...
  81. Franzen C, Muller A, Bialek R, Diehl V, Salzberger B, Fatkenheuer G. Taxonomic position of the human intestinal protozoan parasite Isospora belli as based on ribosomal RNA sequences. Parasitol Res. 2000;86:669-76 pubmed
    ..genus Isospora belong to the suborder Eimeriina, the family to which they belong is not Eimeriidae but rather Sarcocystidae. We suggest that the genus Isospora should be removed from the family Eimeriidae and placed into the family ..
  82. Basso W, Lesser M, Grimm F, Hilbe M, Sydler T, Trösch L, et al. Bovine besnoitiosis in Switzerland: imported cases and local transmission. Vet Parasitol. 2013;198:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The evidence of B. besnoiti infection in both imported and locally born cattle shows that the conditions for the establishment and dissemination of this parasite in Switzerland seem to be adequate...
  83. Walzer K, Adomako Ankomah Y, Dam R, Herrmann D, Schares G, Dubey J, et al. Hammondia hammondi, an avirulent relative of Toxoplasma gondii, has functional orthologs of known T. gondii virulence genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence that other mechanisms, such as differences in gene expression or the lack of currently uncharacterized virulence factors, may underlie the phenotypic differences between these species...
  84. Nasir A, Lanyon S, Schares G, Anderson M, Reichel M. Sero-prevalence of Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti in South Australian beef and dairy cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:480-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of a higher (40 PP) threshold in the ELISA is suggested to improve specificity. There is thus no evidence of B. besnoiti infection in South Australian cattle...